Lenalidomide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone with Transplantation for Myeloma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High-dose chemotherapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation has been the standard treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in adults up to 65 years of age. However, promising data on the use of combination therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD) in this population have raised questions about the role and timing of transplantation. METHODS:We randomly assigned 700 patients with multiple myeloma to receive induction therapy with three cycles of RVD and then consolidation therapy with either five additional cycles of RVD (350 patients) or high-dose melphalan plus stem-cell transplantation followed by two additional cycles of RVD (350 patients). Patients in both groups received maintenance therapy with lenalidomide for 1 year. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS:Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the group that underwent transplantation than in the group that received RVD alone (50 months vs. 36 months; adjusted hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.65; P<0.001). This benefit was observed across all patient subgroups, including those stratified according to International Staging System stage and cytogenetic risk. The percentage of patients with a complete response was higher in the transplantation group than in the RVD-alone group (59% vs. 48%, P=0.03), as was the percentage of patients in whom minimal residual disease was not detected (79% vs. 65%, P<0.001). Overall survival at 4 years did not differ significantly between the transplantation group and the RVD-alone group (81% and 82%, respectively). The rate of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was significantly higher in the transplantation group than in the RVD-alone group (92% vs. 47%), as were the rates of grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal disorders (28% vs. 7%) and infections (20% vs. 9%). No significant between-group differences were observed in the rates of treatment-related deaths, second primary cancers, thromboembolic events, and peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS:Among adults with multiple myeloma, RVD therapy plus transplantation was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival than RVD therapy alone, but overall survival did not differ significantly between the two approaches. (Supported by Celgene and others; IFM 2009 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01191060 .).
Project description:Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVd) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is standard frontline therapy for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The addition of daratumumab (D) to RVd (D-RVd) in transplant-eligible NDMM patients was evaluated. Patients (N = 207) were randomized 1:1 to D-RVd or RVd induction (4 cycles), ASCT, D-RVd or RVd consolidation (2 cycles), and lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus D maintenance (26 cycles). The primary end point, stringent complete response (sCR) rate by the end of post-ASCT consolidation, favored D-RVd vs RVd (42.4% vs 32.0%; odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-2.82; 1-sided P = .068) and met the prespecified 1-sided ? of 0.10. With longer follow-up (median, 22.1 months), responses deepened; sCR rates improved for D-RVd vs RVd (62.6% vs 45.4%; P = .0177), as did minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity (10-5 threshold) rates in the intent-to-treat population (51.0% vs 20.4%; P < .0001). Four patients (3.8%) in the D-RVd group and 7 patients (6.8%) in the RVd group progressed; respective 24-month progression-free survival rates were 95.8% and 89.8%. Grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events were more common with D-RVd. More infections occurred with D-RVd, but grade 3/4 infection rates were similar. Median CD34+ cell yield was 8.2 × 106/kg for D-RVd and 9.4 × 106/kg for RVd, although plerixafor use was more common with D-RVd. Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were comparable. Daratumumab with RVd induction and consolidation improved depth of response in patients with transplant-eligible NDMM, with no new safety concerns. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02874742.
Project description:Purpose Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) are important imaging techniques in multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a prospective trial in patients with MM aimed at comparing MRI and PET-CT with respect to the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis and the prognostic value of the techniques. Patients and Methods One hundred thirty-four patients received a combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD) with or without autologous stem-cell transplantation, followed by lenalidomide maintenance. PET-CT and MRI were performed at diagnosis, after three cycles of RVD, and before maintenance therapy. The primary end point was the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis by MRI versus PET-CT. Secondary end points included the prognostic impact of MRI and PET-CT regarding progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results At diagnosis, MRI results were positive in 127 of 134 patients (95%), and PET-CT results were positive in 122 of 134 patients (91%; P = .33). Normalization of MRI after three cycles of RVD and before maintenance was not predictive of PFS or OS. PET-CT became normal after three cycles of RVD in 32% of the patients with a positive evaluation at baseline, and PFS was improved in this group (30-month PFS, 78.7% v 56.8%, respectively). PET-CT normalization before maintenance was described in 62% of the patients who were positive at baseline. This was associated with better PFS and OS. Extramedullary disease at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS, whereas PET-CT normalization before maintenance was an independent prognostic factor for PFS. Conclusion There is no difference in the detection of bone lesions at diagnosis when comparing PET-CT and MRI. PET-CT is a powerful tool to evaluate the prognosis of de novo myeloma.
