Targeted and Off-Target (Bystander and Abscopal) Effects of Radiation Therapy: Redox Mechanisms and Risk/Benefit Analysis.
ABSTRACT: SIGNIFICANCE:Radiation therapy (from external beams to unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources) takes advantage of the detrimental effects of the clustered production of radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Research has mainly focused on the interaction of radiation with water, which is the major constituent of living beings, and with nuclear DNA, which contains the genetic information. This led to the so-called target theory according to which cells have to be hit by ionizing particles to elicit an important biological response, including cell death. In cancer therapy, the Poisson law and linear quadratic mathematical models have been used to describe the probability of hits per cell as a function of the radiation dose. Recent Advances: However, in the last 20 years, many studies have shown that radiation generates "danger" signals that propagate from irradiated to nonirradiated cells, leading to bystander and other off-target effects. CRITICAL ISSUES:Like for targeted effects, redox mechanisms play a key role also in off-target effects through transmission of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and also of cytokines, ATP, and extracellular DNA. Particularly, nuclear factor kappa B is essential for triggering self-sustained production of ROS and RNS, thus making the bystander response similar to inflammation. In some therapeutic cases, this phenomenon is associated with recruitment of immune cells that are involved in distant irradiation effects (called "away-from-target" i.e., abscopal effects). FUTURE DIRECTIONS:Determining the contribution of targeted and off-target effects in the clinic is still challenging. This has important consequences not only in radiotherapy but also possibly in diagnostic procedures and in radiation protection.
Project description:Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implication in tumour radiotherapy, but the bystander signals are still not well known.The role of cytochrome-c (cyt-c) and free radicals in RIBE on human hepatoma cells HepG2 was investigated by detecting the formation of bystander micronuclei (MN) and the generation of endogenous cyt-c, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), NO, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules.When HepG2 cells were cocultured with an equal number of irradiated HepG2 cells, the yield of MN in the nonirradiated bystander cells was increased in a manner depended on radiation dose and cell coculture time, but it was diminished when the cells were treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of cyt-c release. Meanwhile the CsA treatment inhibited radiation-induced NO but not ROS. Both of the depressed bystander effect and NO generation in the CsA-treated cells were reversed when 5 μM cyt-c was added in the cell coculture medium. But these exogenous cyt-c-mediated overproductions of NO and bystander MN were abolished when the cells were pretreated with s-methylisothiourea sulphate, an iNOS inhibitor.Radiation-induced cyt-c has a profound role in regulating bystander response through an iNOS-triggered NO signal but not ROS in HepG2 cells.
Project description:This study identifies ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) as a further component of the complex signaling network of radiation-induced DNA damage in nontargeted bystander cells downstream of ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and provides a rationale for molecular targeted modulation of these effects. In directly irradiated cells, ATR, ATM, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) deficiency resulted in reduced cell survival as predicted by the known important role of these proteins in sensing DNA damage. A decrease in clonogenic survival was also observed in ATR/ATM/DNA-PK-proficient, nonirradiated bystander cells, but this effect was completely abrogated in ATR and ATM but not DNA-PK-deficient bystander cells. ATM activation in bystander cells was found to be dependent on ATR function. Furthermore, the induction and colocalization of ATR, 53BP1, ATM-S1981P, p21, and BRCA1 foci in nontargeted cells was shown, suggesting their involvement in bystander DNA damage signaling and providing additional potential targets for its modulation. 53BP1 bystander foci were induced in an ATR-dependent manner predominantly in S-phase cells, similar to gammaH2AX foci induction. In conclusion, these results provide a rationale for the differential modulation of targeted and nontargeted effects of radiation.
Project description:Radiotherapeutic treatment consists of targeted application of radiation beams to a tumor but exposure of surrounding healthy tissue is inevitable. In the brain, ionizing radiation induces breakdown of the blood-brain barrier by effects on brain microvascular endothelial cells. Damage from directly irradiated cells can be transferred to surrounding non-exposed bystander cells, known as the radiation-induced bystander effect. We investigated involvement of connexin channels and paracrine signaling in radiation-induced bystander DNA damage in brain microvascular endothelial cells exposed to focused X-rays. Irradiation caused DNA damage in the directly exposed area, which propagated over several millimeters in the bystander area. DNA damage was significantly reduced by the connexin channel-targeting peptide Gap26 and the Cx43 hemichannel blocker TAT-Gap19. ATP release, dye uptake, and patch clamp experiments showed that hemichannels opened within 5?min post irradiation in both irradiated and bystander areas. Bystander signaling involved cellular Ca2+ dynamics and IP3, ATP, ROS, and NO signaling, with Ca2+, IP3, and ROS as crucial propagators of DNA damage. We conclude that bystander effects are communicated by a concerted cascade involving connexin channels, and IP3/Ca2+, ATP, ROS, and NO as major contributors of regenerative signal expansion.
