Preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells highly strengthens their potential to promote IL-6-dependent M2b polarization.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:During the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into different cell types and to promote immunosuppressive effects. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated immunoregulation is not fully understood so far. Macrophages are distinguished in classical activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated M2 cells, which possess different functions and transcriptional profiles with respect to inflammatory responses. As polarization is not fixed, macrophage functional plasticity might be modulated by the microenvironment allowing them to rapidly react to danger signals and maintaining tissue homeostasis. METHODS:Murine MSCs were preconditioned with IL-1ß and IFN-? to enhance their immunosuppressive capacity regarding macrophage polarization under M1- and M2a-polarizing conditions. Macrophage polarization was analyzed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and cytokine detection in culture supernatants. The role of MSC-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and IL-6 in this process has been evaluated using siRNA transfection and IL-6 receptor-deficient macrophages, respectively. RESULTS:Preconditioned, but not unprimed, MSCs secreted high levels of NO, IL-6, and PGE2. Co-culture with macrophages (M0) in the presence of M1 inducers (LPS?+?IFN-?) led to significant reduction of CD86 and iNOS protein in macrophages and diminished TNF-? secretion. Additionally, CD86 and iNOS protein expression as well as NO and IL-10 secretion were markedly increased under M2a-polarizing culture conditions (IL-4). MSC-dependent macrophage polarization did not depend on direct cell-cell contact. Co-culturing in the presence of LPS and IFN-? resulted in the upregulation of M2a, M2b, and M2c marker genes, whereas in the presence of IL-4 only M2b markers were significantly increased. In turn, IL-10-producing regulatory M2b cells significantly inhibited IFN-? expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we show that MSC-mediated macrophage polarization strongly depends on IL-6, whereas a minor role for NO and PGE2 was found. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning of MSCs highly strengthens their capacity to regulate macrophage features and to promote immunosuppression. Repression of M1 polarization during inflammation and M2b polarization under anti-inflammatory conditions strongly depend on functional IL-6 signaling in macrophages. The potential benefit of preconditioned MSCs and IL-6 should be considered for future clinical treatment.
Project description:Pellino-1 is a ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligase that plays a role in M1, but not M2a polarization of macrophages. However, it is unknown whether Pellino-1 regulates IL-10-mediated M2c polarization of macrophages. Here, we found that Pellino-1 attenuated tumor growth by inhibiting M2c polarization of macrophages. Upon IL-10 stimulation, Pellino-1-deificient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed higher expression of M2c markers, but not M2a, and M2b markers than wild-type (WT) BMDMs, indicating that Pellino-1 inhibits M2c polarization of macrophages. Pellino-1-deficient BMDMs exhibited a defect in mitochondria respiration, but enhancement of glycolysis during M2c polarization. During M2c polarization of macrophages, Pellino-1 increased STAT1 phosphorylation via K63-linked ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1). Furthermore, Lysm-CrePellino-1 fl/fl mice showed enhancement of tumor growth via regulating M2c polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. These results demonstrate that Pellino-1 inhibits IL-10-induced M2c macrophage polarization via K63-linked ubiquitination of IRAK1 and activation of STAT1, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in vivo.
Project description:Macrophages derived from monocyte precursors undergo specific polarization processes which are influenced by the local tissue environment: classically activated (M1) macrophages, with a pro-inflammatory activity and a role of effector cells in Th1 cellular immune responses, and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, with anti-inflammatory functions and involved in immunosuppression and tissue repair. At least three different subsets of M2 macrophages, namely, M2a, M2b, and M2c, are characterized in the literature based on their eliciting signals. The activation and polarization of macrophages is achieved through many, often intertwined, signaling pathways. To describe the logical relationships among the genes involved in macrophage polarization, we used a computational modeling methodology, namely, logical (Boolean) modeling of gene regulation. We integrated experimental data and knowledge available in the literature to construct a logical network model for the gene regulation driving macrophage polarization to the M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c phenotypes. Using the software GINsim and BoolNet, we analyzed the network dynamics under different conditions and perturbations to understand how they affect cell polarization. Dynamic simulations of the network model, enacting the most relevant biological conditions, showed coherence with the observed behavior of in vivo macrophages. The model could correctly reproduce the polarization toward the four main phenotypes as well as to several hybrid phenotypes, which are known to be experimentally associated to physiological and pathological conditions. We surmise that shifts among different phenotypes in the model mimic the hypothetical continuum of macrophage polarization, with M1 and M2 being the extremes of an uninterrupted sequence of states. Furthermore, model simulations suggest that anti-inflammatory macrophages are resilient to shift back to the pro-inflammatory phenotype.