Project description:The safety and efficacy of siltuximab (CNTO 328) was tested in combination with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) in patients with newly-diagnosed, previously untreated symptomatic multiple myeloma. Fourteen patients were enrolled in the study, eleven of whom qualified to receive therapy. A majority of patients (81.8%) completed the minimal number or more of the four required cycles, while two patients completed only three cycles. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of siltuximab with RVD was dose level -1 (siltuximab: 8.3?mg/kg; bortezomib: 1.3?mg/m(2); lenalidomide: 25?mg; dexamethasone: 20?mg). Serious adverse events were grade 3 pneumonia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia, and no deaths occurred during the study or with follow-up (median follow-up 28.1 months). An overall response rate, after 3-4 cycles of therapy, of 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 58.7%, 99.8%) (9.1% complete response (95% CI: 0.2%, 41.3%), 45.5% very good partial response (95% CI: 16.7%, 76.6%) and 36.4% partial response (95% CI: 10.9%, 69.2%)) was seen. Two patients withdrew consent, and nine patients (81.8%) opted for autologous stem cell transplantation.
Project description:PURPOSE:Single-cycle melphalan 200 mg/m2 and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) followed by lenalidomide (len) maintenance have improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for transplantation-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed a prospective, randomized, phase III study to test additional interventions to improve PFS by comparing AHCT, tandem AHCT (AHCT/AHCT), and AHCT and four subsequent cycles of len, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD; AHCT + RVD), all followed by len until disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with symptomatic MM within 12 months from starting therapy and without progression who were age 70 years or younger were randomly assigned to AHCT/AHCT + len (n = 247), AHCT + RVD + len (n = 254), or AHCT + len (n = 257). The primary end point was 38-month PFS. RESULTS:The study population had a median age of 56 years (range, 20 to 70 years); 24% of patients had high-risk MM, 73% had a triple-drug regimen as initial therapy, and 18% were in complete response at enrollment. The 38-month PFS rate was 58.5% (95% CI, 51.7% to 64.6%) for AHCT/AHCT + len, 57.8% (95% CI, 51.4% to 63.7%) for AHCT + RVD + len, and 53.9% (95% CI, 47.4% to 60%) for AHCT + len. For AHCT/AHCT + len, AHCT + RVD + len, and AHCT + len, the OS rates were 81.8% (95% CI, 76.2% to 86.2%), 85.4% (95% CI, 80.4% to 89.3%), and 83.7% (95% CI, 78.4% to 87.8%), respectively, and the complete response rates at 1 year were 50.5% (n = 192), 58.4% (n = 209), and 47.1% (n = 208), respectively. Toxicity profiles and development of second primary malignancies were similar across treatment arms. CONCLUSION:Second AHCT or RVD consolidation as post-AHCT interventions for the up-front treatment of transplantation-eligible patients with MM did not improve PFS or OS. Single AHCT and len should remain as the standard approach for this population.
Project description:We sought a regimen that incorporates optimal novel agents and balances efficacy with toxicity in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Our study evaluated modified lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone (RVD lite) in this population and was administered over a 35-day cycle. Lenalidomide 15 mg was given orally on days 1-21; bortezomib 1·3 mg/m2 weekly subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 15 and 22; and dexamethasone 20 mg orally was given on the day of and day after bortezomib for 9 cycles followed by 6 cycles of consolidation with lenalidomide and bortezomib. The primary objective was to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR); secondary objectives included safety, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Fifty-three eligible patients were screened between April 2013 and May 2015; 50 received at least one dose of therapy. Median age at study entry was 73 years (range 65-91). The ORR was 86% and 66% of patients achieved a very good partial response or better. Median PFS was 35·1 months (95% confidence interval 30·9-not reached) and median OS was not reached at a median follow-up of 30 months. Peripheral neuropathy was reported in 31 (62%) patients with only 1 patient experiencing grade 3 symptoms. RVD lite is a well-tolerated and highly effective regimen, with robust PFS and OS, in the transplant-ineligible MM population.