Project description:Many studies have indicated an important implication of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) in cancer radiotherapy, but the detailed signalling remains unclear.The roles of tumour growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and miR-21 in medium-mediated RIBEs in H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cells were investigated using DNA damage, changes in proliferation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as end points. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinases, was used to inhibit TGF-β1 pathways in irradiated and bystander cells. Exogenous miR-21 regulation was achieved through inhibitor or mimic transfection.Compared with relative sham-radiation-conditioned medium, radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) from irradiated cells 1 h post radiation (1-h RCM) caused an increase in ROS levels and DNA damage in bystander cells, while 18-h RCM induced cell cycle delay and proliferation inhibition. All these effects were eliminated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. One-hour RCM upregulated miR-21 expression in bystander cells, and miR-21 inhibitor abolished bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage. Eighteen-hour RCM downregulated miR-21 of bystander cells, and miR-21 mimic eliminated bystander proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, the dysregulation of miR-21 was attenuated by TGF-βR1 inhibition.The TGF-β1-miR-21-ROS pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in RIBEs in H1299 cells.
Project description:Disturbances in pulsatile insulin secretion and Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic ?-cells are early markers of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated in reduced ?-cell function, and ROS/RNS target several Ca(2+) pumps and channels. Thus, we hypothesized that ROS/RNS could disturb Ca(2+) oscillations and downstream insulin pulsatility. We show that ROS/RNS production by photoactivation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) abolish or accelerate Ca(2+) oscillations in the MIN6 ?-cell line, depending on the amount of ROS/RNS. Application of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin modifies the Ca(2+) response to high concentrations of ROS/RNS. Further, thapsigargin produces effects that resemble those elicited by moderate ROS/RNS production. These results indicate that ROS/RNS interfere with endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling. This idea is supported by theoretical studies using a mathematical model of Ca(2+) handling adapted to MIN6 cells. Our results suggest a putative link between ROS/RNS and disturbed pulsatile insulin secretion.
Project description:Radiation-induced bystander effect is a biological response in nonirradiated cells receiving signals from cells exposed to ionising radiation. The aim of this in vivo study was to analyse whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from irradiated mice could induce modifications in the redox status and expression of radiation-response genes in bystander mice. C57BL/6 mice were whole-body irradiated with 0.1-Gy and 2-Gy X-rays, and EVs originating from mice irradiated with the same doses were injected into naïve, bystander mice. Lipid peroxidation in the spleen and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels increased 24 h after irradiation with 2 Gy. The expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (iNOS2) decreased, while cell cycle arrest-, senescence- and apoptosis-related genes were upregulated after irradiation with 2 Gy. In bystander mice, no significant alterations were observed in lipid peroxidation or in the expression of genes connected to cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. However, there was a systemic increase in the circulating ROM level after an intravenous EV injection, and EVs originating from 2-Gy-irradiated mice caused a reduced expression of antioxidant enzyme genes and iNOS2 in bystander mice. In conclusion, we showed that ionising radiation-induced alterations in the cellular antioxidant system can be transmitted in vivo in a bystander manner through EVs originating from directly irradiated animals.
Project description:Changes in the thymic microenvironment lead to radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis, but the phenomena are not fully understood. Here we show that radiation-induced chromosomal instability and bystander effects occur in thymocytes and are involved in lymphomagenesis in C57BL/6 mice that have been irradiated four times with 1.8-Gy ?-rays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in descendants of irradiated thymocytes during recovery from radiation-induced thymic atrophy. Concomitantly, descendants of irradiated thymocytes manifested DNA lesions as revealed by ?-H2AX foci, chromosomal instability, aneuploidy with trisomy 15 and bystander effects on chromosomal aberration induction in co-cultured ROS-sensitive mutant cells, suggesting that the delayed generation of ROS is a primary cause of these phenomena. Abolishing the bystander effect of post-irradiation thymocytes by superoxide dismutase and catalase supports ROS involvement. Chromosomal instability in thymocytes resulted in the generation of abnormal cell clones bearing trisomy 15 and aberrant karyotypes in the thymus. The emergence of thymic lymphomas from the thymocyte population containing abnormal cell clones indicated that clones with trisomy 15 and altered karyotypes were prelymphoma cells with the potential to develop into thymic lymphomas. The oncogene Notch1 was rearranged after the prelymphoma cells were established. Thus, delayed nontargeted radiation effects drive thymic lymphomagenesis through the induction of characteristic changes in intrathymic immature T cells and the generation of prelymphoma cells.
