Association of Low Lysosomal Enzymes Activity With Brain Arterial Dilatation.
ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose- Absent or diminished ?-galactosidase A (GLA) and acid ?-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity are core features of Fabry and Pompe disease, respectively. Patients with Fabry or Pompe disease may have dilated intracranial arteries but whether lower GLA or GAA enzyme activity relates to brain arterial dilatation in other populations is unknown. Methods- Participants included Parkinson disease patients and nonblood-related controls, whose GLA and GAA enzymatic activities were measured in dried blood spots. Independent readers measured the axial arterial diameter of the ascending portion of the cavernous internal carotid arteries and the most proximal segment of the basilar artery in T2 black voids. Linear regression models were built to investigate the relationship between brain arterial diameters and lysosomal enzymatic activities. Results- The cohort included 107 participants (mean age, 66.5±10.3; 67% men). In an adjusted linear regression model, lower GLA activity was associated with larger brain arterial diameters (B=0.50±0.23, P=0.03). The strength of association was the greatest for the basilar artery diameter (B=0.80±0.33, P=0.02). Similarly, lower GAA activity was associated with an increased basilar arterial diameter (B=0.73±0.35, P=0.04). Conclusions- Lower GLA and GAA enzymatic activities were associated with larger brain arterial diameters, particularly the basilar artery diameter. Lower lysosomal enzymatic function in patients without Fabry or Pompe disease may play a role in brain arterial dilatation.
Project description:A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are rare inherited metabolic diseases characterized by an abnormal accumulation of various toxic materials in the cells as a result of enzyme deficiencies leading to tissue and organ damage. Among clinical manifestations, cardiac diseases are particularly important in Pompe glycogen storage diseases (PD), in glycosphingolipidosis Fabry disease (FD), and mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). Here, we evaluated the occurrence of aortopathy in knock out (KO) mouse models of three different LSDs, including PD, FD, and MPS IIIB. METHODS:We measured the aortic diameters in 15 KO male mice, 5 for each LSD: 5 GLA-/- mice for FD, 5 NAGLU-/- mice for MPS IIIB, 5 GAA-/- mice for PD, and 15 wild type (WT) mice: 5 for each strain. In order to compare the aortic parameters between KO and WT mice deriving from the same colonies, different diameters were echocardiographically measured: aortic annulus, aortic sinus, sino-tubular junction, ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending aorta. Storage material content and aortic defects of the KO mice were also analyzed by histology, when available. RESULTS:Compared to their correspondent WT mice: GAA-/- mice showed greater diameters of ascending aorta (1.61mm vs. 1.11mm, p-value = 0.01) and descending aorta (1.17mm vs 1.02mm, p-value 0.04); GLA-/- mice showed greater diameters of aortic annulus (1.35mm vs. 1.22mm, p-value = 0.01), sinus of Valsalva (1.6mm vs. 1.38mm, p-value<0.01), ascending aorta (1.57mm vs. 1.34mm, p-value<0.01), aortic arch (1.36mm vs. 1.22mm, p-value = 0.03) and descending aorta (1.29mm vs. 1.11mm, p-value<0.01); NAGLU-/- mice showed greater diameters of sinus of Valsalva (1.46mm vs. 1.31mm, p-value = 0.05), ascending aorta (1.42mm vs. 1.29mm, p-value<0.01), aortic arch (1.34mm vs. 1.28mm, p-value<0.01) and descending aorta (1.18mm vs. 1.1mm, p-value 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:We evaluated for the first time the aortic diameters in 3 LSD mouse models and identified different aortopathy patterns, in concordance with recent human findings. Our results are relevant in view of using KO mouse models for efficiently testing the efficacy of new therapies on distinct cardiovascular aspects of LSDs.