Project description:Immunomodulation is an important part of lenalidomide's mode of action. We analyzed the impact of lenalidomide on T cells from patients with multiple myeloma during lenalidomide therapy in vivo and in patients with lenalidomide-refractory disease in vitro Patients enrolled in the German Speaking Myeloma Multicenter Group (GMMG) MM5 trial received a consolidation therapy with two cycles of lenalidomide after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Half of the study population continued treatment with lenalidomide maintenance therapy for 2 y, while the other patients received lenalidomide maintenance therapy until complete remission. We analyzed 58 patients with (n = 30) or without (n = 28) lenalidomide therapy and 12 patients refractory to lenalidomide with regards to their anti-myeloma-specific T-cell responses displayed by IFN?, Granzyme B, and Perforin secretion. The immunophenotype of T-cells was investigated by flow cytometry. Significantly, more myeloma-specific T-cell responses were observed in patients during lenalidomide therapy, compared to patients without treatment. Furthermore, we found on T-cells from patients treated with lenalidomide a decreased CD45RA expression, indicating a maturated immunophenotype and a decreased expression of CD57, indicating functional T cells. An improved myeloma-specific T-cell response was observed in 6 out of 12 heavily pretreated patients (refractory to lenalidomide) after in vitro incubation with lenalidomide. Complementary to the results in vivo, lenalidomide decreased CD45RA expression on T cells in vitro.
Project description:The feasibility and efficacy of high-dose melphalan followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed elderly patients with multiple myeloma was analyzed prospectively. Fifty-six multiple myeloma patients, aged 65 years or over, from 6 French centers were studied. The induction therapy was bortezomib-based in combination with dexamethasone and either thalidomide, cyclophosphamide or lenalidomide, for 4-6 cycles. Peripheral blood stem cells were collected after high-dose cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF or G-CSF alone, with plerixafor if needed. The conditioning regimen consisted of melphalan at 140 mg/m2 in 18 patients (36%) and 200 mg/m2 in 32 (64%). Three months post autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a 2-month consolidation phase with either lenalidomide plus dexamethasone or bortezomib-based combination therapy was allowed, but maintenance treatment was not given. All but 6 patients underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 3 had tandem transplantations. The treatment-related mortality was 0% at 100 days post transplantation. Sixty-eight percent received consolidation therapy following transplantation. The best response achieved was 40% complete response, 36% very good partial response, and 18% partial response. After a median follow up of 21 months (range 6-31), the estimated progression-free and overall survival rates at two years were 76% [95%CI: (61.6-94.1)] and 88% [95%CI: (76.7-100)], respectively. The higher dose of melphalan (200 mg/m2) afforded superior progression-free and overall survival rates. This prospective study provides evidence for the safety and efficacy of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a first-line treatment approach in elderly multiple myeloma patients. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01671826).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite major advances in therapy, multiple myeloma is still an incurable malignancy in the majority of patients. To increase survival, deeper remissions (i.e. CR) translating into longer PFS need to be achieved. Incorporation of new drugs (i.e. bortezomib and lenalidomide) as induction and maintenance treatment in an intensified treatment concept, including high dose melphalan (200?mg/m2), has resulted in increased CR rates, and is considered the standard of care for younger patients. Elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone has given better results as lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in a phase III trial. The GMMG-HD6 trial will be the first phase III trial investigating the role of elotuzumab in combination with bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRD) induction/consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance within a high dose concept. METHODS:GMMG-HD6 is a randomized, open, multicenter phase III trial. The planned recruitment number is 564 NDMM patients. All patients will receive 4 VRD cycles as induction and undergo peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and harvesting. Thereafter they will be treated with high dose melphalan therapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation followed by 2?cycles of VRD consolidation and lenalidomide maintenance. Patients in arm B1?+?B2 will additionally receive elotuzumab in the induction phase, whereas patients in A2?+?B2 will be treated with elotuzumab added to consolidation and maintenance. The primary endpoint of the trial is PFS. Secondary objectives and endpoints are OS, CR rates after induction therapy comparing the two arms VRD (A1?+?A2) vs VRD?+?elotuzumab (B1?+?B2), CR rates after consolidation treatment, best response to treatment during the study, time to progression (TTP), duration of response (DOR), toxicity and quality of life. RESULTS:Since this is the publication of a study protocol of an ongoing study, no results can be presented. DISCUSSION:This phase III trial is designed to evaluate whether the addition of elotuzumab to an intensified treatment concept with high dose melphalan chemotherapy plus autologous stem cell transplantation and induction, consolidation and maintenance treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide is able to improve PFS compared to the same concept without elotuzumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02495922 on June 24th, 2015.
