Therapeutic effects of favipiravir against severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in a lethal mouse model: Dose-efficacy studies upon oral administration.
ABSTRACT: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), is a viral hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate. Favipiravir was reported to be effective in the treatment of SFTSV infection in vivo in type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice at treatment dosages of both 60 mg/kg/day and 300 mg/kg/day for a duration of 5 days. In this study, the efficacy of favipiravir at dosages of 120 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day against SFTSV infection in an IFNAR-/- mouse infection model was investigated. IFNAR-/- mice were subcutaneously infected with SFTSV at a 1.0 × 10(6) 50% tissue culture infectious dose followed by twice daily administration of favipiravir, comprising a total dose of either 120 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day. The treatment was initiated either immediately post infection or at predesignated time points post infection. Neutralizing antibodies in the convalescent-phase mouse sera was examined by the pseudotyped VSV system. All mice treated with favipiravir at dosages of 120 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day survived when the treatment was initiated at no later than 4 days post infection. A decrease in body weight of mice was observed when the treatment was initiated at 3-4 days post infection. Furthermore, all control mice died. The body weight of mice did not decrease when treatment with favipiravir was initiated immediately post infection at dosages of 120 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in the convalescent-phase mouse sera. Similar to the literature-reported peritoneal administration of favipiravir at 300 mg/kg/day, the oral administration of favipiravir at dosages of 120 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day to IFNAR-/- mice infected with SFTSV was effective.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a bunyavirus infection with high mortality. Favipiravir has shown effectiveness in preventing and treating SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection in animal models. A multicenter non-randomized, uncontrolled single arm trial was conducted to collect data on the safety and the effectiveness of favipiravir in treatment of SFTS patients. All participants received favipiravir orally (first-day loading dose of 1800 mg twice a day followed by 800 mg twice a day for 7-14 days in total). SFTSV RT-PCR and biochemistry tests were performed at designated time points. Outcomes were 28-day mortality, clinical improvement, viral load evolution, and adverse events (AEs). Twenty-six patients were enrolled, of whom 23 were analyzed. Four of these 23 patients died of multi-organ failure within one week (28-day mortality rate: 17.3%). Oral favipiravir was well tolerated in the surviving patients. AEs (abnormal hepatic function and insomnia) occurred in about 20% of the patients. Clinical symptoms improved in all patients who survived from a median of day 2 to day10. SFTSV RNA levels in the patients who died were significantly higher than those in the survivors (p = 0.0029). No viral genomes were detectable in the surviving patients a median of 8 days after favipiravir administration. The 28-day mortality rate in this study was lower than those of the previous studies in Japan. The high frequency of hepatic dysfunction as an AE was observed. However, it was unclear whether this was merely a side effect of favipiravir, because liver disorders are commonly seen in SFTS patients. The results of this trial support the effectiveness of favipiravir for patients with SFTS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza B virus infections remain insufficiently studied and antiviral management in immunocompromised patients is not well defined. The treatment regimens for these high-risk patients, which have elevated risk of severe disease-associated complications, require optimization and can be partly addressed via animal models. METHODS:We examined the efficacy of monotherapy with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor T-705 (favipiravir) in protecting genetically modified, permanently immunocompromised BALB scid mice against lethal infection with B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08) virus. Beginning at 24 h post-infection, BALB scid mice received oral T-705 twice daily (10, 50 or 250 mg/kg/day) for 5 or 10 days. RESULTS:T-705 had a dose-dependent effect on survival after BR/08 challenge, resulting in 100% protection at the highest dosages. With the 5 day regimens, dosages of 50 or 250 mg/kg/day reduced the peak lung viral titres within the treatment window, but