Age-related trends in cardiometabolic disease among adults with cerebral palsy.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To examine the longitudinal trends of cardiometabolic diseases in a large sample of adults with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD:The Optum Clinformatics Data Mart is a de-identified nationwide claims database of beneficiaries from a single private payer. Beneficiaries were included if they had an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for a diagnosis of CP. Adults with at least 3 years of continuous enrollment on a single plan between 2002 and 2009 were included in the final analyses (n=2659). We examined the longitudinal trends of incident diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cardiac dysrhythmias, and atherosclerosis, stratified by age categories: 18 to 39 years, 40 to 59 years, and 60 years and over. Kaplan-Meier product-limit survival curves were compared across age categories for each of the cardiometabolic outcomes, and a Cox proportional hazards regression was run to determine adjusted hazard ratios. RESULTS:The cumulative incidence of each of the cardiometabolic diseases ranged from 6.0% for atherosclerosis to 34.4% for hypercholesterolemia at 3 years and over. Risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models revealed that age was a robust predictor of survival for each outcome, with higher hazard ratio ranges in middle age (hazard ratio 1.41-2.72) and older adults (hazard ratio 2.20-5.93) compared with young adults. INTERPRETATION:Adults with CP have high rates of cardiometabolic diseases; and disease-free survival shortens significantly with higher ages. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:Adults with cerebral palsy have high rates of cardiometabolic diseases. Disease-free survival of all cardiometabolic diseases shortens significantly with higher ages. The highest rates were for hypercholesterolemia and hypertension.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Cerebral palsy (CP) is considered a pediatric condition despite most individuals with CP living into adulthood. Thus, there is a lack of evidence in adults with CP, which includes a paucity of research examining mental health in this population.<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the risk of depression and anxiety in adults with CP compared with an age-, sex-, and practice-matched reference group of adults without CP, using primary care data.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Retrospective longitudinal cohort study set in UK primary care. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses adjusted for chronic conditions and visits to their physician. The study period ran from January 1987 to November 2015. Data of entry into the study ranged from January 1987 to September 2015. Data for 1705 adults 18 years or older with CP and 5115 matched adults without CP were extracted. Cerebral palsy was identified using diagnostic codes, and each person with CP was compared with 3 age-, sex-, and practice-matched controls.<h4>Exposures</h4>Diagnosis of CP, with a second analysis accounting for comorbidity of intellectual disability (ID).<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Time to diagnosis for depression or anxiety following the date of entry into the study in adults with CP (with and without ID) compared with matched controls.<h4>Results</h4>The mean (SD) age of the 1705 patients with CP and the 5115 adults without CP was 33.3 (15.5) years, and 798 participants (46.8%) were women. Individuals with CP had an increased adjusted hazard of depression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.51) and anxiety (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.63) compared with the matched reference group. When we accounted for ID comorbidity, there were 363 adults with CP who also had ID (mean [SD] age, 32.1 [13.2] years; 159 women [47.6%]) and 1342 adults with CP who did not have ID (mean [SD] age, 33.6 [16.1] years; 639 women [43.8%]). Only those individuals with CP and no comorbid ID had a higher risk of incident depression (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.72) and anxiety (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.28-1.87) than their matched controls.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Adults with CP have an increased risk of depression or anxiety. In particular, these results indicate that this association is driven largely by those individuals with CP with no co-occurring ID. Future work is needed in community-based samples to fully elucidate the causal mechanisms driving these associations.
