Caligus rogercresseyi acetylcholinesterase types and variants: a potential marker for organophosphate resistance.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Control of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi in the Chilean salmonid industry is reliant on chemical treatments. Azamethiphos was introduced in 2013, although other organophosphates were previously used. In 2014, reduced sensitivity to azamethiphos was detected in the Los Lagos Region using bioassays. The main target of organophosphates is the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Mutations in the AChE gene are the main cause of organophosphate resistance in arthropods, including other sea lice. In the present study, we aimed to characterize C. rogercresseyi AChE(s) gene(s) and to study the association between AChE variants and azamethiphos resistance in this sea louse species. METHODS:Samples of adult male and female C. rogercresseyi were collected in the Los Lagos Region in 2014. Twenty-four hour exposure bioassays with azamethiphos were performed to select sensitive and resistant lice. The full-length cDNA coding sequences encoding for two AChEs in C. rogercresseyi were molecularly characterized. One of the AChE genes was screened by direct sequencing in the azamethiphos-selected lice to search for variants. An additional louse sampling was performed before and after an azamethiphos treatment in the field in 2017 to validate the findings. RESULTS:The molecular analysis revealed two putative AChEs in C. rogercresseyi. In silico analysis and 3D modelling of the protein sequences identified both of them as invertebrate AChE type 1; they were named C. rogercresseyi AChE1a and 1b. AChE1a had the characteristics of the main synaptic AChE, while AChE1b lacked some of the important amino acids of a typical AChE. A missense change found in the main synaptic AChE (1a), F318F/V (F290 in Torpedo californica), was associated with survival of C. rogercresseyi at high azamethiphos concentrations (bioassays and field treatment). The amino acid change was located in the acyl pocket of the active-site gorge of the protein. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrates the presence of two types of AChE1 genes in C. rogercresseyi. Although enzymatic assays are needed, AChE1a is most probably the main synaptic AChE. The function of AChE1b is unknown, but evidence points to a scavenger role. The AChE1a F/V318 variant is most probably involved in organophosphate resistance, and can be a good marker for resistance monitoring.
Project description:Caligus rogercresseyi, commonly known as sea louse, is an ectoparasite copepod that impacts the salmon aquaculture in Chile, causing losses of hundreds of million dollars per year. This pathogen is mainly controlled by immersion baths with delousing drugs, which can lead to resistant traits selection in lice populations. Bioassays are commonly used to assess louse drug sensitivity, but the current procedures may mask relevant molecular responses. This study aimed to discover novel coding genes and non-coding RNAs that could evidence drug sensitivity at the genomic level. Sea lice samples from populations with contrasting sensitivity to delousing drugs were collected. Bioassays using azamethiphos, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin drugs were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and to collect samples for RNA-sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was conducted on samples exposed to each drug to evaluate the presence of coding and non-coding RNAs associated with the response of these compounds. The results revealed specific transcriptome patterns in lice exposed to azamethiphos, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin drugs. Enrichment analyses of Gene Ontology terms showed specific biological processes and molecular functions associated with each delousing drug analyzed. Furthermore, novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified in C. rogercresseyi and tightly linked to differentially expressed coding genes. A significant correlation between gene transcription patterns and phenotypic effects was found in lice collected from different salmon farms with contrasting drug treatment efficacies. The significant correlation among gene transcription patterns with the historical background of drug sensitivity suggests novel molecular mechanisms of pharmacological resistance in lice populations.
Project description:The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.
Project description:Organophosphates (OP) are one of the major treatments used against the salmon louse (Lepeophtherius salmonis) in Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. The use of OP since the late 1970s has resulted in widespread resistant parasites. Recently, we reported a single mutation (Phe362Tyr) in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as the major mechanism behind resistance in salmon louse towards OP. The present study was carried out to validate this mechanism at the field level. A total of 6658 salmon louse samples were enrolled from 56 different fish farms across the Norwegian coast, from Vest Agder in the south to Finnmark in the north. All the samples were genotyped using a TaqMan probe assay for the Phe362Tyr mutation. A strong association was observed between areas with frequent use of the OP (azamethiphos) and the Phe362Tyr mutation. This was confirmed at 15 sites where results from independently conducted bioassays and genotyping of parasites correlated well. Furthermore, genotyping of surviving and moribund parasites from six bioassay experiments demonstrated a highly significant negative correlation between the frequency of resistance alleles and the probability of dying when exposed to azamethiphos in a bioassay. Based on these observations, we could strongly conclude that the Phe362Tyr mutation is a major factor responsible for OP resistance in salmon louse on Norwegian fish farms.
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphates (OP). Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s) gene(s) with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b) in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5) and the other resistant (n=5) for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE) in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos in L. salmonis, by screening for Phe362Tyr in 2 sensitive and 5 resistant strains. The significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (362Tyr) in the resistant strains clearly indicated the possible association of Phe362Tyr mutation in L. salmonis ace1a with resistance towards azamethiphos. The 3D modelling, short term survival experiments and enzymatic assays further supported the imperative role of Phe362Tyr in reduced sensitivity of L. salmonis for azamethiphos. Based on all these observations, the present study, for the first time, presents the mechanism of resistance in L. salmonis against azamethiphos. In addition, we developed a rapid diagnostic tool for the high throughput screening of Phe362Tyr mutation using High Resolution Melt analysis.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance.llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis.From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information.The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.