Project description:There is current expansion of newborn screening (NBS) programs to include lysosomal storage disorders because of the availability of treatments that produce an optimal clinical outcome when started early in life.To evaluate the performance of a multiplex-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) enzymatic activity assay of 6 lysosomal enzymes in a NBS laboratory for the identification of newborns at risk for developing Pompe, Mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I), Fabry, Gaucher, Niemann Pick-A/B, and Krabbe diseases.Enzyme activities (acid ?-glucosidase (GAA), galactocerebrosidase (GALC), glucocerebrosidase (GBA), ?-galactosidase A (GLA), ?-iduronidase (IDUA) and sphingomyeline phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD-1)) were measured on ~43,000 de-identified dried blood spot (DBS) punches, and screen positive samples were submitted for DNA sequencing to obtain genotype confirmation of disease risk. The 6-plex assay was efficiently performed in the Washington state NBS laboratory by a single laboratory technician at the bench using a single MS/MS instrument. The number of screen positive samples per 100,000 newborns were as follows: GAA (4.5), IDUA (13.6), GLA (18.2), SMPD1 (11.4), GBA (6.8), and GALC (25.0).A 6-plex MS/MS assay for 6 lysosomal enzymes can be successfully performed in a NBS laboratory. The analytical ranges (enzyme-dependent assay response for the quality control HIGH sample divided by that for all enzyme-independent processes) for the 6-enzymes with the MS/MS is 5- to 15-fold higher than comparable fluorimetric assays using 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. The rate of screen positive detection is consistently lower for the MS/MS assay compared to the fluorimetric assay using a digital microfluidics platform.
Project description:We sought to modify a previously published tandem mass spectrometry method of screening for 5 lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in order to make it better suited for high-throughput newborn screening.Two 3-mm dried blood spot (DBS) punches were incubated, each with a different assay solution. The quadruplex solution was used for screening for Gaucher, Pompe, Krabbe and Fabry diseases, while a separate solution was used for Niemann-Pick A/B disease.The mean activities of acid-?-glucocerebrosidase (ABG), acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), acid glucosidase (GAA), galactocerebroside-?-galactosidase (GALC) and acid-galactosidase A (GLA) were measured on 5055 unidentified newborns. The mean activities (compared with their disease controls) were, 15.1 (0.35), 22.2 (1.34), 16.8 (0.51), 3.61 (0.23), and 20.7 (1.43) (?mol/L/h), respectively. The number of specimens that fell below our retest level cutoff of <20% daily mean activity (DMA) for each analyte is: ABG (6), ASM (0), GAA (5), GALC (17), and GLA (2).This method provides a simplified and reliable assay for screening for five LSDs with clear distinction between activities from normal and disease samples. Advantages of this new method include significant decreases in processing time and the number of required assay solutions and overall decreased complexity.
Project description:Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid ?-glucosidase (GAA). Many disease-causing mutated GAA retain enzymatic activity but are not translocated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to lysosomes. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the only treatment for Pompe disease but remains expensive, inconvenient, and does not reverse all disease manifestations. It was postulated that small molecules which aid in protein folding and translocation to lysosomes could provide an alternate to ERT. Previously, several iminosugars have been proposed as small-molecule chaperones for specific LSDs. Here we identified a novel series of noniminosugar chaperones for GAA. These moderate GAA inhibitors are shown to bind and thermostabilize GAA and increase GAA translocation to lysosomes in both wild-type and Pompe fibroblasts. AMDE and physical properties studies indicate that this series is a promising lead for further pharmacokinetic evaluation and testing in Pompe disease models.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting in the cellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide particularly globotriaosylceramide. The disease is characterized by a dilated vasculopathy with arterial ectasia in muscular arteries and arterioles. Previous venous plethysomographic studies suggest enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Fabry disease indicating a functional abnormality of resistance vessels. METHODS:We examined the mechanical properties of the radial artery in Fabry disease, a typical fibro-muscular artery. Eight control subjects and seven patients with Fabry disease had a right brachial arterial line placed allowing real time recording of intra-arterial blood pressure. Real time B-mode ultrasound recordings of the right radial artery were obtained simultaneously allowing calculation of the vessel wall internal and external diameter, the incremental Young's modulus and arterial wall thickness. By simultaneously measurement of the distal index finger-pulse oximetry the pulse wave speed was calculated. From the wave speed and the internal radial artery diameter the volume flow was calculated by Womersley analysis following truncation of the late diastolic phase. RESULTS:No significant difference was found between Fabry patients and controls for internal or external arterial diameters, the incremental Young's modulus, the arterial wall thickness, the pulse wave speed and the basal radial artery blood flow. Further, no significant difference was found for the radial artery blood flow in response to intra-arterial acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside. Both drugs however, elevated the mean arterial flow. CONCLUSIONS:The current study suggests that no structural or mechanical abnormality exists in the vessel wall of fibro-muscular arteries in Fabry disease. This may indicate that a functional abnormality downstream to the conductance vessels is the dominant feature in development Fabry vasculopathy.