Project description:Disturbed redox homeostasis represents a hallmark of cancer phenotypes, affecting cellular metabolism and redox signaling. Since reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are involved in regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, they may play a double-faced role in cancer, entailing protumorigenic and tumor-suppressing effects in early and later stages, respectively. In addition, ROS and RNS impact the activity and communication of all tumor constituents, mediating their reprogramming from anti- to protumorigenic phenotypes, and vice versa. An important role in this dichotomic action is played by the variable amounts of O2 in the tumor microenvironment, which dictates the ultimate outcome of the influence of ROS/RNS on carcinogenesis. Moreover, ROS/RNS levels remarkably influence the cancer response to therapy. The relevance of ROS/RNS signaling in solid tumors is witnessed by the emergence of novel targeted treatments of solid tumors with compounds that target ROS/RNS action and production, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, which might contribute to the complexity of redox regulation in cancer. Prospectively, the dual role of ROS/RNS in the different stages of tumorigenesis through different impact on oxidation and nitrosylation may also allow development of tailored diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Project description:We investigated the influence of PD-1 expression on the systemic antitumor response (abscopal effect) induced by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in preclinical melanoma and renal cell carcinoma models. We compared the SABR-induced antitumor response in PD-1-expressing wild-type (WT) and PD-1-deficient knockout (KO) mice and found that PD-1 expression compromises the survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with SABR. None of the PD-1 WT mice survived beyond 25 days, whereas 20% of the PD-1 KO mice survived beyond 40 days. Similarly, PD-1-blocking antibody in WT mice was able to recapitulate SABR-induced antitumor responses observed in PD-1 KO mice and led to increased survival. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade induced near complete regression of the irradiated primary tumor (synergistic effect), as opposed to SABR alone or SABR plus control antibody. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade therapy elicited a 66% reduction in size of nonirradiated, secondary tumors outside the SABR radiation field (abscopal effect). The observed abscopal effect was tumor specific and was not dependent on tumor histology or host genetic background. The CD11a(high) CD8(+) T-cell phenotype identifies a tumor-reactive population, which was associated in frequency and function with a SABR-induced antitumor immune response in PD-1 KO mice. We conclude that SABR induces an abscopal tumor-specific immune response in both the irradiated and nonirradiated tumors, which is potentiated by PD-1 blockade. The combination of SABR and PD-1 blockade has the potential to translate into a potent immunotherapy strategy in the management of patients with metastatic cancer.
Project description:Background: Radiation induced bystander effects (RIBEs) occurs in unirradiated cells exhibiting indirect biological effect as a consequence of signals from other irradiated cells in the population.Objective: In this study, bystander effects in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and hFOB 1.19 normal osteoblast cells irradiated with gamma emitting HDR Brachytherapy Ir-192 source were investigated.Material and Methods: In this in-vitro study, bystander effect stimulation was conducted using medium transfer technique of irradiated cells to the non-irradiated bystander cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and colony forming assay was employed to evaluate the effect.Results: Results indicate that the exposure to the medium irradiated MCF-7 induced significant bystander killing and decreased the survival fraction of bystander MCF-7 and hFOB from 1.19 to 81.70 % and 65.44 %, respectively. A significant decrease in survival fraction was observed for hFOB 1.19 bystander cells (p < 0.05). We found that the rate of hFOB 1.19 cell growth significantly decreases to 85.5% when added with media from irradiated cells. The ROS levels of bystander cells for both cell lines were observed to have an increase even after 4 h of treatment. Our results suggest the presence of bystander effects in unirradiated cells exposed to the irradiated medium. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that irradiated MCF-7 breast cancer cells can induce bystander death in unirradiated MCF-7 and hFOB 1.19 bystander cells. Increase in cell death could also be mediated by the ROS generation during the irradiation with HDR brachytherapy.