Factors Associated With Progression of Lung Function Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Individuals.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:HIV is an independent risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; however, baseline risk factors for lung function decline remain largely unknown in this population. METHODS:HIV-infected participants in the Pittsburgh Lung HIV Cohort with at least 3 pulmonary function measurements between 2007 and 2016 were included. Pulmonary function testing including postbronchodilator (BD) spirometry and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was performed every 18 months. We used a mixed-effect linear model to evaluate factors associated with pulmonary function testing and DLco decline and logistic regression models to evaluate factors associated with rapid FEV1 decline (defined as >80 mL per year) and any DLco decline. RESULTS:Two hundred eighty-five HIV-infected participants were included. Median baseline CD4 cell count was 521 cells per micro liter, 61.9% had an undetectable HIV viral load at baseline, and 78.5% were receiving ART. Approximately 20% of participants met Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria for a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at baseline. Older age and baseline GOLD stage 1 compared with stage 0 were associated with faster decline in post-BD FEV1%, whereas female sex was associated with slower decline. Similarly, female sex was associated with slower decline in DLco%. HIV-related factors including CD4 cell count, viral load, and ART use were not significantly associated with pulmonary function decline. CONCLUSIONS:Older age, male sex, and higher baseline GOLD stage were associated with more rapid post-BD FEV1% decline in HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, ?1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20?months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31?months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is more prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and is associated with persistent inflammation. Therapies unique to HIV are lacking. We performed a pilot study of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin to determine effects on lung function.Randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial.HIV-infected individuals with abnormal lung function were recruited from an ongoing lung function study. Participants were randomized to 24 weeks of placebo (n?=?11) or rosuvastatin (n?=?11) using an adaptive randomization based on change in peripheral C-reactive protein levels at 30 days of treatment. Forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco)%-predicted were compared to baseline at 24 weeks in the two groups using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The %-predicted change at 24 weeks in pulmonary function variables was compared between groups using simulated randomization tests.The placebo group experienced a significant decline in FEV1%-predicted (P?=?0.027), and no change in DLco%-predicted over 24 weeks. In contrast, FEV1%-predicted remained stable in the rosuvastatin group, and DLco%-predicted increased significantly (P?=?0.027). There was no significant difference in absolute change in either measure between placebo and rosuvastatin groups.In a pilot study, the use of rosuvastatin for 24 weeks appeared to slow worsening of airflow obstruction and to improve DLco in HIV-infected individuals with abnormal lung function, although comparison of absolute changes between the groups did not reach significance. This study is the first to test a therapy for COPD in an HIV-infected population, and large-scale clinical trials are needed.
Project description:The small conducting airways are the major site of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may precede emphysema development.We hypothesized a novel computed tomography (CT) biomarker of small airway disease predicts FEV1 decline.We analyzed 1,508 current and former smokers from COPDGene with linear regression to assess predictors of change in FEV1 (ml/yr) over 5 years. Separate models for subjects without and with airflow obstruction were generated using baseline clinical and physiologic predictors in addition to two novel CT metrics created by parametric response mapping (PRM), a technique pairing inspiratory and expiratory CT images to define emphysema (PRM(emph)) and functional small airways disease (PRM(fSAD)), a measure of nonemphysematous air trapping.Mean (SD) rate of FEV1 decline in ml/yr for GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) 0-4 was as follows: 41.8 (47.7), 53.8 (57.1), 45.6 (61.1), 31.6 (43.6), and 5.1 (35.8), respectively (trend test for grades 1-4; P?<?0.001). In multivariable linear regression, for participants without airflow obstruction, PRM(fSAD) but not PRM(emph) was associated with FEV1 decline (P?<?0.001). In GOLD 1-4 participants, both PRM(fSAD) and PRM(emph) were associated with FEV1 decline (P?<?0.001 and P?=?0.001, respectively). Based on the model, the proportional contribution of the two CT metrics to FEV1 decline, relative to each other, was 87% versus 13% and 68% versus 32% for PRM(fSAD) and PRM(emph) in GOLD 1/2 and 3/4, respectively.CT-assessed functional small airway disease and emphysema are associated with FEV1 decline, but the association with functional small airway disease has greatest importance in mild-to-moderate stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where the rate of FEV1 decline is the greatest. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00608764).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung-function decline is one of the possible mechanisms leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS:We analyzed data obtained from two population-based surveys of adults (n = 2026) conducted in the same individuals 5-9 years (y) after their baseline examination in three Latin-American cities. Post BronchoDilator (postBD) FEV1 decline in mL/y, as %predicted/y (%P/y) and % of baseline/y (%B/y) was calculated and the influence of age, gender, BMI, baseline lung function, BD response, exacerbations rate evaluated using multivariate models. RESULTS:Expressed in ml/y, the mean annual postBD FEV1 decline was 27 mL (0.22%P, 1.32%B) in patients with baseline COPD and 36 (0.14%P, 1.36%B) in those without. Faster decline (in mL/y) was associated with higher baseline lung function, with significant response to bronchodilators, older age and smoking at baseline, also in women with chronic cough and phlegm, or ?2 respiratory exacerbations in the previous year, and in men with asthma. CONCLUSIONS:Lung function decline in a population-based cohort did not differ in obstructed and non-obstructed individuals, it was proportional to baseline FEV1, and was higher in smokers, elderly, and women with respiratory symptoms.