Project description:Enzyme replacement therapies for lysosomal storage disorders are often hindered by suboptimal biodistribution of recombinant enzymes after systemic injection. This is the case for Pompe disease caused by acid ?-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency, leading to excess glycogen storage throughout the body, mainly the liver and striated muscle. Targeting intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a protein involved in inflammation and overexpressed on most cells under pathological conditions, provides broad biodistribution and lysosomal transport of therapeutic cargoes. To improve its delivery, we coupled GAA to polymer nanocarriers (NCs; ?180 nm) coated with an antibody specific to ICAM-1. Fluorescence microscopy showed specific targeting of anti-ICAM/GAA NCs to cells, with efficient internalization and lysosomal transport, enhancing glycogen degradation over nontargeted GAA. Radioisotope tracing in mice demonstrated enhanced GAA accumulation in all organs, including Pompe targets. Along with improved delivery of Niemann-Pick and Fabry enzymes, previously described, these results indicate that ICAM-1 targeting holds promise as a broad platform for lysosomal enzyme delivery.In this study, ICAM-1 targeted nanocarriers were used to deliver GAA (acid alpha glucosidase) into cells to address the specific enzyme deficiency in Pompe's disease. The results unequivocally demonstrate enhanced enzyme delivery over nontargeted GAA in a mice model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid ?-glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease. Newborn screening for Pompe disease is ongoing, and improved methods for distinguishing affected patients from those with pseudodeficiency, especially in the Asian population, would substantially reduce the number of patient referrals for clinical follow-up. METHODS:We measured the enzymatic activity of GAA in dried blood spots on newborn screening cards (DBS) using a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay. The assay displayed a relatively large analytical range compared to the fluorimetric assay with 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-glucoside. DBS from newborns confirmed to have infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD, n = 11) or late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) (n = 12) and those from patients bearing pseudodeficiency alleles with or without Pompe mutations, or Pompe disease carriers (n = 230) were studied. RESULTS:With use of the MS/MS GAA assay in DBS, 96% of the pseudodeficiency newborns and all of the Pompe disease carriers were well separated from the IOPD and LOPD newborns. The fluorimetric assay separated <10% of the pseudodeficiencies from the IOPD/LOPD group. CONCLUSIONS:The relatively large analytical range MS/MS GAA assay but not the fluorimetric assay in DBS provides a robust approach to reduce the number of referrals and should dramatically facilitate newborn screening of Pompe disease.
Project description:Abstract In the present study the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as vehicles for therapeutic enzymes in lysosomal storage disorders was explored. EVs were isolated from mammalian cells overexpressing alpha?galactosidase A (GLA) or N?sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH) enzymes, defective in Fabry and Sanfilippo A diseases, respectively. Direct purification of EVs from cell supernatants was found to be a simple and efficient method to obtain highly active GLA and SGSH proteins, even after EV lyophilization. Likewise, EVs carrying GLA (EV?GLA) were rapidly uptaken and reached the lysosomes in cellular models of Fabry disease, restoring lysosomal functionality much more efficiently than the recombinant enzyme in clinical use. In vivo, EVs were well tolerated and distributed among all main organs, including the brain. DiR?labelled EVs were localized in brain parenchyma 1 h after intra?arterial (internal carotid artery) or intravenous (tail vein) administrations. Moreover, a single intravenous administration of EV?GLA was able to reduce globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) substrate levels in clinically relevant tissues, such kidneys and brain. Overall, our results demonstrate that EVs from cells overexpressing lysosomal enzymes act as natural protein delivery systems, improving the activity and the efficacy of the recombinant proteins and facilitating their access to organs neglected by conventional enzyme replacement therapies.
Project description:Pompe disease is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by lack of acid-alpha glucosidase (GAA) resulting in ubiquitous lysosomal glycogen accumulation. Respiratory and ambulatory dysfunction are prominent features in patients with Pompe yet the mechanism defining the development of muscle weakness is currently unclear. Transgenic animal models of Pompe disease mirroring the patient phenotype have been invaluable in mechanistic and therapeutic study. Here, we demonstrate significant pathological alterations at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscle as prominent features of disease pathology in Gaa knockout mice. Postsynaptic defects including increased motor endplate area and fragmentation were readily observed in Gaa(-/-) but not wild-type mice. Presynaptic neuropathic changes were also evident, as demonstrated by significant reduction in the levels of neurofilament proteins, and alterations in axonal fiber diameter and myelin thickness within the sciatic and phrenic nerves. Our data suggest the loss of NMJ integrity is a primary contributor to the decline in respiratory and ambulatory function in Pompe and arises from both pre- and postsynaptic pathology. These observations highlight the importance of systemic phenotype correction, specifically restoration of GAA to skeletal muscle and the nervous system for treatment of Pompe disease.