Anthropometric indicators of visceral adiposity as predictors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A review.
ABSTRACT: The objective was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the predictive capacity of indicators of visceral adiposity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The bibliographic research was carried out using the electronic database PubMed, LILACS and SciELO, references of selected articles. Although we found few studies, they have already used several indicators of visceral adiposity as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, Lipid accumulation product, Body Shape Index, Body Roundness Index and most them were good predictors of NAFLD. Thus, the anthropometric indicators may contribute for the diagnosis of NAFLD in a simple, low-cost and non-invasive way, allowing early therapeutic measures to prevent the evolution to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We compared the associations of 3 computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal adiposity indexes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among middle-aged Korean men and women. METHODS:The participants were 1366 men and 2480 women community-dwellers aged 30-64 years. Three abdominal adiposity indexes-visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR)-were calculated from abdominal CT scans. NAFLD was determined by calculating the Liver Fat Score from comorbidities and blood tests. An NAFLD prediction model that included waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal adiposity was designated as the base model, to which VFA, SFA, and VSR were added in turn. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated to quantify the additional predictive value of VFA, SFA, and VSR relative to WC. RESULTS:VFA and VSR were positively associated with NAFLD in both genders. SFA was not significantly associated with NAFLD in men, but it was negatively associated in women. When VFA, SFA, and VSR were added to the WC-based NAFLD prediction model, the AUC improved by 0.013 (p<0.001), 0.001 (p=0.434), and 0.009 (p=0.007) in men and by 0.044 (p<0.001), 0.017 (p<0.001), and 0.046 (p<0.001) in women, respectively. The IDI and NRI were increased the most by VFA in men and VSR in women. CONCLUSIONS:Using CT-based abdominal adiposity indexes in addition to WC may improve the detection of NAFLD. The best predictive indicators were VFA in men and VSR in women.
Project description:Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common early driver of chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether grip strength moderates the association between anthropometric and body composition parameters and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), an indicator of fat deposits in the liver, in children and adolescents with excess of adiposity. A total of 127 adolescents (67% girls) aged between 11 and 17, attending two public schools in Bogotá (Colombia), who had an axiological evaluation of obesity were included in this study. A grip strength test was assessed as an indicator of muscular strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using the 20 m shuttle-run test. Waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (cm³) were included as anthropometric and body composition measures. CAP was determined with a FibroScan® 502 Touch device (Echosens, Paris, France). The anthropometric and body composition parameters including WC, WHtR, fat mass, and VAT were positively associated with the CAP (range ? = 0.423 to 0.580), slightly reduced after being adjusted for handgrip strength/weight. The Johnson-Neyman technique revealed a significant inverse relationship between WC, WHtR, VAT, and CAP when grip strength normalized by body mass was above but not equal to or below 0.475 (8.1% of the sample), 0.469 (8.9% of the sample), and 0.470 (8.5% of the sample), respectively. In conclusion, grip strength adjusted by body mass, has a moderating effect on the association between anthropometric and body composition parameters (including WC, WHtR, and VAT) and CAP in in children and adolescents with excess of adiposity, suggesting the importance of promoting muscular strength during paediatric population in order to prevent NAFLD.
Project description:Background & Aims:Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is an atherogenic lipid profile associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). With increased rates of CVD seen in adults with NAFLD, RLP-C has the potential to identify individuals with NAFLD who are at increased risk of CVD. This study examined in adolescents sex-different associations among RLP-C, NAFLD, and cardiometabolic risk factors, and whether RLP-C is associated with NAFLD beyond traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods:Adolescents in the Raine Study had anthropometry, clinical, biochemistry and arterial stiffness measurements recorded at 17 years of age. Fatty liver, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness were assessed using abdominal ultrasound. Relationships among RLP-C, NAFLD, liver biochemistry, insulin resistance, adipokines, adiposity and arterial stiffness were assessed. Results:NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.1% (19.6% females and 10.7% males) of adolescents. Increasing RLP-C levels were associated with increasing severity of hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Adolescents with NAFLD and serum RLP-C levels in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile, had higher serum leptin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness, systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness, but lower adiponectin and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Using multivariable logistic regression, RLP-C in the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile was associated with 85% lower odds of NAFLD in males and 55% in females, after adjusting for waist circumference, leptin, ALT, adiponectin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions:There is an association between RLP-C and NAFLD beyond traditional risk factors of adiposity and insulin resistance in adolescents. Although raised serum RLP-C levels were associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and markers of cardiometabolic risk, lower serum RLP-C might reflect reduced cardiovascular risk. Lay summary:Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is a part of the blood cholesterol that is linked with heart disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. In the Raine Study, teenagers with high RLP-C levels had more severe fat accumulation in their liver. Thus, RLP-C might be the hidden link between NAFLD and future risk of heart disease.