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common comorbidity in HIV, with prevalence and severity of disease incompletely explained by risk factors such as smoking and age. Unique HIV-associated factors, including microbial translocation, monocyte activation, and endothelial dysfunction, have been described in other comorbidities, but have not been investigated in relation to pulmonary abnormalities in HIV. This study assessed the relationship of these pathologic processes to pulmonary function in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and determined if relationships were unique to HIV.Longitudinal observational study.Total 274 participants completed pulmonary function testing. Markers of inflammation (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF?), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide, sCD14), monocyte activation (sCD163, sCD14, and IL-2 receptor), and endothelial dysfunction (endothelin-1) were measured at baseline. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed, adjusting for pertinent covariates.In HIV-infected individuals, higher IL-6 and endothelin-1 associated with worse forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percentage-predicted, and higher sCD163 associated with worse FEV1/forced vital capacity. IL-6, TNF?, lipopolysaccharide, sCD163, IL-2 receptor, and endothelin-1 associated with diffusing impairment. sCD163 and endothelin-1 interacted with HIV status in relationship to pulmonary function. In HIV-infected individuals only, baseline endothelin-1 was associated with lower FEV1, and sCD163 and endothelin-1 were associated with lower diffusing capacity during follow-up.Circulating markers of HIV-associated humoral abnormalities are associated with airflow obstruction and diffusing impairment and baseline measures of monocyte activation and endothelial dysfunction associate with lower pulmonary function over time in HIV-infected persons. These findings suggest mechanisms of the disproportionate burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in HIV-infected persons.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognosis factors of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with pulmonary involvement, especially multisystem (MS) LCH with pulmonary involvement. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the demographic materials, clinical features and treatment outcomes of 119 adult LCH patients with pulmonary involvement at our center from January 1990 to November 2019. RESULTS:Among 119 patients, 13 (10.9%) had single-system (SS) LCH, and 106 (89.1%) had MS-LCH with pulmonary involvement. SS-LCH patients had higher smoking rate (84.6% vs 52.8%, P?=?0.026) and smoking index (300 vs 200, P?=?0.019) than MS-LCH patients. The percentage of respiratory symptoms of SS-LCH patients was higher than MS-LCH patients (84.6% vs 53.8%, P?=?0.034). Pulmonary function was impaired in 83.8% of the patients, and DLCO was the parameter most frequently impaired, accounting for 81.1%. The median DLCO was 65.1% predicted. Patients with pneumothorax had significantly worse DLCO (P?=?0.022), FEV1 (P?=?0.000) and FEV1/FVC (P?=?0.000) than those without pneumothorax. During the follow-up, 72.4% of the patients had stable pulmonary function, and 13.8% showed improvements after chemotherapy. The estimated 3-year OS and EFS were 89.7 and 58.3%, respectively. Patients with a baseline FEV1???55% predicted had worse OS. A history of pneumothorax indicated worse EFS and cytarabine based therapy predicted better EFS. CONCLUSIONS:An FEV1???55% predicted and a history of pneumothorax at diagnosis indicated a poor prognosis. Cytarabine based regimen may arrest the decline in pulmonary function in LCH patients with pulmonary involvement and improve EFS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for patients with inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage III. With a median OS beyond 30?months, adequate pulmonary function (PF) is essential to ensure acceptable quality of life after treatment. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) are the most widely used parameters to assess lung function. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dose-volume effects of accelerated high-dose radiation on PF. METHODS:A total of 72 patients were eligible for the current analysis. After induction chemotherapy, all patients received dose-differentiated accelerated radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-DART). PF tests were performed six weeks, three and six months after the end of radiotherapy. RESULTS:The median total dose to the tumor was 73.8 Gy (1.8 Gy bid) with a size dependent range between 61.2 and 90?Gy. In the whole cohort, 321 pulmonary function tests were performed. At six months, the median FEV1 relative to baseline was 0.95 (range: 0.56-1.36), and the relative median DLCO decreased to 0.98 (range: 0.64-1.50). The correlation between V20total lung and FEV1 decline was statistically significant (P = 0.023). A total of 13 of 34 (38%) COPD patients had a 4%-21% FEV1 decrease. CONCLUSION:Patients with a V20total lung ?<?21% are at a low risk for PF decrease after high dose irradiation treatment. Although overall short term FEV1 and DLCO differ only moderately from baseline these changes may be clinically important, especially in patients with COPD. KEY POINTS:Significant findings: Pulmonary function after high dose irradiation decreases only moderately. FEV1 and DLCO decrease depend on V20total lung . Small differences in lung function may be clinically important for COPD patients. KPS predicts minimal clinically important differences (MCID). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS:This study shows that high-dose irradiation delivered with intensity-modulated techniques does not impair short-term lung function even in patients with compromised respiratory capacity before treatment. This is a pre-requisite for adequate quality of life after thoraco-oncological therapy.