Project description:AIM:To compare mortality rates for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease between adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and the general population. METHOD:A cohort study was conducted using data from adults with CP in England, identified through a primary care data set (the Clinical Practice Research Datalink), with linked data on death registrations from the Office for National Statistics. Cause of death was categorized according to International Classification of Diseases codes. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to compare mortality rates between adults with CP and the general population, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar year. RESULTS:Nine hundred and fifty-eight adults with CP were identified (52.5% males, 47.5% females; median age at start of follow-up 31y [interquartile range 22-43y]) and followed for a total of 7693 person-years. One hundred and forty-two patients (15%) died during follow-up. Adults with CP had an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (SMR: 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20-4.62) and respiratory disease (SMR: 13.59, 95% CI 9.89-18.67), but not from malignant neoplasms (SMR: 1.42, 95% CI 0.83-2.45). INTERPRETATION:We found that adults with CP in England have increased risk of death due to diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems, supporting findings from two studies that compared cause-specific mortality rates between adults with CP in the USA and the general population. Further research is required into primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in people with CP worldwide. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS:Adults with cerebral palsy (CP) in England have 14-fold increased risk of mortality due to diseases of the respiratory system. They have a 3-fold increased risk of mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system. Adults with CP had an increased risk of death due to cerebrovascular disease and ischaemic heart disease. The elevated risk of ischaemic heart disease, however, did not reach statistical significance at the 5% per cent level.
Project description:Background:Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) manifest skeletal fragility problems early in life, are vulnerable to non-trauma fracture (NTFx), and have a high burden of premature mortality. No studies have examined the contribution of NTFx to mortality among adults with CP. The purpose of this study was to determine if NTFx is a risk factor for mortality among adults with CP and if NTFx exacerbates mortality risk compared to adults without CP. Methods:Data from 2011 to 2016 Optum Clinformatics® Data Mart and a random 20% sample Medicare fee-for-service were used for this retrospective cohort study. Diagnosis codes were used to identify adults (18+ years) with and without CP, NTFx, and pre-NTFx comorbidities. Crude mortality rates per 100 person years were estimated. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval [CI]) for mortality, comparing: (1) CP and NTFx (CP + NTFx; n = 1777); (2) CP without NTFx (CP w/o NTFx; n = 12,933); (3) without CP and with NTFx (w/o CP + NTFx; n = 433,560); and (4) without CP and without NTFx (w/o CP w/o NTFx; n = 6.8 M) after adjusting for demographics and pre-NTFx comorbidities. Results:The 3-, 6-, and 12-month crude mortality rates were highest among CP + NTFx (12-month mortality rate = 6.80), followed by w/o CP + NTFx (12-month mortality rate = 4.91), CP w/o NTFx (12-month mortality rate = 2.15), and w/o CP w/o NTFx (12-month mortality rate = 0.49). After adjustments, the mortality rate was elevated for CP + NTFx for all time points compared to CP w/o NTFx (e.g., 12-month HR = 1.61; 95%CI = 1.29-2.01), w/o CP + NTFx (e.g., 12-month HR = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.24-1.80), and w/o CP w/o NTFx (e.g., 12-month HR = 5.33; 95%CI = 4.42-6.44). There were site-specific effects (vertebral column, lower extremities) on 12-month mortality. Conclusions:NTFx is associated with an increase of 12-month mortality risk among adults with CP and compared to adults without CP. Findings suggest that NTFx may be a robust risk factor for mortality among adults with CP.
Project description:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes serious disability. Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are known to be the strongest risk factors of CP. While socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to influence the occurrence of CP, prematurity, and LBW, no studies have investigated this effect in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of CP, prematurity, and LBW in Korea, as well as the effect of SES thereon.Data were obtained from the National Health Information Database from 2007 to 2013; persons with a history of CP, prematurity, and LBW were investigated by year. SES was defined in accordance with income quintiles, birth regions, and coverage classification.The incidence of CP decreased over the last five years, despite increased rates of prematurity and LBW. CP incidence was significantly lower in affluent groups than in the most deprived group, although this difference disappeared after controlling for confounders. The incidence of CP was significantly higher in medical aid beneficiaries, even after controlling for confounders.CP incidence in Korea has decreased over the last five years, despite an increase in high-risk deliveries. Income level had no effect in CP incidence. These results may aid CP management and prevention policies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Second-generation antipsychotics vary in their propensity to cause serious cardiometabolic side effects. In addition, use of two or more antipsychotics (polypharmacy) may lead to additive side effects