Patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia have an altered sublingual microcirculation.
ABSTRACT: Background:Little is known about the microcirculatory alterations in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI). We hypothesized that patients with CMI have an impaired microcirculatory function and show an oral microcirculatory response after caloric challenge compared to healthy controls. Methods:All patients and controls received the standard workup for CMI. Sublingual micro-circulation was evaluated before (T0) and 20 minutes after (T1) feeding. The total vessel density (TVD; mm/mm2), perfused vessel density (PVD; mm/mm2), proportion of perfused vessels (PPV; %) and microvascular flow index (MFI; AU) were assessed. Results:We included 12 patients (63.2 years [IQR 48.8-70.4 years], 67% males) and 12 controls (32.7 years [IQR 27.7-38.1 years], 42% males). At baseline, patients with CMI had a decreased PPV of the sublingual small vessels (median 84.8% vs 95.7%, P=0.006), PPV of all vessels (PPV median 85.4% vs 95.3%, P=0.007) and microvascular flow index of all vessels (MFIa; median 3.00 vs 2.80, P=0.039) compared to healthy controls. After caloric challenge, PVD increased significantly in both small vessels (perfused vessel density of the small vessels [PVDs]) and all vessels (perfused vessel density of all vessels [PVDa]; PVDs [T0]) median 16.3 [IQR 13.3-22.1] vs [T1] median 19.9 [IQR 14.2-26.2], P=0.008; PVDa [T0] median 19.1 [IQR 16.2-23.6] vs [T1] median 22.2 [IQR 16.5-28.9], P=0.02; proportion of perfused vessels of the small vessels (PPVs; [T0] median 84.8% [IQR 75.3-90.4] vs [T1] median 91.0% [IQR 80.1-93.8], P=0.010). In contrast, no significant changes in microcirculatory parameters were observed after caloric challenge in healthy controls. Conclusion:Patients with CMI have an impaired sublingual microcirculation at baseline and show a significant response in the sublingual microcirculation after caloric challenge, whereas healthy controls have a normal microcirculation at baseline and show no reactive response upon a caloric challenge as seen in CMI patients. Sublingual microcirculation visualization may offer a rapid noninvasive method to identify patients at risk for having CMI.
Project description:The present study was designed to determine the effects of continuously infused norepinephrine (NE) plus (1) terlipressin (TP) or (2) arginine vasopressin (AVP) or (3) placebo on sublingual microcirculation in septic shock patients. The primary study end point was a difference of ? 20% in the microvascular flow index of small vessels among groups.The design of the study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. NE was titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65 and 75 mmHg after establishment of normovolemia in 60 septic shock patients. Thereafter patients (n = 20 per group) were randomized to receive continuous infusions of either TP (1 ?g/kg/hour), AVP (0.04 U/minute) or placebo (isotonic saline). In all groups, open-label NE was adjusted to maintain MAP within threshold values if needed. The sublingual microcirculatory blood flow of small vessels was assessed by sidestream dark-field imaging. All measurements, including data from right heart catheterization and norepinephrine requirements, were obtained at baseline and 6 hours after randomization.TP and AVP decreased NE requirements at the end of the 6-hour study period. The data are medians (25th and 75th interquartile ranges (IQRs)): 0.57 ?g/kg/minute (0.29 to 1.04) vs. 0.16 ?g/kg/minute (0.03 to 0.37) for TP and 0.40 ?g/kg/minute (0.20 to 1.05) vs. 0.23 ?g/kg/minute (0.03 to 0.77) for AVP, with statistical significance of P < 0.05 vs. baseline and vs. placebo. There were no differences in sublingual microcirculatory variables, systemic hemodynamics, oxygen transport and acid-base homeostasis among the three study groups during the entire observation period. The proportions of perfused vessels increased in relation to baseline within all study groups, and there were no significant differences between groups. The specific data were as follows (median (IQR)): 9.7% (2.6 to 19.8) for TP, 8.9% (0.0 to 17.8) for AVP, and 6.9% (3.5 to 10.1) for placebo (P < 0.05 vs. baseline for each comparison), as well as perfused vessel density 18.6% (8.6 to 36.9) for TP, 20.2% (-3.0 to 37.2) for AVP, and 11.4% (-3.0 to 19.4) for placebo (P < 0.05 vs. baseline for each comparison).The present study suggests that to achieve a MAP of 65 to 75 mmHg in septic patients treated with NE, the addition of continuously infused low-dose TP or AVP does not affect sublingual microcirculatory blood flow. In addition, our results suggest that microcirculatory flow abnormalities are mainly related to other factors (for example, volume status, timing, hemodynamics and progression of the disease) rather than to the vasopressor per se.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00995839.
