Pelvic orthosis effects on posterior pelvis kinematics An in-vitro biomechanical study.
ABSTRACT: The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a well-known source of low back pain, with increasing interest for both conservative and surgical treatment. Alterations in pelvis kinematics are hypothesized as a contributor to SIJ pain and pelvic orthoses one treatment option, but their effects on the pelvis are poorly understood. Alterations in movement patterns induced by the application of pelvic orthoses were determined in five human cadaveric pelvises. Deformations were obtained from the lumbosacral transition and the bilateral SIJ, using digital image correlation and a customized routine to compute the movements within the pelvis. Significant alterations were found for the movements at the SIJ, in particular a vast increase in axial (x-axis) rotation, accompanied by increased inferior (y-) translation of the sacrum relative to the ilium. Movement patterns at the lumbosacral transition changed, causing increases in axial rotation and decreased inferior translation of L5 relative to S1. Using a physiologic mode of load application gives novel insights into the potential effects of pelvic orthoses. The results of these in-vitro experiments vary markedly from previous experiments with loading limited to two or less axes. Furthermore, the influence of pelvic orthoses on the lumbosacral transition warrants further investigation.
Project description:The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application.Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects.Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level.Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest.
Project description:Effective stabilization of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) is essential, since spinal loading is transferred via the SIJ to the coxal bones, and further to the legs. We performed a biomechanical analysis of SIJ stability in terms of reduced SIJ shear force in standing posture using a validated static 3-D simulation model. This model contained 100 muscle elements, 8 ligaments, and 8 joints in trunk, pelvis, and upper legs. Initially, the model was set up to minimize the maximum muscle stress. In this situation, the trunk load was mainly balanced between the coxal bones by vertical SIJ shear force. An imposed reduction of the vertical SIJ shear by 20% resulted in 70% increase of SIJ compression force due to activation of hip flexors and counteracting hip extensors. Another 20% reduction of the vertical SIJ shear force resulted in further increase of SIJ compression force by 400%, due to activation of the transversely oriented M. transversus abdominis and pelvic floor muscles. The M. transversus abdominis crosses the SIJ and clamps the sacrum between the coxal bones. Moreover, the pelvic floor muscles oppose lateral movement of the coxal bones, which stabilizes the position of the sacrum between the coxal bones (the pelvic arc). Our results suggest that training of the M. transversus abdominis and the pelvic floor muscles could help to relieve SI-joint related pelvic pain.
Project description:Upper urinary tract peristalsis is generated in the proximal renal pelvis that connects to the renal parenchyma at the pelvis-kidney junction. It may be exposed to the high renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations. Dietary NaCl restriction increases renal pelvic ET(A) receptor expression. We investigated the contribution of ET(A) and ET(B) receptors to ET-1-stimulated rat renal pelvic contractions and whether the sensitivity of renal pelvic contractile activity to ET-1 stimulation increases with dietary NaCl restriction. We tested whether ET-1-induced contractile activity depends on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or -2 and to what extent spontaneous as well as agonist-induced peristalsis depends on Rho kinases (ROCK). Contractions of isolated renal pelvises were investigated by myography. ET-1 concentration-dependently increased pelvic contractile activity up to 400% of basal activity. ET(A) but not ET(B) receptor blockade inhibited ET-1-induced pelvic contractions. Basal and ET-1-stimulated contractions were similar in renal pelvises from rats on a high-NaCl diet or on a NaCl-deficient diet. COX-1 inhibition reduced spontaneous and almost completely blocked the ET-1-induced pelvic contractions. ROCK inhibition reduced spontaneous and ET-1 stimulated pelvic contractile activity by 90%. RT-PCR revealed that both ROCK isoenzymes are present in the renal pelvic wall. Western blot analyses did not show increased phosphorylation of ROCK substrates myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin in ET-1-treated isolated renal pelvises. ET-1 is a powerful ET(A) receptor-dependent activator of renal pelvic contractions. COX-1 and ROCK activity are required for the ET-1 effects on pelvic contractions, which are not significantly affected by dietary NaCl intake.
