The Concentration of Non-structural Carbohydrates, N, and P in Quercus variabilis Does Not Decline Toward Its Northernmost Distribution Range Along a 1500 km Transect in China.
ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanisms that determine plant distribution range is crucial for predicting climate-driven range shifts. Compared to altitudinal gradients, less attention has been paid to the mechanisms that determine latitudinal range limit. To test whether intrinsic resource limitation contributes to latitudinal range limits of woody species, we investigated the latitudinal variation in non-structural carbohydrates (NSC; i.e., total soluble sugar plus starch) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in mature and juvenile Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Blume) along a 1500 km north-south transect in China. During the growing season and dormant season, leaves, branches, and fine roots were collected from both mature and juvenile oaks in seven sites along the transect. Tissue concentration of NSCs, N, and P did not decrease with increasing latitude irrespective of sampling season and ontogenetic stage. Furthermore, higher levels of NSCs and N in tissues of juveniles relative to mature trees were found during the dormant season. Partial correlation analysis also revealed that during the dormant season, soluble sugar, NSC, the ratio of soluble sugar to starch, and tissue nitrogen concentration were correlated positively with latitude but negatively with precipitation and mean temperature of dormant season. Our results suggest that carbon or nutrient availability may not be the driving factors of the latitudinal range limit of the studied species. Further studies should be carried out at the community or ecosystem level with multiple species to additionally test the roles of factors such as regeneration, competition, and disturbance in determining a species' northern distribution limit.
Project description:Despite the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) for growth and survival in woody plants, we know little about whole-tree NSC storage. The conventional theory suggests that NSC reserves will increase over the growing season and decrease over the dormant season. Here, we compare storage in five temperate tree species to determine the size and seasonal fluctuation of whole-tree total NSC pools as well as the contribution of individual organs. NSC concentrations in the branches, stemwood, and roots of 24 trees were measured across 12 months. We then scaled up concentrations to the whole-tree and ecosystem levels using allometric equations and forest stand inventory data. While whole-tree total NSC pools followed the conventional theory, sugar pools peaked in the dormant season and starch pools in the growing season. Seasonal depletion of total NSCs was minimal at the whole-tree level, but substantial at the organ level, particularly in branches. Surprisingly, roots were not the major storage organ as branches stored comparable amounts of starch throughout the year, and root reserves were not used to support springtime growth. Scaling up NSC concentrations to the ecosystem level, we find that commonly used, process-based ecosystem and land surface models all overpredict NSC storage.
Project description:Due to climate change, the ranges of many North American tree species are expected to shift northward. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) reaches its northern continuous distributional limit in northeastern North America at the transition between boreal mixed-wood and temperate deciduous forests. We hypothesized that marginal fragmented northern populations from the boreal mixed wood would have a distinct pattern of genetic structure and diversity. We analyzed variation at 18 microsatellite loci from 23 populations distributed along three latitudinal transects (west, central, and east) that encompass the continuous-discontinuous species range. Each transect was divided into two zones, continuous (temperate deciduous) and discontinuous (boreal mixed wood), based on sugar maple stand abundance. Respective positive and negative relationships were found between the distance of each population to the northern limit (D_north), and allelic richness (AR) and population differentiation (FST). These relations were tested for each transect separately; the pattern (discontinuous-continuous) remained significant only for the western transect. structure analysis revealed the presence of four clusters. The most northern populations of each transect were assigned to a distinct group. Asymmetrical gene flow occurred from the southern into the four northernmost populations. Southern populations in Québec may have originated from two different postglacial migration routes. No evidence was found to validate the hypothesis that northern populations were remnants of a larger population that had migrated further north of the species range after the retreat of the ice sheet. The northernmost sugar maple populations possibly originated from long-distance dispersal.