Project description:Although acute hypoxia is of utmost pathophysiologic relevance in health and disease, studies on its effects on both the macro- and microcirculation are scarce. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the effects of acute normobaric hypoxia on human macro- and microcirculation. 20 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Hypoxia was induced in a normobaric hypoxia chamber by decreasing the partial pressure of oxygen in inhaled air stepwisely (pO<sub>2</sub>; 21.25 kPa (0 k), 16.42 kPa (2 k), 12.63 kPa (4 k) and 9.64 kPa (6 k)). Macrocirculatory effects were assessed by cardiac output measurements, microcirculatory changes were investigated by sidestream dark-field imaging in the sublingual capillary bed and videocapillaroscopy at the nailfold. Exposure to hypoxia resulted in a decrease of systemic vascular resistance (p?<?0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (p?=?0.014). Concomitantly, we observed an increase in heart rate (p?<?0.0001) and an increase of cardiac output (p?<?0.0001). In the sublingual microcirculation, exposure to hypoxia resulted in an increase of total vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels and perfused vessel density. Furthermore, we observed an increase in peripheral capillary density. Exposure to acute hypoxia results in vasodilatation of resistance arteries, as well as recruitment of microvessels of the central and peripheral microcirculation. The observed macro- and microcirculatory effects are most likely a result from compensatory mechanisms to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation.
Project description:The conjunctival microcirculation has potential as a window to cerebral perfusion due to related blood supply, close anatomical proximity and easy accessibility for microcirculatory imaging technique, such as sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging. Our study aims to evaluate conjunctival and sublingual microcirculation in brain dead patients and to compare it with healthy volunteers in two diametrically opposed conditions: full stop versus normal arterial blood supply to the brain.In a prospective observational study we analyzed conjunctival and sublingual microcirculation using SDF imaging in brain dead patients after reaching systemic hemodynamic targets to optimize perfusion of donor organs, and in healthy volunteers. All brain death diagnoses were confirmed by cerebral angiography. Microcirculatory images were obtained and analyzed using standardized published recommendations. Study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02483273.Eleven brain dead patients and eleven apparently healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Microvascular flow index (MFI) of small vessels was significantly lower in brain dead patients in comparison to healthy controls in ocular conjunctiva (2.7 [2.4-2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.9-3.0], p = 0.01) and in sublingual mucosa (2.8 [2.6-2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.9-3.0], p = 0.02). Total vessel density (TVD) and perfused vessel density (PVD) of small vessels were significantly lower in brain dead patients in comparison to healthy controls in ocular conjunctiva (10.2 [6.6-14.8] vs. 18.0 [18.0-25.4] mm/mm(2), p = 0.001 and 5.0 [3.5-7.3] vs. 10.9 [10.9-13.5] 1/mm, p = 0.001), but not in sublingual mucosa.In comparison to healthy controls brain dead patients had a significant reduction in conjunctival microvascular blood flow and density. However, the presence of conjunctival flow in case general cerebral flow is completely absent makes it impossible to use the conjunctival microcirculation as a substitute for brain flow, and further research should focus on the link between the ocular microcirculation, intracranial pressure and alternative ocular circulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microcirculatory dysfunction develops in both septic and cardiogenic shock patients, and it is associated with poor prognosis in patients with septic shock. Information on the association between microcirculatory dysfunction and prognosis in cardiogenic shock patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is limited. METHODS:Sublingual microcirculation images were recorded using an incident dark-field video microscope at the following time points: within 12 h (T1), 24 h (T2), 48 h (T3), 72 h (T4), and 96 h (T5) after VA-ECMO placement. If a patient could be weaned off VA-ECMO, sublingual microcirculation images were recorded before and after VA-ECMO removal. Microcirculatory parameters were compared between 28-day nonsurvivors and survivors with VA-ECMO support. In addition, the microcirculation and clinical parameters were assessed as prognostic tests of 28-day mortality, and patients were divided into three subgroups according to microcirculation parameters for survival analysis. RESULTS:Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. At T1, the observed heart rate, mean arterial pressure, inotropic score and lactate level of 28-day nonsurvivors and survivors did not differ significantly, but the perfused small vessel density (PSVD) and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) were lower in the 28-day nonsurvivors than in the survivors. The PSVD and PPV were slightly superior to lactate levels in predicting 28-day mortality (area under curve of 0.68, 0.70, and 0.62, respectively). The subgroup with the lowest PSVD (< 15 mm/mm2) and PPV (< 64%) values exhibited less favorable survival compared with the other two subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Early microcirculatory parameters could be used to predict the survival of cardiogenic shock patients with VA-ECMO support. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393274 . Registered on 19 March 2015.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the microcirculatory perfusion during experimental sepsis in different potentially available parts of the body, such as sublingual mucosa, conjunctiva of the eye, and mucosa of jejunum and rectum. METHODS: Pigs were randomly assigned to sepsis (n = 9) and sham (n = 4) groups. The sepsis group received a fixed dose of live Escherichia coli infusion over a 1-hour period (1.8 × 10(9)/kg colony-forming units). Animals were observed 5 hours after the start of E. coli infusion. In addition to systemic hemodynamic assessment, we performed conjunctival, sublingual, jejunal, and rectal evaluation of microcirculation by using Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) videomicroscopy at the same time points: at baseline, and at 3 and 5 hours after the start of live E. coli infusion. Assessment of microcirculatory parameters of convective oxygen transport (microvascular flow index (MFI) and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV)), and diffusion distance (perfused vessel density (PVD) and total vessel density (TVD)) was done by using a semiquantitative method. RESULTS: Infusion of E. coli resulted in a hypodynamic state of sepsis associated with low cardiac output and increased systemic vascular resistance despite fluid administration. Significant decreases in MFI and PPV of small vessels were observed in sublingual, conjunctival, jejunal, and rectal locations 3 and 5 hours after the start of E. coli infusion in comparison with baseline variables. Correlation between sublingual and conjunctival (r = 0.80; P = 0.036), sublingual and jejunal (r = 0.80; P = 0.044), and sublingual and rectal (r = 0.79; P = 0.03) MFI was observed 3 hours after onset of sepsis. However, this strong correlation between the sublingual and other regions disappeared 5 hours after the start of E. coli infusion. Overall, the sublingual mucosa exhibited the most-pronounced alterations of microcirculatory flow in comparison with conjunctival, jejunal, and rectal microvasculature (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this pig model, a time-dependent correlation exists between sublingual and microvascular beds during the course of a hypodynamic state of sepsis.
Project description:Background:Profound knowledge about cardiovascular physiology in the setting of microgravity can help in the course of preparations for human space missions. So far, influences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system have been demonstrated, particularly pertaining to venous fluid shifts. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms of these adaptations on continuous macrocirculatory level and regarding the microcirculation. Methods:Twelve healthy volunteers were subjected to alternating microgravity and hypergravity in the course of parabolic flight maneuvers. Under these conditions, as well as in normal gravity, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed by intravital sidestream dark field microscopy. Furthermore, hemodynamic parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output were recorded by beat-to-beat analysis. In these settings, data acquisition was performed in seated and in supine postures. Results:Systolic [median 116 mmHg (102; 129) interquartile range (IQR) vs. 125 mmHg (109; 136) IQR, p = 0.01] as well as diastolic [median 72 mmHg (61; 79) IQR vs. 80 mmHg (69; 89) IQR, p = 0.003] blood pressure was reduced, and cardiac output [median 6.9 l/min (6.5; 8.8) IQR vs. 6.8 l/min (6.2; 8.5) IQR, p = 0.0002] increased in weightlessness compared to normal gravitation phases in the seated but not in the supine posture. However, microcirculation represented by perfused proportion of vessels and by total vessel density was unaffected in acute weightlessness. Conclusion:Profound changes of the macrocirculation were found in seated postures, but not in supine postures. However, microcirculation remained stable in all postures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Data on microcirculatory pattern of COVID-19 critically ill patients are scarce. The objective was to compare sublingual microcirculation parameters of critically ill patients according to the severity of the disease.<h4>Methods</h4>The study is a single-center prospective study with critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted in ICU. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed by IDF microscopy within 48 hours of ICU admission. Microcirculatory flow index (MFI), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), total vessel density (TVD), De Backer score (DBS), perfused vessel density (PVD) and heterogeneity index (HI) were assessed. Patients were divided in 2 groups (severe and critical) according to the World health organization definition.<h4>Findings</h4>From 19th of March to 7th of April 2020, 43 patients were included. Fourteen patients (33%) were in the severe group and twenty-nine patients (67%) in the critical group. Patients in the critical group were all mechanically ventilated. The critical group had significantly higher values of MFI, DBS and PVD in comparison to severe group (respectively, PaCO2: 49 [44-45] vs 36 [33-37] mmHg; p<0,0001, MFI: 2.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.001, DBS: 12.7 ± 2.6 vs 10.8 ± 2.0 vessels mm-2; p = 0.033, PVD: 12.5 ± 3.0 vs 10.1 ± 2.4 mm.mm-2; p = 0.020). PPV, HI and TVD were similar between groups Correlation was found between microcirculatory parameters and PaCO2 levels.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Critical COVID-19 patients under mechanical ventilation seem to have higher red blood cell velocity than severe non-ventilated patients.