Project description:Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy is the standard of care for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Clinical trials show progression-free survival (PFS) benefits, with some studies (Cancer and Leukemia Group [CALGB] trial and meta-analysis) also showing overall survival (OS) benefits, but applicability to real-world clinical settings is unclear. Using data from Connect MM, the largest US-based observational registry of NDMM patients, we analyzed effects of maintenance therapy on long-term outcomes in 1450 treated patients enrolled from 2009 to 2011. Patients who received induction therapy and ASCT (n = 432) were analyzed from 100 days post-ASCT (data cut 7 January 2016): 267 received maintenance (80% lenalidomide-based [of whom 88% received lenalidomide monotherapy]); 165 did not. Lenalidomide maintenance improved median PFS and 3-year PFS rate vs no maintenance (50.3 vs 30.8 months [hazard ratio (HR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46-0.82; P < .001] and 56% vs 42%, respectively). Improvements in median OS and 3-year OS rate were associated with lenalidomide maintenance vs no maintenance (not reached in either group [HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P = .005] and 85% vs 70%, respectively). Five hematologic serious adverse events were reported with lenalidomide maintenance (pancytopenia [n = 2], febrile neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia [n = 1 each]) and 1 with no maintenance (thrombocytopenia). Second primary malignancies occurred at rates of 1.38 and 2.19 events per patient-year in lenalidomide maintenance and no maintenance groups, respectively. Survival benefits associated with lenalidomide maintenance previously demonstrated in clinical trials were observed in this community-based Connect MM Registry.
Project description:Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a reference treatment for patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. The combination of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone has shown significant efficacy in the setting of newly diagnosed myeloma. We aimed to study whether the addition of bortezomib to lenalidomide and dexamethasone would improve progression-free survival and provide better response rates in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma who were not planned for immediate autologous stem-cell transplant.In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma aged 18 years and older from participating Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) institutions (both inpatient and outpatient settings). Key inclusion criteria were presence of CRAB (C=calcium elevation; R=renal impairment; A=anaemia; B=bone involvement) criteria with measurable disease (measured by assessment of free light chains), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-3, haemoglobin concentration 9 g/dL or higher, absolute neutrophil count 1 × 103 cells per mm3 or higher, and a platelet count of 80 000/mm3 or higher. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients to receive either an initial treatment of bortezomib with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (VRd group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (Rd group). Randomisation was stratified based on International Staging System stage (I, II, or III) and intent to transplant (yes vs no). The VRd regimen was given as eight 21-day cycles. Bortezomib was given at 1·3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11, combined with oral lenalidomide 25 mg daily on days 1-14 plus oral dexamethasone 20 mg daily on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. The Rd regimen was given as six 28-day cycles. The standard Rd regimen consisted of 25 mg oral lenalidomide once a day for days 1-21 plus 40 mg oral dexamethasone once a day on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival using a prespecified one-sided stratified log rank test at a significance level of 0·02. Analyses were intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00644228.Between April, 2008, and February, 2012, we randomly assigned 525 patients at 139 participating institutions (264 to VRd and 261 to Rd). In the randomly assigned patients, 21 patients in the VRd group and 31 in the Rd group were deemed ineligible based mainly on missing, insufficient, or early or late baseline laboratory data. Median progression-free survival was significantly improved in the VRd group (43 months vs 30 months in the Rd group; stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·712, 96% CI 0·56-0·906; one-sided p value 0·0018). The median overall survival was also significantly improved in the VRd group (75 months vs 64 months in the Rd group, HR 0·709, 95% CI 0·524-0·959; two-sided p value 0·025). The rates of overall response (partial response or better) were 82% (176/216) in the VRd group and 72% (153/214) in the Rd group, and 16% (34/216) and 8% (18/214) of patients who were assessable for response in these respective groups had a complete response or better. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher were reported in 198 (82%) of 241 patients in the VRd group and 169 (75%) of 226 patients in the Rd group; 55 (23%) and 22 (10%) patients discontinued induction treatment because of adverse events, respectively. There were no treatment-related deaths in the Rd group, and two in the VRd group.In patients with newly diagnosed myeloma, the addition of bortezomib to lenalidomide and dexamethasone resulted in significantly improved progression-free and overall survival and had an acceptable risk-benefit profile.NIH, NCI, NCTN, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Takeda Oncology Company, and Celgene Corporation.