Broadened glycosylation patterning of heterologously produced erythromycin.
ABSTRACT: The biosynthetic flexibility associated with the antibiotic natural product erythromycin is both remarkable and utilitarian. Product formation is marked by a modular nature where directing compound variation increasingly spans both the secondary metabolite core scaffold and adorning functionalization patterns. The resulting molecular diversity allows for chemical expansion of the native compound structural space. Accordingly, associated antibiotic bioactivity is expected to expand infectious disease treatment applications. In the enclosed work, new glycosylation patterns spanning the deoxysugars d-forosamine, d-allose, l-noviose, and d-vicenisamine were engineered within the erythromycin biosynthetic system established through an Escherichia coli heterologous production platform. The resulting analogs highlight the expanded flexibility of the erythromycin biosynthetic process. In addition, the new compounds demonstrated bioactivity against multiple Gram-positive tester strains, including erythromycin-resistant Bacillus subtilis, and limited activity against a Gram-negative bacterial target.
Project description:Type I modular polyketide synthases are responsible for potent therapeutic compounds that include avermectin (antihelinthic), rapamycin (immunosuppressant), pikromycin (antibiotic), and erythromycin (antibiotic). However, compound access and biosynthetic manipulation are often complicated by properties of native production organisms, prompting an approach (termed heterologous biosynthesis) illustrated in this study through the reconstitution of the erythromycin pathway through Escherichia coli. Using this heterologous system, 16 tailoring pathways were introduced, systematically producing eight chiral pairs of deoxysugar substrates. Successful analog formation for each new pathway emphasizes the remarkable flexibility of downstream enzymes to accommodate molecular variation. Furthermore, analogs resulting from three of the pathways demonstrated bioactivity against an erythromycin-resistant Bacillus subtilis strain. The approach and results support a platform for continued molecular diversification of the tailoring components of this and other complex natural product pathways in a manner that mirrors the modular nature of the upstream megasynthases responsible for aglycone polyketide formation.
Project description:Streptomyces albus J1074 produces glycosylated antibiotics paulomycin A, B and E that derive from chorismate and contain an isothiocyanate residue in form of paulic acid. Paulomycins biosynthesis pathway involves two glycosyltransferases, three acyltransferases, enzymes required for paulic acid biosynthesis (in particular an aminotransferase and a sulfotransferase), and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of two deoxysugar moieties: D-allose and L-paulomycose.Inactivation of genes encoding enzymes involved in deoxysugar biosynthesis, paulic acid biosynthesis, deoxysugar transfer, and acyl moieties transfer has allowed the identification of several biosynthetic intermediates and shunt products, derived from paulomycin intermediates, and to propose a refined version of the paulomycin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, several novel bioactive derivatives of paulomycins carrying modifications in the L-paulomycose moiety have been generated by combinatorial biosynthesis using different plasmids that direct the biosynthesis of alternative deoxyhexoses.The paulomycins biosynthesis pathway has been defined by inactivation of genes encoding glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases and enzymes involved in paulic acid and L-paulomycose biosynthesis. These experiments have allowed the assignment of each of these genes to specific paulomycin biosynthesis steps based on characterization of products accumulated by the corresponding mutant strains. In addition, novel derivatives of paulomycin A and B containing L-paulomycose modified moieties were generated by combinatorial biosynthesis. The production of such derivatives shows that L-paulomycosyl glycosyltransferase Plm12 possesses a certain degree of flexibility for the transfer of different deoxysugars. In addition, the pyruvate dehydrogenase system form by Plm8 and Plm9 is also flexible to catalyze the attachment of a two-carbon side chain, derived from pyruvate, into both 2,6-dideoxyhexoses and 2,3,6-trideoxyhexoses. The activity of the novel paulomycin derivatives carrying modifications in the L-paulomycose moiety is lower than the original compounds pointing to some interesting structure-activity relationships.