and has not been shown to be consistently more effective than monotherapy. This study examined the use of academic detailing with audit and feedback to improve antipsychotic prescribing practices, including antipsychotic polypharmacy and utilization of medication with high or low risk of cardiometabolic side effects ("high risk" or "low risk," respectively). METHODS:Four intervention sessions were provided over two years to psychiatric care providers at community mental health centers. Segmented regression within the general estimating equation model framework used Medicaid pharmacy claims to examine prescribing patterns before and after the intervention among all beneficiaries (67,721 person-months) over a five-year period. RESULTS:After the intervention, 10.9% of beneficiaries with antipsychotic claims were on polypharmacy, compared with 13.1% before the invention. Use of high-risk and low-risk antipsychotics did not change. The final adjusted polypharmacy model showed that antipsychotic polypharmacy decreased among young adults and adults ages 40 or older compared with beneficiaries ages 30-39 (?=-.02, p=.04, and ?=-.02, p=.007, respectively). The raw proportion of beneficiaries on high- and low-risk agents did not change, although final adjusted models demonstrated changes in use of high- and low-risk agents by diagnosis and risk group. CONCLUSIONS:Polypharmacy decreased among young and older adults after academic detailing with audit and feedback. Although further research is needed, this low-intensity intervention may help mental health systems reduce antipsychotic polypharmacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23.7 years (1985 to 2017). Three sets of risk factors were assessed at age 50 years, each on a 5-point scale: clinical profile (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, overweight/obesity, family history of cardiometabolic disease), occupational position, and behavioural factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity). The outcomes examined were cardiometabolic disease (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke), cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and mortality. We used multi-state models to examine the role of risk factors in 5 components of the cardiometabolic disease trajectory: from healthy state to first cardiometabolic disease, from first cardiometabolic disease to cardiometabolic multimorbidity, from healthy state to death, from first cardiometabolic disease to death, and from cardiometabolic multimorbidity to death. A total of 2,501 participants developed 1 of the 3 cardiometabolic diseases, 511 developed cardiometabolic multimorbidity, and 1,406 died. When behavioural and clinical risk factors were considered individually, only smoking was associated with all five transitions. In a model containing all 3 risk factor scales, midlife clinical profile was the strongest predictor of first cardiometabolic disease (hazard ratio for the least versus most favourable profile: 3.74; 95% CI: 3.14-4.45) among disease-free participants. Among participants with 1 cardiometabolic disease, adverse midlife socioeconomic (1.54; 95% CI: 1.10-2.15) and behavioural factors (2.00; 95% CI: 1.40-2.85), but not clinical characteristics, were associated with progression to cardiometabolic multimorbidity. Only midlife behavioural factors predicted mortality among participants with cardiometabolic disease (2.12; 95% CI: 1.41-3.18) or cardiometabolic multimorbidity (3.47; 95% CI: 1.81-6.66). A limitation is that the study was not large enough to estimate transitions between each disease and subsequent outcomes and between all possible pairs of diseases. CONCLUSIONS:The importance of specific midlife factors in disease progression, from disease-free state to single disease, multimorbidity, and death, varies depending on the disease stage. While clinical risk factors at age 50 determine the risk of incident cardiometabolic disease in a disease-free population, midlife socioeconomic and behavioural factors are stronger predictors of progression to multimorbidity and mortality in people with cardiometabolic disease.
Project description:(1) Background: Statin is the mainstay of treatment for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiocerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) in adults with hypercholesterolemia. This study aims to investigate the differences in effect on primary composite outcomes (CCVDs and CCVD-related deaths) among five statins in hypercholesterolemic individuals. (2) Methods: This retrospective study is based on the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort. Participants, aged 40 to 69 years at baseline, were categorized into five statin-treated groups (pitavastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin) and two untreated groups (untreated hypercholesterolemia and no hypercholesterolemia). (3) Results: A total of 161,583 individuals was included. The median follow-up period was 8.2 years. Compared with the pitavastatin group, the hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for CCVDs and CCVD-related deaths of the atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, untreated hypercholesterolemia, and no-hypercholesterolemia groups were 0.969 (0.567-1.657), 0.988 (0.533-1.832), 0.862 (0.490-1.518), 0.906 (0.326-2.515), 2.665 (1.556-4.562), and 0.656 (0.388-1.110), respectively, in men and 1.124 (0.632-1.999), 1.119 (0.582-2.152), 1.324 (0.730-2.400), 1.023 (0.330-3.171), 2.650 (1.476-4.758), and 0.921 (0.522-1.625), respectively, in women, after being fully adjusted. (4) Conclusions: No significant differences among the five statins were observed, but there was an increased risk in untreated hypercholesterolemic individuals, for CCVDs and CCVDs-related deaths in individuals with hypercholesterolemia of either sex.