Project description:A personalized pelvis and femur shape is required to build a finite element buttock thigh model when experimentally investigating seating discomfort. The present study estimates the shape of pelvis and femur using a principal component analysis (PCA) based method with a limited number of palpable anatomical landmarks (ALs) as predictors. A leave-one-out experiment was designed using 38 pelvises and femurs from a same sample of adult specimens. As expected, prediction errors decrease with the number of ALs. Using the maximum number of easily palpable ALs (13 for pelvis and 4 for femur), average errors were 5.4 and 4.8 mm respectively for pelvis and femur. Better prediction was obtained when the shapes of pelvis and femur were predicted separately without merging the data of both bones. Results also show that the PCA based method is a good alternative to predict hip and lumbosacral joint centers with an average error of 5.0 and 9.2 mm respectively.
Project description:This study evaluated between-session reliability of opto-electronic motion capture to measure trunk posture and three-dimensional ranges of motion (ROM). Nineteen healthy participants aged 24-74?years underwent spine curvature, pelvic tilt and trunk ROM measurements on two separate occasions. Rigid four-marker clusters were attached to the skin overlying seven spinous processes, plus single markers on pelvis landmarks. Rigid body rotations of spine marker clusters were calculated to determine neutral posture and ROM in flexion, extension, total lateral bending (left-right) and total axial rotation (left-right). Segmental spine ROM values were in line with previous reports using opto-electronic motion capture. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated as measures of between-session reliability and measurement error, respectively. Retroreflective markers showed fair to excellent between-session reliability to measure thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and pelvic tilt (ICC?=?0.82, 0.63, and 0.54, respectively). Thoracic and lumbar segments showed highest reliabilities in total axial rotation (ICC?=?0.78) and flexion-extension (ICC?=?0.77-0.79) ROM, respectively. Pelvic segment showed highest ICC values in flexion (ICC?=?0.78) and total axial rotation (ICC?=?0.81) trials. Furthermore, it was estimated that four or fewer repeated trials would provide good reliability for key ROM outcomes, including lumbar flexion, thoracic and lumbar lateral bending, and thoracic axial rotation. This demonstration of reliability is a necessary precursor to quantifying spine kinematics in clinical studies, including assessing changes due to clinical treatment or disease progression.
Project description:Previous studies on joint kinetics during track and field block starts have been limited to lower-limb sagittal kinetics; however, we hypothesised that lumbopelvic extensors, lateral flexors, and hip abductors also act as substantial energy generators. The present study aimed to examine the three-dimensional lumbo-pelvic-hip kinetics to better understand the generation of mechanical energy during a block start. 3D kinematic and force data during block starts of 10 m maximal sprinting in 12 male sprinters (personal best in a 100 m sprint, 10.78 ± 0.19 s [range, 10.43-11.01 s]) were captured using a motion capture system and force platform. The three-dimensional lumbo-pelvic-hip kinetics were calculated. The peak lumbosacral extension torque (3.64 ± 0.39 Nm/kg) was significantly larger than any other lower-limb and lumbosacral torques (<3.0 Nm/kg). It was suggested that large lumbopelvic extension torques are needed during the block start to anchor the pelvis by cancelling out both hip extension torques acting on the pelvis, leading to hip extensor-induced thigh sagittal rotations rather than pelvic posterior tilt. During the double-stance phase, the lumbosacral extensors generated mechanical energy (0.35 ± 0.16 J/kg, 14 ± 4% of the sum of lumbosacral and lower-limb net joint work). During the single-stance phase, the sum of the net mechanical work by lumbosacral lateral flexors and front hip abductors was 0.35 ± 0.14 J/kg, which comprised 9 ± 3% of the sum of the net joint work. The results lead to the speculation of the importance of strengthening not only the leg extensors, but also the lumbopelvic extensors, lateral flexors, and hip abductors for block starts. Further training studies to verify this speculation will improve training strategies for the track and field block start performance.
Project description:The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain.17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts' effects in a dynamic setting when walking.Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls.Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038.