Project description:A 9.8-kb DNA region from the oleandomycin gene cluster in Streptomyces antibioticus was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 8 open reading frames encoding different enzyme activities involved in the biosynthesis of one of the two 2, 6-deoxysugars attached to the oleandomycin aglycone: L-oleandrose (the oleW, oleV, oleL, and oleU genes) and D-desosamine (the oleNI and oleT genes), or of both (the oleS and oleE genes). A Streptomyces albus strain harboring the oleG2 glycosyltransferase gene integrated into the chromosome was constructed. This strain was transformed with two different plasmid constructs (pOLV and pOLE) containing a set of genes proposed to be required for the biosynthesis of dTDP-L-olivose and dTDP-L-oleandrose, respectively. Incubation of these recombinant strains with the erythromycin aglycon (erythronolide B) gave rise to two new glycosylated compounds, identified as L-3-O-olivosyl- and L-3-O-oleandrosyl-erythronolide B, indicating that pOLV and pOLE encode all enzyme activities required for the biosynthesis of these two 2,6-dideoxysugars. A pathway is proposed for the biosynthesis of these two deoxysugars in S. antibioticus.
Project description:Actinomycetes are remarkable producers of compounds essential for human and veterinary medicine as well as for agriculture. The genomes of those microorganisms possess several sets of genes (biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC)) encoding pathways for the production of the valuable secondary metabolites. A significant proportion of the identified BGCs in actinomycetes encode pathways for the biosynthesis of polyketide compounds, nonribosomal peptides, or hybrid products resulting from the combination of both polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The potency of these molecules, in terms of bioactivity, was recognized in the 1940s, and started the "Golden Age" of antimicrobial drug discovery. Since then, several valuable polyketide drugs, such as erythromycin A, tylosin, monensin A, rifamycin, tetracyclines, amphotericin B, and many others were isolated from actinomycetes. This review covers the most relevant actinomycetes-derived polyketide drugs with antimicrobial activity, including anti-fungal agents. We provide an overview of the source of the compounds, structure of the molecules, the biosynthetic principle, bioactivity and mechanisms of action, and the current stage of development. This review emphasizes the importance of actinomycetes-derived antimicrobial polyketides and should serve as a "lexicon", not only to scientists from the Natural Products field, but also to clinicians and others interested in this topic.
Project description:Only D-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to D-allose. D-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-D-allose, a structural derivative of D-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding D-allose kinase to increase D-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to D-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding D-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease D-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, D-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of D-allose to D-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with D-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice.
Project description:Deoxysugars are intrinsic components in a number of antibiotics, antimicrobials, and therapeutic agents that often dictate receptor binding, improve efficacy, and provide a diverse toolbox in modifying glycoconjugate function due to an extensive number of unique isomers and inherent conformational flexibility. Hence, this work provides a comprehensive examination of the conformational effects associated with deoxygenation of the pyranose ring. Both the location and degree of deoxygenation were evaluated by interrogating the energetic landscape for a number of mono- and dideoxyhexopyranose derivatives using DFT methods (M05-2X/cc-pVTZ(-f)). Both anomeric forms and in some cases, the alternate chair form, have been investigated in the gas phase. As was documented in a preceding study, variation of the C-6 oxidation state has been shown to affect the anomeric preference of select glucose stereoisomers. Similar results were also observed for several deoxysugar isomers in this work, wherein the alternate anomer was favored upon reduction to the 6-deoxyhexose derivative or oxidation to the hexonic acid. Additionally, comparison of relative Gibbs free energies revealed C-3 deoxygenation imparts greater instability compared to C-2 or C-4 deoxygenation, as indicated by an increase in free energy for 3-deoxysugars. A polarizable continuum solvation model was also applied to empirically validate theoretical results for several deoxysugars, wherein good agreement with both carbon (??=?1.6?ppm) and proton (??=?0.20?ppm) NMR shifts was observed for the majority of isomers. Solvated and gas phase anomeric ratios were also calculated and compared favorably to reported literature values, although some discrepancies are noted.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, causes listeriosis and is widely distributed in many different environments. In a previous study, we developed a novel enrichment broth containing D-allose that allows better isolation of L. monocytogenes from samples. However, the mechanism of D-allose utilization by L. monocytogenes remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the metabolism of D-allose in L. monocytogenes and found that lineage II strains of L. monocytogenes can utilize D-allose as the sole carbon source for growth, but lineage I and III strains cannot. Transcriptome analysis and sequence alignment identified six genes (lmo0734 to 0739) possibly related to D-allose metabolism that are only present in the genomes of lineage II strains. Recombinant strain ICDC-LM188 containing these genes showed utilization of D-allose by growth assays and Biolog phenotype microarrays. Moreover, lmo0734 to 0736 were verified to be essential for D-allose metabolism, lmo0737 and 0738 affected the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in D-allose medium, while lmo0739 was dispensable in the metabolism of D-allose in L. monocytogenes. This is the first study to identify the genes related to D-allose metabolism in L. monocytogenes, and their distribution in lineage II strains. Our study preliminarily determined the effects of these genes on the growth of L. monocytogenes, which will benefit the isolation and epidemiological research of L. monocytogenes.
