MAPK signaling has stage-dependent osteogenic effects on human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT: OVERVIEW:The use of pro-osteogenic growth factors, such as BMP2, in human adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) osteogenesis is well described. Because these growth factors work via signal transduction pathways, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, a study of the relationship between MAPK signaling and ASC osteogenesis was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS:ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK activation were measured in ASCs osteo-induced using either dexamethasone or vitamin D3 and correlated with mineralization. Activation and mineralization were also measured without dexamethasone or using the glucocorticoid, cortisone. The expression of the MAPK phosphatase, MKP1, and its relationship to mineralization was also assessed. The effect of decreasing MAPK activation on mineralization through the use of exogenous inhibitors was examined along with siRNA-knockdown and adenoviral overexpression of ERK1/2. Finally, the effect of ERK1/2 overexpression on ASCs induced on PLGA scaffolds was assessed. RESULTS:ASC mineralization in dexamethasone or vitamin D3-induced ASCs correlated with both increased ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 activation. ASCs induced without dexamethasone also mineralized, with JNK1/2 signaling possibly mediating this event. No link between cortisone induction and MAPK signaling could be ascertained. ASCs treated with ERK, JNK, or p38MAPK inhibitors showed decreased osteogenic gene expression and diminished mineralization. Mineralization levels were also affected by viruses designed to inhibit or augment ERK1/2 expression and activity. Finally, ASC mineralization appeared to be a balance between the MAPK kinase activity and MKP1. CONCLUSIONS:It is likely that MAPK signaling plays a significant role in ASC osteogenesis, affecting differentiation in kinase- and stage-specific manners.
Project description:Hypoxia has diverse stimulatory effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxic culture conditions (2% O?) suppress spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. We also investigated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We found that hypoxia suppressed spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in ASCs. Although treatment with recombinant IGFBPs did not affect osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, siRNA-mediated inhibition of IGFBP3 attenuated hypoxia-suppressed osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. In contrast, overexpression of IGFBP3 via lentiviral vectors inhibited ASC osteogenic differentiation. These results indicate that hypoxia suppresses spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs via intracellular IGFBP3 up-regulation. We determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways play pivotal roles in IGFBP3 expression under hypoxia. For example, ROS scavengers and inhibitors for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways attenuated the hypoxia-induced IGFBP3 expression. Inhibition of Elk1 and NF-?B through siRNA transfection also led to down-regulation of IGFBP3 mRNA expression. We next addressed the proliferative potential of ASCs with overexpressed IGFBP3, but IGFBP3 overexpression reduced the proliferation of ASCs. In addition, hypoxia reduced the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hypoxia suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via IGFBP3 up-regulation.
Project description:Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show promise for cell therapy, there is a tremendous need for developing ASC activators. In the present study, we investigated whether or not vitamin C increases the survival, proliferation, and hair-regenerative potential of ASCs. In addition, we tried to find the molecular mechanisms underlying the vitamin C-mediated stimulation of ASCs. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) is expressed in ASCs, and mediates uptake of vitamin C into ASCs. Vitamin C increased the survival and proliferation of ASCs in a dose-dependent manner. Vitamin C increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway attenuated the proliferation of ASCs. Microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that vitamin C primarily upregulated expression of proliferation-related genes, including Fos, E2F2, Ier2, Mybl1, Cdc45, JunB, FosB, and Cdca5, whereas Fos knock-down using siRNA significantly decreased vitamin C-mediated ASC proliferation. In addition, vitamin C-treated ASCs accelerated the telogen-to-anagen transition in C3H/HeN mice, and conditioned medium from vitamin C-treated ASCs increased the hair length and the Ki67-positive matrix keratinocytes in hair organ culture. Vitamin C increased the mRNA expression of HGF, IGFBP6, VEGF, bFGF, and KGF, which may mediate hair growth promotion. In summary, vitamin C is transported via SVCT2, and increased ASC proliferation is mediated by the MAPK pathway. In addition, vitamin C preconditioning enhanced the hair growth promoting effect of ASCs. Because vitamin C is safe and effective, it could be used to increase the yield and regenerative potential of ASCs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the mechanism of mechanical stimulation in bone formation and regeneration during distraction osteogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, microarray technology was used to investigate the time course of bone-related molecular changes in distraction osteogenesis in rats. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analyses were used to confirm the expression of genes identified in microarrays. Meanwhile, we used a lentivirus vector to inhibit Fak expression, in order to identify the osteogenic effect of Fak and Fak-Mapk pathway during distraction osteogenesis. RESULTS:Several components of the Wnt and Hippo pathways were found to be up- or down-regulated during distraction osteogenesis by microarray. Meanwhile, it was found that Fak, Src, Raf-1, Erk1, Jnk and p38-Mapk were up-regulated during gradual distraction, compared with consolidation. To further determine whether Fak-Mapk pathway played an important role in distraction osteogenesis, Fak was disrupted with a lentivirus vector. The expressions levels of p-Fak, p-Erk1/2, p-JNK and p-p38Mapk were decreased. Meanwhile, a poor early and late osteogenesis effect was found in the shRNA-Fak group. CONCLUSION:It was inferred that the mechanical stimulus induces increased expression of Fak and activates Fak-Mapk pathway, by activation of Erk, Jnk and p38-Mapk pathway, and that Fak at least, in part, plays an important role in maintaining osteogenic effect by activating Fak-Mapk pathway during distraction osteogenesis.