Project description:Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), the stored products of photosynthesis, building blocks for growth and fuel for respiration, are central to plant metabolism, but their measurement is challenging. Differences in methods and procedures among laboratories can cause results to vary widely, limiting our ability to integrate and generalize patterns in plant carbon balance among studies. A recent assessment found that NSC concentrations measured for a common set of samples can vary by an order of magnitude, but sources for this variability were unclear. We measured a common set of nine plant material types, and two synthetic samples with known NSC concentrations, using a common protocol for sugar extraction and starch digestion, and three different sugar quantification methods (ion chromatography, enzyme, acid) in six laboratories. We also tested how sample handling, extraction solvent and centralizing parts of the procedure in one laboratory affected results. Non-structural carbohydrate concentrations measured for synthetic samples were within about 11.5% of known values for all three methods. However, differences among quantification methods were the largest source of variation in NSC measurements for natural plant samples because the three methods quantify different NSCs. The enzyme method quantified only glucose, fructose and sucrose, with ion chromatography we additionally quantified galactose, while the acid method quantified a large range of mono- and oligosaccharides. For some natural samples, sugars quantified with the acid method were two to five times higher than with other methods, demonstrating that trees allocate carbon to a range of sugar molecules. Sample handling had little effect on measurements, while ethanol sugar extraction improved accuracy over water extraction. Our results demonstrate that reasonable accuracy of NSC measurements can be achieved when different methods are used, as long as protocols are robust and standardized. Thus, we provide detailed protocols for the extraction, digestion and quantification of NSCs in plant samples, which should improve the comparability of NSC measurements among laboratories.
Project description:The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA. Functionally, these long-range GABAergic inputs are necessary and sufficient to maintain adult NSC quiescence and ablating them leads to NSC activation and subsequent depletion of the NSC pool. Taken together, these findings delineate a GABAergic network involving long-range GABAergic projection neurons and local PV interneurons that couples dynamic brain activity to the neurogenic niche in controlling NSC quiescence and hippocampal neurogenesis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Neural stem cells (NSCs) have demonstrated multimodal therapeutic function for stroke, which is the leading cause of long-term disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. In preclinical stroke models, NSCs have been shown to modulate inflammation, foster neuroplasticity and neural reorganization, promote angiogenesis, and act as a cellular replacement by differentiating into mature neural cell types. However, there are several key technical questions to address before NSC therapy can be applied to the clinical setting on a large scale. PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In this review, we will discuss the various sources of NSCs, their therapeutic modes of action to enhance stroke recovery, and considerations for the clinical translation of NSC therapies. Understanding the key factors involved in NSC-mediated tissue recovery and addressing the current translational barriers may lead to clinical success of NSC therapy and a first-in-class restorative therapy for stroke patients.
Project description:Leaf soluble sugars and starch are important components of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs), which are crucial for plant growth, development, and reproduction. Although there is a large body of research focusing on the regulation of plant NSC (soluble sugars and starch) concentrations, the response of foliar NSC concentrations to continuous nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition is still unclear, especially in tropical forests. Here, we used a long-term manipulative field experiment to investigate the response of leaf NSC concentrations to continuous N and P addition (3-, 5-, and 8-year fertilization) in a tropical forest in southern China. We found significant species-specific variation in leaf NSC concentrations in this tropical forest. Phosphorus addition dramatically decreased both leaf soluble sugar and starch concentrations, while N addition had no significant effects on leaf soluble sugar and starch concentrations. These results suggest that, in plants growing in P-limiting tropical soil, leaf NSC concentrations are regulated by soil P availability rather than N availability. Moreover, the negative relationships between NSC concentrations and leaf mass per area (LMA) revealed that NSCs could supply excess carbon (C) for leaf expansion under P addition. This was further supported by the increased structural P fraction after P fertilization in our previous study at the same site. We conclude that soil P availability strongly regulates leaf starch and soluble sugar concentrations in the tropical tree species included in this study. The response of leaf NSC concentrations to long-term N and P addition can reflect the close relationships between plant C dynamics and soil nutrient availability in tropical forests. Maintaining relatively higher leaf NSC concentrations in tropical plants can be a potential mechanism for adapting to P-deficient conditions.
Project description:Overexpression of transcription factors has been used to directly reprogram somatic cells into a range of other differentiated cell types, including multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs), that can be used to generate neurons and glia. However, the ability to maintain the NSC state independent of the inducing factors and the identity of the somatic donor cells remain two important unresolved issues in transdifferentiation. Here we used transduction of doxycycline-inducible transcription factors to generate stable tripotent NSCs. The induced NSCs (iNSCs) maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and were transcriptionally, epigenetically, and functionally similar to primary brain-derived NSCs. Importantly, we also generated tripotent iNSCs from multiple adult cell types, including mature liver and B cells. Our results show that self-maintaining proliferative neural cells can be induced from nonectodermal cells by expressing specific combinations of transcription factors.