could not efficiently clear the virus after completion of treatment. With the 10 day regimens, dosages of 50 or 250 mg/kg/day significantly suppressed virus replication in the lungs, particularly at 45 days post-infection, limiting viral spread and pulmonary pathology. No T-705 regimen decreased virus growth in the nasal turbinates of mice, which potentially contributed to the viral dynamics in the lungs. The susceptibility of influenza B viruses isolated from T-705-treated mice remained comparable to that of viruses from untreated control animals. CONCLUSIONS:T-705 treatment is efficacious against lethal challenge with BR/08 virus in immunocompromised mice. The antiviral benefit was greatest when longer T-705 treatment was combined with higher dosages.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging zoonotic disease, which causes high fever, thrombocytopenia, and death in humans and animals in East Asian countries. The pathogenicity of SFTS virus (SFTSV) remains unclear. We intraperitoneally infected three groups of mice: wild-type (WT), mice treated with blocking anti-type I interferon (IFN)-? receptor antibody (IFNAR Ab), and IFNAR knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice, with four doses of SFTSV (KH1, 5?×?105 to 5?×?102 FAID50). The WT mice survived all SFTSV infective doses. The IFNAR Ab mice died within 7 days post-infection (dpi) with all doses of SFTSV except that the mice were infected with 5?×?102 FAID50 SFTSV. The IFNAR-/- mice died after infection with all doses of SFTSV within four dpi. No SFTSV infection caused hyperthermia in any mice, whereas all the dead mice showed hypothermia and weight loss. In the WT mice, SFTSV RNA was detected in the eyes, oral swabs, urine, and feces at 5 dpi. Similar patterns were observed in the IFNAR Ab and IFNAR-/- mice after 3 dpi, but not in feces. The IFNAR Ab mice showed viral shedding until 7 dpi. The SFTSV RNA loads were higher in organs of the IFNAR-/- mice compared to the other groups. Histopathologically, coagulation necrosis and mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and white pulp atrophy in the spleen were seen as the main lesions in the IFN signaling lacking mice. Immunohistochemically, SFTSV antigens were mainly detected in the marginal zone of the white pulp of the spleen in all groups of mice, but more viral antigens were observed in the spleen of the IFNAR-/- mice. Collectively, the IFN signaling-deficient mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV and more viral burden could be demonstrated in various excreta and organs of the mice when IFN signaling was inhibited.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> In addition to supportive therapy, antiviral therapy is an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). <b>Objective:</b> To compare the efficacy and safety of favipiravir and umifenovir (Arbidol) to treat COVID-19 patients. <b>Methods:</b> We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial involving adult patients with COVID-19. Enrolled patients with initial symptoms within 12 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive conventional therapy plus Arbidol (200 mg*3/day) or favipiravir (1600 mg*2/first day followed by 600 mg*2/day) for 7 days. The primary outcome was the clinical recovery rate at day 7 of drug administration (relief for pyrexia and cough, respiratory frequency ≤24 times/min; oxygen saturation ≥98%). Latency to relief for pyrexia and cough and the rate of auxiliary oxygen therapy (AOT) or noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NMV)/mechanical ventilation (MV) were the secondary outcomes. Safety data were collected for 17 days. <b>Results:</b> A total of 240 enrolled COVID-19 patients underwent randomization; 120 patients were assigned to receive favipiravir (116 assessed), and 120 patients were assigned to receive Arbidol (120 assessed). The clinical recovery rate at day 7 of drug administration did not significantly differ between the favipiravir group (71/116) and Arbidol group (62/120) (<i>p</i> = 0.1396, difference in recovery rate: 0.0954; 95% CI: -0.0305∼0.2213). Favipiravir contributed to relief for both pyrexia (difference: 1.70 days, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) and cough (difference: 1.75 days, <i>p</i> < 0.0001). No difference was observed in the AOT or NMV/MV rate (both <i>p</i> > 0.05). The most frequently observed favipiravir-associated adverse event was increased serum uric acid (16/116, OR: 5.52, <i>p</i> = 0.0014). <b>Conclusion:</b> Among patients with COVID-19, favipiravir, compared to Arbidol, did not significantly improve the clinical recovery rate at day 7. Favipiravir significantly improved the latency to relieve pyrexia and cough. Adverse effects caused by favipiravir are mild and manageable.