Project description:The title compound, C6H12O6, a C-3 position epimer of glucose, was crystallized from an equimolar mixture of d- and l-allose. It was confirmed that d-allose (l-allose) formed ?-pyran-ose with a (4) C 1 ((1) C 4) conformation in the crystal. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O-H?O hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional framework. The cell volume of the racemic ?-d,l-allose is 739.36?(3)?Å(3), which is about 10?Å(3) smaller than that of chiral ?-d-allose [V = 751.0?(2)?Å(3)].
Project description:Saccharopolyspora erythraea makes erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used in human medicine. Unusually, the erythromycin biosynthetic (ery) cluster lacks a pathway-specific regulatory gene. We isolated a transcriptional regulator of the ery biosynthetic genes from S. erythraea and found that this protein appears to directly link morphological changes caused by impending starvation to the synthesis of a molecule that kills other bacteria, i.e., erythromycin. DNA binding assays, liquid and affinity chromatography, MALDI-MS analysis, and de novo sequencing identified this protein (M(r) = 18 kDa) as the S. erythraea ortholog of BldD, a key regulator of development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Recombinant S. erythraea BldD bound to all five regions containing promoters in the ery cluster as well as to its own promoter, the latter with an order-of-magnitude stronger than to the ery promoters. Deletion of bldD in S. erythraea decreased the erythromycin titer in a liquid culture 7-fold and blocked differentiation on a solid medium. Moreover, an industrial strain of S. erythraea with a higher titer of erythromycin expressed more BldD than a wild-type strain during erythromycin synthesis. Together, these results suggest that BldD concurrently regulates the synthesis of erythromycin and morphological differentiation. The ery genes are the first direct targets of a BldD ortholog to be identified that are positively regulated.
Project description:Spinosyns A and D (spinosad) are complex polyketide natural products biosynthesized through the cooperation of a modular polyketide synthase and several tailoring enzymes. SpnP catalyzes the final tailoring step, transferring forosamine from a TDP-D-forosamine donor substrate to a spinosyn pseudoaglycone acceptor substrate. Sequence analysis indicated that SpnP belongs to a small group of glycosyltransferases (GTs) that require an auxiliary protein for activation. However, unlike other GTs in this subgroup, no putative auxiliary protein gene could be located in the biosynthetic gene cluster. To learn more about SpnP, the structures of SpnP and its complex with TDP were determined to 2.50 and 3.15 Å resolution, respectively. Binding of TDP causes the reordering of several residues in the donor substrate pocket. SpnP possesses a structural feature that has only been previously observed in the related glycosyltransferase EryCIII, in which it mediates association with the auxiliary protein EryCII. This motif, H-X-R-X5-D-X5-R-X12-20-D-P-X3-W-L-X12-18-E-X4-G, may be predictive of glycosyltransferases that interact with an auxiliary protein. A reverse glycosyl transfer assay demonstrated that SpnP possesses measurable activity in the absence of an auxiliary protein. Our data suggest that SpnP can bind its donor substrate by itself but that the glycosyl transfer reaction is facilitated by an auxiliary protein that aids in the correct folding of a flexible loop surrounding the pseudoaglycone acceptor substrate-binding pocket.