Project description:Recently, some studies have evaluated the role of adiposity measures in the prediction of hypertension risk, but the results are conflicting. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare which of the four indicators of adiposity (waist circumference-WC, body mass index-BMI, body adiposity index-BAI, and visceral adiposity index-VAI) were better associated with hypertension in a Brazilian population.For this study, were selected 1627 individuals (both genders, and aged over 18 years) resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the Southeast of Brazil. WC, BMI, BAI and VAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ? 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ? 90 mmHg, and/or antihypertensive drug use. The indicators of adiposity WC, BMI, BAI, and VAI were higher in hypertensive when compared to non-hypertensive individuals. In addition, WC and BMI were most strongly associated with hypertension in men and women, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of WC was significantly higher than VAI in men. In women, both AUC of BMI and WC showed higher discriminatory power to predict hypertension than BAI and VAI.The indicators of adiposity WC and BMI were better associated with hypertension than BAI and VAI, in both genders, and it could be a useful tools for the screening of hypertensive patients.
Project description:Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological precursor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), and its relationship with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been widely studied in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome using not only ultrasound but also liver biopsies or proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H1-MRS) to assess liver fat content. In contrast, there are no studies on insulin resistance and NAFLD in lean or overweight Caucasian individuals using H1-MRS or liver biopsies for the quantification of hepatic triglyceride content. Our objectives were to study the presence of insulin resistance in lean and overweight Caucasian adults and investigate its possible relationship with liver triglyceride content, waist circumference (as proxy of visceral adiposity), BMI, and cardiometabolic risk factors.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 non-obese, non-diabetic individuals classified as overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) or lean (BMI 19.5-24.9 kg/m2). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by 3T H1-MRS. NAFLD was defined as hepatic triglyceride content >5.56%. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were determined.HOMA-IR was significantly correlated with hepatic triglyceride content (r:0.76; p<0.0001). The lean-with-NAFLD group had significantly higher HOMA-IR (p<0.001) and lower serum adiponectin (p<0.05) than the overweight-without-NAFLD group. Insulin resistance was independently associated with NAFLD but not with waist circumference or BMI. Regression analysis showed hepatic triglyceride content to be the most important determinant of insulin resistance (p<0.01).Our findings suggest that NAFLD, once established, seems to be involved in insulin resistance and cardio-metabolic risk factors above and beyond waist circumference and BMI in non-obese, non-diabetic Caucasian individuals.
Project description:This study had two main objectives: To examine the association between body fat distribution and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content, and to determine whether the relationship between NAFLD and regional body fat distribution, with respect to liver fat content in youths with excess adiposity, is independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and a healthy diet. Liver fat content (controlled attenuation parameter (CAP)), body fat distribution (body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, fat mass/height, body fat percentage, total fat mass, android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and lean mass index, determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), CRF (20-m shuttle-run test), and healthy diet (adherence to the Mediterranean diet by KIDMED questionnaire) were measured in 126 adolescents (66% girls) aged between 11 and 17 years. Participants were assigned to two groups according to the presence or absence of hepatic steatosis (CAP values ≥225 dB/m or <225 dB/m of liver fat, respectively). Considering the similar total fat values for the two groups (>30% by DXA), youths with NAFLD had higher fat distribution parameters than those without NAFLD, regardless of sex, age, puberty stage, lean mass index, CRF, and healthy diet (p < 0.01). In the non-NAFLD group, the association between hepatic fat and fat distribution parameters presented a similar pattern, although the association was statistically insignificant after adjusting for a potential confounding variable (ps > 0.05), except for the case of VAT. Body fat distribution parameters were higher in youths with NAFLD compared to those without NAFLD. Additionally, body fat distribution showed a significant association with liver fat content as assessed by CAP in youths with NAFLD independent of CRF and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, supporting the notion that upper body fat distribution might play a pivotal role in the development of NAFLD in adolescents. These results may have implications for the clinical management of youths with excess adiposity given the high prevalence of NAFLD in children and young adults.