Project description:Microcirculatory disorders are crucial in pathophysiology of organ dysfunction in critical illness. Evaluation of sublingual microcirculation is not routinely conducted in daily practice due to time-consuming analysis and susceptibility to artifacts. We investigated the suitability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for contactless evaluation of sublingual microcirculation. Sublingual microcirculation was imaged in 10 healthy volunteers, using an OCTA device and an incident dark field (IDF) illumination microscopy (current gold standard). OCTA images were analyzed with regard to flow density and perfused vessel density (PVDbyOCTA). IDF videos were analyzed following current recommendations. Flow density was automatically extracted from OCTA images (whole en face 48.9% [43.2; 54.5]; central ring 52.6% [43.6; 60.6]). PVDbyOCTA did not differ from the PVD calculated from IDF videos (PVDbyOCTA 18.6?mm/mm² [18.0; 21.7]) vs. PVDbyIDF 21.0?mm/mm² [17.5; 22.9]; p?=?0.430). Analysis according to Bland-Altman revealed a mean bias of 0.95?mm/mm² (95% Confidence interval -1.34 to 3.25) between PVDbyOCTA and PVDbyIDF with limits of agreement of -5.34 to 7.24?mm/mm². This study is the first to demonstrate the suitability of OCTA for evaluating sublingual microcirculation. Comparison of the perfused vessel density between methods showed a plausible level of agreement.
Project description:PURPOSE:Hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion thresholds are established in intensive care units. A restrictive transfusion threshold (Hb 70-75?g/l) is recommended in septic patients, and a liberal transfusion threshold (Hb 90?g/l) for cardiogenic shock. It is unclear whether these historically adopted transfusion thresholds meet the challenges of individual patients. METHODS:We evaluated microvascular flow index (MFI) and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) in the sublingual microcirculation with CytoCam-IDF microscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A study team-independent, treating intensivist assigned a total of 64 patients to 1 of 2 two transfusion thresholds, 43 patients to the Hb 75?g/l threshold and 21 patients to the Hb 90?g/l threshold, at a surgical intensive care unit. We performed microcirculatory measurements 1 h before and 1 h after transfusion of 1 unit of red blood cells. RESULTS:Microcirculatory flow variables correlated negatively with pre-transfusion flow variables (?MFI: ??=?-?0.821, p?<? 0.001; ?PPV: ??=?-?0.778, p?<? 0.001). Patients with good initial microcirculation (cutoffs: MFI?>?2.84, PPV?>?88%) showed a deteriorated microcirculation after red blood cell transfusion. An impaired microcirculation improved after transfusion. At both transfusion thresholds, approximately one third of the patients showed an initially impaired microcirculation. In contrast, one third in every group had good microcirculation above the cutoff variables and did not profit from the transfusion. CONCLUSION:The data suggest that the established transfusion thresholds and other hemodynamic variables do not reflect microcirculatory perfusion of patients. Blood transfusion at both thresholds 75?g/l and 90?g/l hemoglobin can either improve or harm the microcirculatory blood flow, questioning the concept of arbitrary transfusion thresholds.
Project description:Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly adopted for the treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). However, a marker of successful weaning remains largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that successful weaning is associated with sustained microcirculatory function during ECMO flow reduction. Therefore, we sought to test the usefulness of microcirculatory imaging in the same sublingual spot, using incident dark field (IDF) imaging in assessing successful weaning from VA-ECMO and compare IDF imaging with echocardiographic parameters.Weaning was performed by decreasing the VA-ECMO flow to 50% (F50) from the baseline. The endpoint of the study was successful VA-ECMO explantation within 48 hours after weaning. The response of sublingual microcirculation to a weaning attempt (WA) was evaluated. Microcirculation was measured in one sublingual area (single spot (ss)) using CytoCam IDF imaging during WA. Total vessel density (TVDss) and perfused vessel density (PVDss) of the sublingual area were evaluated before and during 50% flow reduction (TVDssF50, PVDssF50) after a WA and compared to conventional echocardiographic parameters as indicators of the success or failure of the WA.Patients (n?=?13) aged 49?±?18 years, who received VA-ECMO for the treatment of refractory CS due to pulmonary embolism (n?=?5), post cardiotomy (n?=?3), acute coronary syndrome (n?=?2), myocarditis (n?=?2) and drug intoxication (n?=?1), were included. TVDssF50 (21.9 vs 12.9 mm/mm2, p?=?0.001), PVDssF50 (19.7 vs 12.4 mm/mm2, p?=?0.01) and aortic velocity-time integral (VTI) at 50% flow reduction (VTIF50) were higher in patients successfully weaned vs not successfully weaned. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.99 vs 0.93 vs 0.85 for TVDssF50 (small vessels) >12.2 mm/mm2, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >15% and aortic VTI >11 cm. Likewise, the AUC was 0.91 vs 0.93 vs 0.85 for the PVDssF50 (all vessels) >14.8 mm/mm2, LVEF >15% and aortic VTI >11 cm.This study identified sublingual microcirculation as a novel potential marker for identifying successful weaning from VA-ECMO. Sustained values of TVDssF50 and PVDssF50 were found to be specific and sensitive indicators of successful weaning from VA-ECMO as compared to echocardiographic parameters.