Project description:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a spectrum of non-progressive motor disorders caused by brain injury during fetal or postnatal periods. Current diagnosis of CP mainly relies on neuroimaging and motor assessment, and we aimed to explore novel biomarkers for CP diagnosis in the present study. Blood plasma from five CP children and their healthy twin brothers/sisters was analyzed by gene microarray to screen out differential expressed circular RNAs (circRNAs). Overall design: Five CP children and their healthy twins were selected in our study to exclude interfering factors (Average age: 3.3 ± 1.5, average birth weight: 2.9 ± 0.4 kg). Additional 30 pairs of CP children and healthy controls were recruited for subsequent validation of differential expressed circRNAs (Age: 4.2 ± 1.6; average birth weight: 3.1 ± 0.6 kg). Inclusive criteria: ①undergo no drug therapy; ② with complete clinical information; Exclusive criteria: ① acute/chronic infectious diseases, connective tissue diseases or malignant tumor; ② recent use of immunosuppressant; ③ injury of liver and kidney function.
Project description:Background In the 2000s, adults with HIV had a higher risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) compared with those without HIV. There is uncertainty if this excess risk still exists in the United States given changes in antiretroviral therapies and increased statin use. Methods and Results We compared the risk for ASCVD events between US adults aged ?19 years with and without HIV who had commercial or supplemental Medicare health insurance between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2016. Beneficiaries with HIV (n=82 426) were frequency matched 1:4 on age, sex, and calendar year to those without HIV (n=329 704). Beneficiaries with and without HIV were followed up through December 31, 2016, for ASCVD events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations. Most beneficiaries were aged <55 years (79%) and men (84%). Over a median follow-up of 1.6 years (maximum, 6 years), there were 3287 ASCVD events, 2190 myocardial infarctions, 891 strokes, and 322 lower extremity artery disease events. The rate per 1000 person-years among beneficiaries with and without HIV was 5.53 and 3.49 for ASCVD, respectively, 3.58 and 2.34 for myocardial infarction, respectively, 1.49 and 0.94 for stroke, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.31 for lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for ASCVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and lower extremity artery disease hospitalizations comparing beneficiaries with versus without HIV was 1.29 (1.18-1.40), 1.26 (1.13-1.39), 1.30 (1.11-1.52), and 1.46 (1.11-1.92), respectively. Conclusions Adults with HIV in the United States continue to have a higher ASCVD risk compared with their counterparts without HIV.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurodisability that primarily results in motor impairments and activity limitations, but is often associated with epilepsy and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, behaviour and speech. Most children with CP survive well into adulthood. Adults with CP experience increased risk of age-related chronic conditions such as arthritis, stroke, cardiorespiratory and mental health conditions in addition to the ongoing disabilities experienced from childhood. Therefore, adults with CP often require extensive health services. However, health service use among adults with CP has not been well documented. This mixed method review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise quantitative and qualitative literature examining health service use among adults with CP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The mixed method systematic review will be conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology. A systematic search of MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library from inception to March 2020 will be conducted. Quantitative observational studies, qualitative studies and mixed method studies examining health service use among adults with CP (?18 years) will be included. Outcomes of interest are the proportion of adults using health services frequency of use and experiences of health services from the perspectives of adults with CP, caregivers and health service providers. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-texts, extract data and assess the quality of included studies using JBI instruments. Where possible a pooled analysis and aggregation of findings will be performed for quantitative and qualitative data, respectively, and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)/GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) employed. Quantitative and qualitative findings will be integrated using a triangulation approach at the synthesis stage. A narrative synthesis will be carried out where this is not possible. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval is not required for this review. The findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal and conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42020155?380.