Project description:In this study, the effect of ordered rod-like FA coatings of metal discs on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC)'s growth, differentiation and mineralization was studied in vitro; and their mineral inductive effects in vivo. After 3 and 7 days, the cell number on the metal surfaces was significantly higher than those on the ordered and disordered FA surfaces. However, after 4 weeks much greater amounts of mineral formation was induced on the two FA surfaces with and even without osteogenesis induction. The osteogenic profiles showed the up regulation of a set of pro-osteogenic transcripts and bone mineralization phenotypic markers when the ASCs were grown on FA surfaces compared to metal surfaces at 7 and 21 days. In addition to BMP and TGF? signaling pathways, EGF and FGF pathways also appeared to be involved in ASC differentiation and mineralization. In vivo studies showed accelerated and enhanced mineralized tissue formation integrated within ordered FA coatings. After 5 weeks, over 80% of the ordered FA coating was integrated with a mineralized tissue layer covering the implants. Both the intrinsic properties of the FA crystals and the topography of the FA coating appeared to dominate the cell differentiation and mineralization process.
Project description:Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive cell source for treating many human diseases including osteoporosis. However, the molecular mechanisms accounting for ASC osteogenesis are poorly known. In this study, ASCs were first isolated from the fat tissues from the patients with osteoporosis. The global transcriptome profile between osteogenic differentiated ASCs and undifferentiated ASCs was compared using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Then, bioinformatic analysis was performed to reveal the central genes and pathways that regulated the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. One of the interested genes C5AR1 was chosen for further investigation. A total of 1521 upregulated and 3020 downregulated genes were identified between the ASCs with osteogenic induction and controls. Functional gene ontology analysis revealed that these significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with cell cycle, protein binding, and nucleotide binding. Pathway analysis showed that many canonical pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway and the PI3K-AKT pathway, might actively be involved in regulating osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. A total of three subnetworks and 20 central nodes were identified by the protein-protein interaction analysis. In addition, the expression level of C5AR1 was significantly increased during osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. The downregulation of C5AR1 dramatically reduced the expression levels of osteogenic differentiation biomarkers and calcium nodule formation capacity. Collectively, we have provided a number of novel genes and pathways that might be indispensable for ASC osteogenic differentiation. Manipulating the levels of this candidate gene might contribute to the osteoporosis therapy.
Project description:Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent in nature that can be differentiated into various cells lineages such as adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic. The commitment of a cell to differentiate into a particular lineage is regulated by the interplay between various intracellular pathways and their resultant secretome. Similarly, the interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the ECM bound growth factors instigate several signal transducing events that ultimately determine ASC differentiation. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify the transcriptome profile of osteogenic induced ASCs to understand the associated genotype changes. Gene ontology (GO) functional annotations analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) bioinformatics resources on the differentially expressed genes demonstrated the enrichment of pathways mainly associated with ECM organization and angiogenesis. We, therefore, studied the expression of genes coding for matrisome proteins (glycoproteins, collagens, proteoglycans, ECM-affiliated, regulators, and secreted factors) and ECM remodeling enzymes (MMPs, integrins, ADAMTSs) and the expression of angiogenic markers during the osteogenesis of ASCs. The upregulation of several pro-angiogenic ELR+ chemokines and other angiogenic inducers during osteogenesis indicates the potential role of the secretome from differentiating ASCs in the vascular development and its integration with the bone tissue. Furthermore, the increased expression of regulatory genes such as CTNNB1, TGBR2, JUN, FOS, GLI3, and MAPK3 involved in the WNT, TGF-β, JNK, HedgeHog and ERK1/2 pathways suggests the regulation of osteogenesis through interplay between these pathways. The RNA-Seq data was also validated by performing QPCR on selected up- and down-regulated genes (COL10A1, COL11A1, FBLN, FERMT1, FN1, FOXF1, LAMA3, LAMA4, LAMB1, IGF1, WNT10B, MMP1, MMP3, MMP16, ADAMTS6, and ADAMTS14).