Project description:: We previously reported the delivery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) embedded in hyaluronic acid-based (HA)-hydrogels protects renal function during acute kidney injury (AKI) and promotes angiogenesis. We attempted to further ameliorate renal dysfunction by coembedding EPCs with renal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), while examining their paracrine influence on cytokine/chemokine release and proinflammatory macrophages. A live/dead assay determined whether EPC-MSC coculturing improved viability during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, and HA-hydrogel-embedded delivery of cells to LPS-induced AKI mice was assessed for effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), circulating cytokines/chemokines, serum creatinine, proteinuria, and angiogenesis (femoral ligation). Cytokine/chemokine release from embedded stem cells was examined, including effects on macrophage polarization and release of proinflammatory molecules. EPC-MSC coculturing improved stem cell viability during LPS exposure, an effect augmented by MSC hypoxic preconditioning. The delivery of coembedded EPCs with hypoxic preconditioned MSCs to AKI mice demonstrated additive improvement (compared with EPC delivery alone) in medullary RBF and proteinuria, with comparable effects on serum creatinine, MAP, and angiogenesis. Exposure of proinflammatory M1 macrophages to EPC-MSC conditioned medium changed their polarization to anti-inflammatory M2. Incubation of coembedded EPCs-MSCs with macrophages altered their release of cytokines/chemokines, including enhanced release of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. EPC-MSC delivery to endotoxemic mice elevated the levels of circulating M2 macrophages and reduced the circulating cytokines/chemokines. In conclusion, coembedding EPCs-MSCs improved their resistance to stress, impelled macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 while altering their cytokine/chemokines release, reduced circulating cytokines/chemokines, and improved renal and vascular function when MSCs were hypoxically preconditioned.This report provides insight into a new therapeutic approach for treatment of sepsis and provides a new and improved strategy using hydrogels for the delivery of stem cells to treat sepsis and, potentially, other injuries and/or diseases. The delivery of two different stem cell lines (endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells; delivered alone and together) embedded in a protective bioengineered scaffolding (hydrogel) offers many therapeutic benefits for the treatment of sepsis. This study shows how hydrogel-delivered stem cells elicit their effects and how hydrogel embedding enhances the therapeutic efficacy of delivered stem cells. Hydrogel-delivered stem cells influence the components of the overactive immune system during sepsis and work to counterbalance the release of many proinflammatory and prodamage substances from immune cells, thereby improving the associated vascular and kidney damage.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) can promote healing and inhibit inflammation/immune response in local tissues, while the detailed mechanism remains unknown.<h4>Results</h4>ADMSCs and peritoneal macrophages were collected from C57BL/6 mice. The culture medium (CM) from ADMSCs (24 hours cultured) was collected. The CM was added to the M<i>?</i> culture system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or IL-4/IL-13 or blank. And those M<i>?</i> cultures without adding CM were used as controls. A series of classification markers and signaling pathways for M<i>?</i> polarization were detected by using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. Furthermore, the cell viability of all the groups was detected by CCK8 assay. After CM induction in different groups, M1-M<i>?</i> markers and M2a-M<i>?</i> were decreased; however, M2b/c-M<i>?</i> markers increased. STAT3/SOCS3 and STAT6/IRF4 were suppressed in all 3 CM-treated groups. Moreover, the cell viability of all 3 groups which were induced by CM significantly increased as compared to that of the control groups without adding CM.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ADMSCs can induce nonactivated macrophage and M1-M<i>?</i> into M2b/c-M<i>?</i>. Downregulation of the STAT3 and STAT6 pathway may involve in this process. This data shows that the anti-inflammatory role of ADMSC in local tissues may be partly due to their effect on M<i>?</i> to M2b/c-M<i>?</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population which in response to the cytokine milieu polarize in either classically activated macrophages (M1) or alternatively activated macrophages (M2). This plasticity makes macrophages essential in regulating inflammation, immune response and tissue remodeling and a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to describe the transcriptomic profiles of differently polarized human macrophages to generate new hypotheses on the biological function of the different macrophage subtypes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Polarization of circulating monocytes/macrophages of blood donors was induced in vitro by IFN-? and LPS (M1), by IL-4 (M2a), and by IL-10 (M2c). Unstimulated cells (RM) served as time controls. Gene expression profile of M1, M2a, M2c and RM was assessed at 6, 12 and 24h after polarization with Whole Human Genome Agilent Microarray technique. When compared to RM, M1 significantly upregulated pathways involved in immunity and inflammation, whereas M2a did the opposite. Conversely, decreased and increased expression of mitochondrial metabolism, consistent with insulin resistant and insulin sensitive patterns, was seen in M1 and M2a, respectively. The time sequence in the expression of some pathways appeared to have some specific bearing on M1 function. Finally, canonical and non-canonical Wnt genes and gene groups, promoting inflammation and tissue remodeling, were upregulated in M2a compared to RM. CONCLUSION:Our data in in vitro polarized human macrophages: 1. confirm and extend known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory gene expression patterns; 2. demonstrate changes in mitochondrial metabolism associated to insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in M1 and M2a, respectively; 3. highlight the potential relevance of gene expression timing in M1 function; 4. unveil enhanced expression of Wnt pathways in M2a suggesting a potential dual (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) role of M2a in inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c phenotypes, and gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray analysis and were used for bioinformatics examination. The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were additionally evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated with leucine-rich repeat protein 3-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, GBP5 protein expression was detected in cultured M1 macrophages by Western blot analysis. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype. Overall design: CD14+ monocytes from human PBMC were cultured with GM-CSF(10 ng mL−1) or M-CSF (50 ng mL−1) for seven days to differentiate into macrophages.To induce macrophage subtypes [M1, M1(-), M2a, M2b, and M2c], the macrophages were further stimulated for 24 h with LPS (10 ng mL−1) + IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IL-4 (10 ng mL−1), IL-1β (10 ng mL−1), and IL-10 (10 ng mL−1). Control macrophages (M0) were prepared by incubating for 24 h without additional factors.Two independent experiments were performed using different donors.