Project description:Systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) is the leading cause of death in SSc. In this study, we aimed to describe the baseline severity and evolution of forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in patients with SSc-ILD and to assess the baseline clinical, biological and high-resolution CT scan (HRCT) predictors of this evolution. Baseline and serial FVC and DLCO were collected in 75 SSc-ILD patients followed during 6.4±4.2 years (n = 557 individual data). FVC and DLCO evolution was modelled using a linear mixed model with random effect. During follow-up, FVC was stable while DLCO significantly decreased (-1.5±0.3%/year (p<0.0001). Baseline NYHA functional class III/IV, extensive SSc-ILD on HRCT and DLCO<80% were associated with a lower baseline FVC. Absence of digital ulcers extensive SSc-ILD, and FVC<80% and were associated with a lower baseline DLCO. Presence or history of digital ulcers and presence of pulmonary hypertension at baseline or during follow-up were associated with a faster decline of DLCO overtime. Neither age, gender, subtype of SSc nor specificity of autoantibodies were associated with baseline severity or outcome of lung function tests. In this SSc-ILD population, FVC was therefore stable while DLCO significantly declined over time. ILD extension was associated with baseline FVC and DLCO but not with their evolution. Presence or history of digital ulcers and pulmonary hypertension were predictors of a faster decline of DLCO over time.
Project description:BACKGROUND:COPD is a common HIV comorbidity, and HIV-infected individuals have a higher incidence and earlier onset of COPD compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. While the pathogenesis of HIV-associated COPD is largely unknown, chronic inflammation may contribute. Four pneumoproteins known to be markers of lung injury and inflammation have been associated with COPD in HIV-uninfected individuals: PARC/CCL-18, SP-D, CC-16, and sRAGE. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether these pneumoproteins are also associated with pulmonary function and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS:Associations between plasma pneumoprotein levels and pulmonary function were determined in a cross-sectional study of otherwise healthy HIV-infected individuals enrolled between September 2016 and June 2017. Covariates included HIV-associated (antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count, and viral load) and COPD-associated (smoking and BMI) covariates. RESULTS:Among 65 participants, 78.5% were male, 50.8% had undetectable viral load, and 76.9% were ever-smokers. Mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was 0.71, and mean DLco%predicted was 61%. Higher PARC/CCL-18 was associated with lower DLco%predicted and higher CAT score. Higher CC-16 was associated with lower DLco%predicted and lower FVC%predicted. CONCLUSIONS:This exploratory analysis is the first to characterize associations between these four pneumoproteins and pulmonary function in an HIV-infected cohort. Our findings suggest the pathogenesis of HIV-associated COPD may differ from that of non-HIV-associated COPD due to HIV-specific inflammatory changes affecting DLco. PARC/CCL-18 is associated with structural and functional pulmonary abnormalities and may be an important COPD biomarker candidate in HIV infection. Our study is a preliminary step toward finding clinically relevant COPD biomarkers in high-risk populations.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Data on the change in diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over time are limited. We aimed to examine change in DLCO (?DLCO) over a 9-year period and its predictors.<h4>Methods</h4>A Norwegian community sample comprising 1,152 subjects aged 18-73 years was examined in 1987 and 1988. Of the 1,109 subjects still alive, 830 (75%) were re-examined in 1996/97. DLCO was measured with the single breath-holding technique. Covariables recorded at baseline included sex, age, height, weight, smoking status, pack years, occupational exposure, educational level, and spirometry. Generalized estimating equations analyses were performed to examine relations between ?DLCO and the covariables.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, mean [standard deviation (SD)] DLCO was 10.8 (2.4) and 7.8 (1.6) mmol·min(-1)·kPa(-1) in men and women, respectively. Mean (SD) ?DLCO was -0.24 (1.31) mmol·min(-1)·kPa(-1). ?DLCO was negatively related to baseline age, DLCO, current smoking, and pack years, and positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and weight. Sex, occupational exposure, and educational level were not related to ?DLCO.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a community sample, more rapid decline in DLCO during 9 years of observation time was related to higher age, baseline current smoking, more pack years, larger weight, and lower FEV1.