Project description:The present study evaluated the performance of 2 novel adiposity indicators, body shape index (ABSI), and body roundness index (BRI), to determine the accumulation of visceral fat in type 2 diabetic patients.A cross-sectional study was performed on 233 type 2 diabetic patients from Qinhuangdao, China. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured using bioelectrical impedance. Accumulation of visceral fat was defined as VFA???100?cm.In diabetic males, the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.904 for waist circumference (WC), 0.923 for BRI, and 0.788 for ABSI. In diabetic females, the AUC values were 0.894 for WC, 0.915 for BRI, and 0.668 for ABSI. The AUCs were similar between BRI and WC (P?>?.05). The AUC for ABSI was lower compared to WC and BRI (P?<?.05). The optimal cut-off for BRI was 4.25 for diabetic males (sensitivity?=?87.8% and specificity?=?81.1%) and 4.75 for diabetic females (sensitivity?=?80.8% and specificity?=?88.1%).BRI was an effective indicator for determining the accumulation of visceral fat in type 2 diabetic patients, however, it was not better compared to WC.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Excessive adiposity has become a public health problem worldwide, contributing to the rise in obesity-related diseases and associated morbidity and mortality. This review details the relative significance of race/ethnicity as it pertains to adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RECENT FINDINGS:Fat distribution remains a more reliable measure of adiposity than anthropometric measures, with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. While obesity is the most common risk factor for NAFLD, the racial/ethnic prevalence of obesity does not completely parallel NAFLD risk. Combating racial/ethnic disparities in obesity requires understanding differential risk among various groups. Hispanics are disproportionally impacted by NAFLD and have high rates of obesity, VAT, and insulin resistance (IR). This contrasts with Blacks, who have high prevalence of obesity and IR, accompanied by a paradoxically favorable lipid profile and low prevalence of VAT and NAFLD. Many features of adiposity and NAFLD are mediated by genetic and environmental factors, the latter being modifiable and the focus of interventions.
Project description:BACKROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises non-progressive steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the latter of which may cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As NAFLD detection is imperative for the prevention of its complications, we evaluated whether a combination of blood-based biomarkers and anthropometric parameters can be used to predict NAFLD among overweight and obese adults. METHODS:143 overweight or obese non-smokers free of diabetes (50% women, age: 35-65 years) were recruited. Anthropometric indices and routine biomarkers of metabolism and liver function were measured to predict magnetic resonance (MR) - derived NAFLD by multivariable logistic regression models. In addition, we evaluated to which degree the use of more novel biomarkers (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, C-reactive protein, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-?) could improve prediction models. RESULTS:NAFLD was best predicted by a combination of age, sex, waist circumference, ALT, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR at an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) before and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.91) after internal bootstrap validation. The use of additional biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism did not improve NAFLD prediction. Previously published indices predicted NAFLD at AUROCs between 0.71 and 0.82. CONCLUSIONS:The AUROC of >?0.8 obtained by our regression model suggests the feasibility of a non-invasive detection of NAFLD by anthropometry and circulating biomarkers, even though further increments in the capacity of prediction models may be needed before NAFLD indices can be applied in routine clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:To examine associations of different anthropometric measurements of central adiposity to visceral adipose tissue (measured via multi-axial magnetic resonance imaging; MRI) and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Additionally, to determine population-specific seated/supine waist and abdominal circumference cutoffs, which may identify men at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Twenty-two men with chronic SCI underwent MRI scans, anthropometric measurements along with assessments of various cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Pearson/part (accounting for age as a covariate) correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the associations between study variables. Abdominal and waist circumference cutoffs were extrapolated using the slope of linear regression equations. RESULTS:Seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences were (P < 0.01) associated with MRI visceral fat cross-sectional area (VATCSA), VAT volume and CSA:TotalCSA. Low density lipoprotein, non-high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were positively associated with seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences after controlling for age; r = 0.50-0.61, r = 0.46-0.58, r = 0.52-0.58, P < 0.05, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was associated with seated/supine abdominal and waist circumferences after accounting for age; r = 0.49-0.51 and r = 0.48-0.56, P < 0.05 respectively. The population-specific cutoffs were 86.5cm and 88.3cm for supine waist and abdominal circumferences, respectively, as well as 89cm and 101cm for seated waist and abdominal circumferences, respectively. After dichotomizing VATCSA (< or ? 100cm2), peak oxygen uptake, triglycerides, insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin were different (P < 0.05) between groups. After dichotomizing (< or ? 86.5cm) supine waist circumference, VATCSA, triglycerides and insulin sensitivity were different (P < 0.05) between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Seated/supine circumferences are associated with both central adiposity and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in persons with SCI. Population-specific cutoffs are proposed herein to identify central adiposity and potential cardiometabolic disease risk after SCI.