Project description:Macrophage activation is the main immunological process occurring during the development of several diseases, and the heterogeneity of macrophage activation or differentiation has been suggested to be involved in disease progression. In the present study, we attempted to identify molecules specifically expressed on human classically activated macrophages (M1) to investigate the significance of the M1-like phenotype in human diseases. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1, M2a, M2b, and M2c phenotypes, and gene expression profiles were analyzed by cDNA microarray analysis and were used for bioinformatics examination. The gene expression profiles of murine macrophages were additionally evaluated. We identified guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), which is associated with leucine-rich repeat protein 3-mediated inflammasome assembly in the M1 macrophages of both humans and mice. Notably, GBP5 protein expression was detected in cultured M1 macrophages by Western blot analysis. GBP5 is a useful candidate marker of the M1 phenotype. CD14+ monocytes from human PBMC were cultured with GM-CSF(10 ng mL−1) or M-CSF (50 ng mL−1) for seven days to differentiate into macrophages.To induce macrophage subtypes [M1, M1(-), M2a, M2b, and M2c], the macrophages were further stimulated for 24 h with LPS (10 ng mL−1) + IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IFN-γ (50 ng mL−1), IL-4 (10 ng mL−1), IL-1β (10 ng mL−1), and IL-10 (10 ng mL−1). Control macrophages (M0) were prepared by incubating for 24 h without additional factors.Two independent experiments were performed using different donors.
Project description:Progressive pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction is recognized as a fundamental pathology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in protection of islets function in T2D individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is widely accepted that ?-cell dysfunction is closely related to improper accumulation of macrophages in the islets, and a series of reports suggest that MSCs possess great immunomodulatory properties by which they could elicit macrophages into an anti-inflammatory M2 state. In this study, we induced a T2D mouse model with a combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and then performed human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) infusion to investigate whether the effect of MSCs on islets protection was related to regulation on macrophages in pancreatic islets. hUC-MSCs infusion exerted anti-diabetic effects and significantly promoted islets recovery in T2D mice. Interestingly, pancreatic inflammation was remarkably suppressed, and local M1 macrophages were directed toward an anti-inflammatory M2-like state after hUC-MSC infusion. In vitro study also proved that hUC-MSCs inhibited the activation of the M1 phenotype and induced the generation of the M2 phenotype in isolated mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and in THP-1 cells. Further analysis showed that M1-stimulated hUC-MSCs increased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, blocking which by small interfering RNA (siRNA) largely abrogated the hUC-MSCs effects on macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in dampened restoration of ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis in T2D mice. In addition, MCP-1 was found to work in accordance with IL-6 in directing macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 state. These data may provide new clues for searching for the target of ?-cell protection. Furthermore, hUC-MSCs may be a superior alternative in treating T2D for their macrophage polarization effects.
Project description:Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a thermally dimorphic fungus pathogen that causes fatal infection. Alveolar macrophages are innate immune cells that have critical roles in protection against pulmonary fungal pathogens and the macrophage polarization state has the potential to be a deciding factor in disease progression or resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate mouse alveolar macrophage polarization states during P. marneffei infection.We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Griess, arginase activity to evaluate the phenotypic markers of alveolar macrophages from BALB/C mice infected with P. marneffei. We then treated alveolar macrophages from infected mice with P. marneffei cytoplasmic yeast antigen (CYA) and investigated alveolar macrophage phenotypic markers in order to identify macrophage polarization in response to P. marneffei antigens. Our results showed: i) P. marneffei infection significantly enhanced the expression of classically activated macrophage (M1)-phenotypic markers (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] mRNA, nitric oxide [NO], interleukin-12 [IL-12], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-?]) and alternatively activated macrophage (M2a)-phenotypic markers (arginase1 [Arg1] mRNA, urea) during the second week post-infection. This significantly decreased during the fourth week post-infection. ii) During P. marneffei infection, CYA stimulation also significantly enhanced the expression of M1 and M2a-phenotypic markers, consistent with the results for P. marneffei infection and CYA stimulation preferentially induced M1 subtype.The data from the current study demonstrated that alveolar macrophage M1/M2a subtypes were present in host defense against acute P. marneffei infection and that CYA could mimic P. marneffei to induce a host immune response with enhanced M1 subtype. This could be useful for investigating the enhancement of host anti-P. marneffei immune responses and to provide novel ideas for prevention of P. marneffei-infection.