Project description:The present study explored the benefit of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) for sphincter preservation in locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer patients who underwent stapled anastomosis, especially in those with deep and narrow pelvises determined by magnetic resonance imaging.Patients with locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer (?5?cm from the anal verge) who underwent stapled anastomosis were included. Patients were categorized into two groups (PCRT+ vs. PCRT-) according to PCRT application. Patients in the PCRT+ group were matched to those in the PCRT- group according to potential confounding factors (age, gender, clinical stage, and body mass index) for sphincter preservation. Sphincter preservation, permanent stoma, and anastomosis-related complications were compared between the groups. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure 12 dimensions representing pelvic cavity depth and width with which deep and narrow pelvis was defined. The impact of PCRT on sphincter preservation and permanent stoma in pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis was evaluated, and factors associated with sphincter preservation and permanent stoma were analyzed.One hundred sixty-six patients were one-to-one matched between the PCRT+ and PCRT- groups. Overall, sphincter-saving surgery was performed in 66.3% and the rates were not different between the 2 groups. Anastomotic complications and permanent stoma occurred nonsignificantly more frequently in the PCRT+ group. PCRT was not associated with higher rate of sphincter preservation in all pelvic dimensions defined as deep and narrow pelvis, while PCRT was related to higher rate of permanent stoma in shorter transverse diameter and interspinous distance. On logistic regression analysis, PCRT was not shown to influence both sphincter preservation and permanent stoma, while longer transverse diameter and interspinous distance were associated with lower rate of permanent stoma.PCRT had no beneficial effect on sphincter preservation in patients with locally advanced low-lying rectal cancer who had undergone stapled anastomosis. In patients with deep and narrow pelvis, PCRT had no impact on sphincter preservation but was associated with higher rate of permanent stoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pelvic incidence, sacral slope and slip percentage have been shown to be important predicting factors for assessing the risk of progression of low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Biomechanical factors, which affect the stress distribution and the mechanisms involved in the vertebral slippage, may also influence the risk of progression, but they are still not well known. The objective was to biomechanically evaluate how geometric sacral parameters influence shear and normal stress at the lumbosacral junction in spondylolisthesis. METHODS: A finite element model of a low-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis was constructed, including the morphology of the spine, pelvis and rib cage based on measurements from biplanar radiographs of a patient. Variations provided on this model aimed to study the effects on low grade spondylolisthesis as well as reproduce high grade spondylolisthesis. Normal and shear stresses at the lumbosacral junction were analyzed under various pelvic incidences, sacral slopes and slip percentages. Their influence on progression risk was statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Stresses were mainly concentrated on the growth plate of S1, on the intervertebral disc of L5-S1, and ahead the sacral dome for low grade spondylolisthesis. For high grade spondylolisthesis, more important compression and shear stresses were seen in the anterior part of the growth plate and disc as compared to the lateral and posterior areas. Stress magnitudes over this area increased with slip percentage, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Strong correlations were found between pelvic incidence and the resulting compression and shear stresses in the growth plate and intervertebral disc at the L5-S1 junction. CONCLUSIONS: Progression of the slippage is mostly affected by a movement and an increase of stresses at the lumbosacral junction in accordance with spino-pelvic parameters. The statistical results provide evidence that pelvic incidence is a predictive parameter to determine progression in isthmic spondylolisthesis.
Project description:Compared with other primates, childbirth is remarkably difficult in humans because the head of a human neonate is large relative to the birth-relevant dimensions of the maternal pelvis. It seems puzzling that females have not evolved wider pelvises despite the high maternal mortality and morbidity risk connected to childbirth. Despite this seeming lack of change in average pelvic morphology, we show that humans have evolved a complex link between pelvis shape, stature, and head circumference that was not recognized before. The identified covariance patterns contribute to ameliorate the "obstetric dilemma." Females with a large head, who are likely to give birth to neonates with a large head, possess birth canals that are shaped to better accommodate large-headed neonates. Short females with an increased risk of cephalopelvic mismatch possess a rounder inlet, which is beneficial for obstetrics. We suggest that these covariances have evolved by the strong correlational selection resulting from childbirth. Although males are not subject to obstetric selection, they also show part of these association patterns, indicating a genetic-developmental origin of integration.