Project description:Favipiravir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small-animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large-animal models. Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n = 17) or Mauritian (n = 13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID). A pharmacokinetic model was developed to predict the plasma concentrations obtained with different dosing regimens, and the model predictions were compared to the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of favipiravir against several viruses. Favipiravir pharmacokinetics were described by a model accounting for concentration-dependent aldehyde oxidase inhibition. The enzyme-dependent elimination rate increased over time and was higher in NHPs of Mauritian origin than in those of Chinese origin. Maintenance doses of 100 and 120 mg/kg BID in Chinese and Mauritian NHPs, respectively, are predicted to achieve median trough plasma free concentrations above the EC50 for Lassa and Marburg viruses until day 7. For Ebola virus, higher doses are required. After day 7, a 20% dose increase is needed to compensate for the increase in drug clearance over time. These results will help rationalize the choice of dosing regimens in future studies evaluating the antiviral effect of favipiravir in NHPs and support its development against a variety of HF viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite repeated outbreaks, in particular the devastating 2014-2016 epidemic, there is no effective treatment validated for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Among the drug candidates is the broad-spectrum polymerase inhibitor favipiravir, which showed a good tolerance profile in patients with EVD (JIKI trial) but did not demonstrate a strong antiviral efficacy. In order to gain new insights into the antiviral efficacy of favipiravir and improve preparedness and public health management of future outbreaks, we assess the efficacy achieved by ascending doses of favipiravir in Ebola-virus-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs). METHODS AND FINDINGS:A total of 26 animals (Macaca fascicularis) were challenged intramuscularly at day 0 with 1,000 focus-forming units of Ebola virus Gabon 2001 strain and followed for 21 days (study termination). This included 13 animals left untreated and 13 treated with doses of 100, 150, and 180 mg/kg (N = 3, 5, and 5, respectively) favipiravir administered intravenously twice a day for 14 days, starting 2 days before infection. All animals left untreated or treated with 100 mg/kg died within 10 days post-infection, while animals receiving 150 and 180 mg/kg had extended survival (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively, compared to untreated animals), leading to a survival rate of 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5), respectively, at day 21. Favipiravir inhibited viral replication (molecular and infectious viral loads) in a drug-concentration-dependent manner (P values < 0.001), and genomic deep sequencing analyses showed an increase in virus mutagenesis over time. These results allowed us to identify that plasma trough favipiravir concentrations greater than 70-80 ?g/ml were associated with reduced viral loads, lower virus infectivity, and extended survival. These levels are higher than those found in the JIKI trial, where patients had median trough drug concentrations equal to 46 and 26 ?g/ml at day 2 and day 4 post-treatment, respectively, and suggest that the dosing regimen in the JIKI trial was suboptimal. The environment of a biosafety level 4 laboratory introduces a number of limitations, in particular the difficulty of conducting blind studies and performing detailed pharmacological assessments. Further, the extrapolation of the results to patients with EVD is limited by the fact that the model is fully lethal and that treatment initiation in patients with EVD is most often initiated several days after infection, when symptoms and high levels of viral replication are already present. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that favipiravir may be an effective antiviral drug against Ebola virus that relies on RNA chain termination and possibly error catastrophe. These results, together with previous data collected on tolerance and pharmacokinetics in both NHPs and humans, support a potential role for high doses of favipiravir for future human interventions.