Project description:Adipose tissue is an attractive stem cell source for soft and bone tissue engineering applications and stem cell therapies. The adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have a multilineage differentiation capacity that is regulated through extracellular signals. The cellular events related to cell adhesion and cytoskeleton have been suggested as central regulators of differentiation fate decision. However, the detailed knowledge of these molecular mechanisms in human ASCs remains limited. This study examined the significance of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Rho-Rho-associated protein kinase (Rho-ROCK), and their downstream target extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) on hASCs differentiation towards osteoblasts and adipocytes. Analyses of osteogenic markers RUNX2A, alkaline phosphatase, and matrix mineralization revealed an essential role of active FAK, ROCK, and ERK1/2 signaling for the osteogenesis of hASCs. Inhibition of these kinases with specific small molecule inhibitors diminished osteogenesis, while inhibition of FAK and ROCK activity led to elevation of adipogenic marker genes AP2 and LEP and lipid accumulation implicating adipogenesis. This denotes to a switch-like function of FAK and ROCK signaling in the osteogenic and adipogenic fates of hASCs. On the contrary, inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity deceased adipogenic differentiation, indicating that activation of ERK signaling is required for both adipogenic and osteogenic potential. Our findings highlight the reciprocal role of cell adhesion mechanisms and actin dynamics in regulation of hASC lineage commitment. This study enhances the knowledge of molecular mechanisms dictating hASC differentiation and thus opens possibilities for more efficient control of hASC differentiation.
Project description:Cytoskeletal tension is an intracellular mechanism through which cells convert a mechanical signal into a biochemical response, including production of cytokines and activation of various signaling pathways. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) were allowed to spread into large cells by seeding them at a low-density (1,250 cells/cm2), which was observed to induce osteogenesis. Conversely, ASCs seeded at a high-density (25,000 cells/cm2) featured small cells that promoted adipogenesis. RhoA and actin filaments were altered by changes in cell size. Blocking actin polymerization by Cytochalasin D influenced cytoskeletal tension and differentiation of ASCs. To understand the potential regulatory mechanisms leading to actin cytoskeletal tension, cDNA microarray was performed on large and small ASCs. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was identified as a major regulator of osteogenesis associated with RhoA mediated cytoskeletal tension. Subsequently, knock-down of CTGF by siRNA in ASCs inhibited this osteogenesis. Therefore, we conclude that cytoskeletal tension is important for CTGF-regulated ASC osteogenic differentiation. Computed
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been recently isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue. ASCs may be useful in regenerative medicine as an alternative to bone marrow-derived stem cells. Changes in the oxygen concentration influence physiological activities, such as stem cell proliferation. However, the effects of the oxygen concentration on ASCs remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of hypoxia on ASC proliferation were examined.<h4>Methods</h4>Normal human adipose tissue was collected from the lower abdomen, and ASCs were prepared with collagenase treatment. The ASCs were cultured in hypoxic (1%) or normoxic (20%) conditions. Cell proliferation was investigated in the presence or absence of inhibitors of various potentially important kinases. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? expression and MAP kinase phosphorylation in the hypoxic culture were determined with western blotting. In addition, the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 in hypoxic or normoxic conditions were determined with real-time RT-PCR. The effects of these growth factors on ASC proliferation were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of the HIF-1?-binding hypoxia responsive element in FGF-2 was performed. HIF-1? was knocked down by siRNA, and FGF-2 expression was investigated.<h4>Results</h4>ASC proliferation was significantly enhanced in the hypoxic culture and was inhibited by ERK and Akt inhibitors. Hypoxia for 5-15 minutes stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 among MAP kinases and induced HIF-1? expression. The levels of VEGF and FGF-2 mRNA and protein in the ASCs were significantly enhanced in hypoxia, and FGF-2 increased ASC proliferation. The ChIP assay revealed an 8-fold increase in the binding of HIF-1? to FGF-2 in hypoxia. HIF-1? knockdown by siRNA partially inhibited the FGF-2 expression of ASCs induced by hypoxia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ASC proliferation was enhanced by hypoxia. HIF-1? activation, FGF-2 production, and the ERK1/2 and Akt pathway were involved in this regulatory mechanism.
Project description:Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance and higher risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. A limited ability of adipose tissues to remodel through the recruitment and differentiation of adipose stem cells (ASCs) is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and the metabolic syndrome. We show that the lower adipogenesis of omental (Om) compared with abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) ASCs was associated with greater secretion of TGF? ligands that acted in an autocrine/paracrine loop to activate SMAD2 and suppress adipogenesis. Inhibition of TGF? signaling rescued Om ASC differentiation. In Abdsc ASCs, low concentrations of dexamethasone suppressed TGF? signaling and enhanced adipogenesis, at least in part by increasing TGFBR3 protein that can sequester TGF? ligands. Om ASCs were resistant to these dexamethasone effects; recombinant TGFBR3 increased their differentiation. Pericellular fibrosis, a hallmark of dysfunctional adipose tissue, was greater in Om and correlated with higher level of tissue TGF? signaling activity and lower ASC differentiation. We conclude that glucocorticoids restrain cell-autonomous TGF? signaling in ASCs to facilitate adipogenesis and healthy remodeling in Abdsc and these processes are impaired in Om. Therapies directed at overcoming glucocorticoid resistance in visceral adipose tissue may improve remodeling and help prevent metabolic complications of visceral obesity.