Project description:Heterogeneous pools of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute to brain maintenance and regeneration after injury. The balance of NSC activation and quiescence, as well as the induction of lineage-specific transcription factors, may contribute to diversity of neuronal and glial fates. To identify molecular hallmarks governing these characteristics, we performed single-cell sequencing of an unbiased pool of adult subventricular zone NSCs. This analysis identified a discrete, dormant NSC subpopulation that already expresses distinct combinations of lineage-specific transcription factors during homeostasis. Dormant NSCs enter a primed-quiescent state before activation, which is accompanied by downregulation of glycolytic metabolism, Notch, and BMP signaling and a concomitant upregulation of lineage-specific transcription factors and protein synthesis. In response to brain ischemia, interferon gamma signaling induces dormant NSC subpopulations to enter the primed-quiescent state. This study unveils general principles underlying NSC activation and lineage priming and opens potential avenues for regenerative medicine in the brain. Single cell RNAseq of cells isolated from their in vivo niche in the subventricular zone, Striatum and Cortex during homeostasis as well as following ischemic injury. In total 272 single cells. (<WT>: homeostasis samples; <Ischemic_injured> and <Ischemic_injured_and_Interferon_gamma_knockout>: samples following ischemic injuried).
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their ability to self-renew and to differentiate into mature neuronal and glial cell types. NSCs are the subject of intense investigation, owing to their crucial roles in neural development and adult brain function and because they present potential targets for gene and cell replacement therapies following injury or disease. Approaches to specifically genetically perturb or modulate NSC function would be valuable for either motivation. Unfortunately, most gene delivery vectors are incapable of efficient or specific gene delivery to NSCs in vivo. Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) present a number of advantages and have proven increasingly successful in clinical trials. However, natural AAV variants are inefficient in transducing NSCs. We previously engineered a novel AAV variant (AAV r3.45) capable of efficient transduction of adult NSCs in vitro. Here, to build upon the initial promise of this variant, we investigated its in vitro and in vivo infectivity. AAV r3.45 was more selective for NSCs than mature neurons in a human embryonic stem cell-derived culture containing a mixture of cell types, including NSCs and neurons. It was capable of more efficient and selective transduction of rat and mouse NSCs in vivo than natural AAV serotypes following intracranial vector administration. Delivery of constitutively active ?-catenin yielded insights into mechanisms by which this key regulator modulates NSC function, indicating that this engineered AAV variant can be harnessed for preferential modulation of adult NSCs in the hippocampus. The capacity to rapidly genetically modify these cells might greatly accelerate in vivo investigations of adult neurogenesis.
Project description:Heterogeneous pools of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute to brain maintenance and regeneration after injury. The balance of NSC activation and quiescence, as well as the induction of lineage-specific transcription factors, may contribute to diversity of neuronal and glial fates. To identify molecular hallmarks governing these characteristics, we performed single-cell sequencing of an unbiased pool of adult subventricular zone NSCs. This analysis identified a discrete, dormant NSC subpopulation that already expresses distinct combinations of lineage-specific transcription factors during homeostasis. Dormant NSCs enter a primed-quiescent state before activation, which is accompanied by downregulation of glycolytic metabolism, Notch, and BMP signaling and a concomitant upregulation of lineage-specific transcription factors and protein synthesis. In response to brain ischemia, interferon gamma signaling induces dormant NSC subpopulations to enter the primed-quiescent state. This study unveils general principles underlying NSC activation and lineage priming and opens potential avenues for regenerative medicine in the brain. Overall design: Single cell RNAseq of cells isolated from their in vivo niche in the subventricular zone, Striatum and Cortex during homeostasis as well as following ischemic injury. In total 272 single cells. (<WT>: homeostasis samples; <Ischemic_injured> and <Ischemic_injured_and_Interferon_gamma_knockout>: samples following ischemic injuried).