Project description:Favipiravir (T-705 [6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide]) and oseltamivir were combined to treat influenza virus A/NWS/33 (H1N1), A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2), and A/Duck/MN/1525/81 (H5N1) infections. T-705 alone inhibited viruses in cell culture at 1.4 to 4.3 microM. Oseltamivir inhibited these three viruses in cells at 3.7, 0.02, and 0.16 microM and in neuraminidase assays at 0.94, 0.46, and 2.31 nM, respectively. Oral treatments were given twice daily to mice for 5 to 7 days starting, generally, 24 h after infection. Survival resulting from 5 days of oseltamivir treatment (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/day) was significantly better in combination with 20 mg/kg of body weight/day of T-705 against the H1N1 infection. Treatment of the H3N2 infection required 50 mg/kg/day of oseltamivir for 7 days to achieve 60% protection; 25 mg/kg/day was ineffective. T-705 was >or=70% protective at 50 to 100 mg/kg/day but inactive at 25 mg/kg/day. The combination of inhibitors (25 mg/kg/day each) increased survival to 90%. The H5N1 infection was not benefited by treatment with oseltamivir (<or=100 mg/kg/day for 7 days). T-705 was 30 to 70% protective at 25 to 100 mg/kg/day. Survival improved slightly with combination treatments. Increased activity was seen against H5N1 infection by starting treatments 2 h before infection. Oseltamivir was ineffective at <or=40 mg/kg/day. T-705 was 100% protective at 40 and 80 mg/kg/day and inactive at 20 mg/kg/day. Combining ineffective doses (20 mg/kg/day of T-705 and 10 to 40 mg/kg/day of oseltamivir) afforded 60 to 80% protection and improved body weights during infection. Thus, synergistic responses were achieved with low doses of T-705 combined with oseltamivir. These compounds may be viable candidates for combination treatment of human influenza infections.
Project description:Favipiravir is considered a potential treatment for COVID-19 due its efficacy against different viral infections. We aimed to explore the safety and efficacy of favipiravir in treatment of COVID-19 mild and moderate cases. It was randomized-controlled open-label interventional phase 3 clinical trial [NCT04349241]. 100 patients were recruited from 18th April till 18th May. 50 patients received favipiravir 3200 mg at day 1 followed by 600 mg twice (day 2-day 10). 50 patients received hydroxychloroquine 800 mg at day 1 followed by 200 mg twice (day 2-10) and oral oseltamivir 75 mg/12 h/day for 10 days. Patients were enrolled from Ain Shams University Hospital and Assiut University Hospital. Both arms were comparable as regards demographic characteristics and comorbidities. The average onset of SARS-CoV-2 PCR negativity was 8.1 and 8.3 days in HCQ-arm and favipiravir-arm respectively. 55.1% of those on HCQ-arm turned PCR negative at/or before 7th day from diagnosis compared to 48% in favipiravir-arm (p = 0.7). 4 patients in FVP arm developed transient transaminitis on the other hand heartburn and nausea were reported in about 20 patients in HCQ-arm. Only one patient in HCQ-arm died after developing acute myocarditis resulted in acute heart failure. Favipiravir is a safe effective alternative for hydroxychloroquine in mild or moderate COVID-19 infected patients.
Project description:We studied the therapeutic potential of favipiravir (T-705) for Lassa fever, both alone and in combination with ribavirin. Favipiravir suppressed Lassa virus replication in cell culture by 5 log10 units. In a novel lethal mouse model, it lowered the viremia level and the virus load in organs and normalized levels of cell-damage markers. Treatment with 300 mg/kg per day, commenced 4 days after infection, when the viremia level had reached 4 log10 virus particles/mL, rescued 100% of Lassa virus-infected mice. We found a synergistic interaction between favipiravir and ribavirin in vitro and an increased survival rate and extended survival time when combining suboptimal doses in vivo.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) endemic to China, South Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Here we characterize the pathogenesis and natural history of disease in IFNAR-/- mice challenged with the HB29 strain of SFTS virus (SFTSV) and demonstrate hallmark features of VHF such as vascular leak and high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. Treatment with FX06, a natural plasmin digest product of fibrin in clinical development as a treatment for vascular leak, reduced vascular permeability associated with SFTSV infection but did not significantly improve survival outcome. Further studies are needed to assess the role of vascular compromise in the SFTS disease process modeled in IFNAR-/- mice.