Project description:The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis has been a substantial obstacle in Norwegian farming of Atlantic salmon for decades. With a limited selection of available medicines and frequent delousing treatments, resistance has emerged among salmon lice. Surveillance of salmon louse sensitivity has been in place since 2013, and consumption of medicines has been recorded since the early 80's. The peak year for salmon lice treatments was 2015, when 5.7 times as many tonnes of salmonids were treated compared to harvested. In recent years, non-medicinal methods of delousing farmed fish have been introduced to the industry. By utilizing data on the annual consumption of medicines, annual frequency of medicinal and non-medicinal treatments, the aim of the current study was to describe the causative factors behind salmon lice sensitivity in the years 2000-2019, measured through toxicity tests-bioassays. The sensitivity data from 2000-2012 demonstrate the early emergence of resistance in salmon lice along the Norwegian coast. Reduced sensitivity towards azamethiphos, deltamethrin and emamectin benzoate was evident from 2009, 2009 and 2007, respectively. The annual variation in medicine consumption and frequency of medicinal treatments correlated well with the evolution in salmon louse sensitivity. The patterns are similar, with a relatively small response delay from the decline in the consumption of medicines in Norway (2016 and onward) to the decline in measured resistance among salmon louse (2017 and onward). 2017 was the first year in which non-medicinal treatments outnumbered medicinal delousing treatments as well as the peak year in numbers of cleanerfish deployed. This study highlights the significance of avoiding heavy reliance on a few substance groups to combat ectoparasites, this can be a potent catalyst for resistance evolution. Further, it demonstrates the importance of transparency in the global industry, which enables the industry to learn from poor choices in the past.
Project description:Caligus rogercresseyi is a copepod ectoparasite with a high prevalence in salmon farms in Chile, causing severe welfare and economic concerns to the sector. Information on the parasite's underpinning mechanisms to support its life strategy is recently being investigated. Due to the critical role of microbiota, this study aimed to characterize the microbiota community associated with C. rogercresseyi from different regions with salmon aquaculture in Chile. Using third-generation sequencing with Nanopore technology (MinION) the full 16S rRNA gene from sea lice obtained from 8 areas distributed over the three main aquaculture regions were sequenced. Microbiota of the parasite is mainly comprised of members of phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and a core microbiota community with 147 taxonomical features was identified, and it was present in sea lice from the three regions. This community accounted for 19% of total identified taxa but more than 70% of the total taxonomical abundance, indicating a strong presence in the parasite. Several taxa with bioactive compound secretory capacity were identified, such as members of genus Pseudoalteromonas and Dokdonia, suggesting a possible role of the lice microbiota during the host infestation processes. Furthermore, the microbiota community was differentially associated with the salmon production, where several potential pathogens such as Vibrio, Tenacibaculum, and Aeromonas in Los Lagos, Aysén, and Magallanes region were identified. Notably, the Chilean salmon industry was initially established in the Los Lagos region but it's currently moving to the south, where different oceanographic conditions coexist with lice populations. The results originated by this study will serve as foundation to investigate putative role of sea lice as vectors for fish pathogens and also as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant genes.
Project description:Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in cholinergic synapses. Most arthropods have two genes (ace1 and ace2), but only one encodes the predominant synaptic AChE, the main target for organophosphates. Resistance towards organophosphates is widespread in the marine arthropod Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To understand this trait, it is essential to characterize the gene(s) coding for AChE(s). The full length cDNA sequences encoding two AChEs in L. salmonis were molecularly characterized in this study. The two ace genes were highly similar (83.5% similarity at protein level). Alignment to the L. salmonis genome revealed that both genes were located close to each other (separated by just 26.4 kbp on the L. salmonis genome), resulting from a recent gene duplication. Both proteins had all the typical features of functional AChE and clustered together with AChE-type 1 proteins in other species, an observation that has not been described in other arthropods. We therefore concluded the presence of two versions of ace1 gene in L. salmonis, named ace1a and ace1b. Ace1a was predominantly expressed in different developmental stages compared to ace1b and was possibly active in the cephalothorax, indicating that ace1a is more likely to play the major role in cholinergic synaptic transmission. The study is essential to understand the role of AChEs in resistance against organophosphates in L. salmonis.
Project description:Resistance towards antiparasitic agents in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a widespread problem along the Norwegian coast, reducing treatments efficacies and slowing down the envisioned expansion of Norwegian salmon production. The present study was conducted in order to assess the efficacies of two of the most widely used anti-parasitic substances-azamethiphos and deltamethrin-as well as assessing the benefit of having a resistant genotype compared to being fully sensitive when exposed to one of these substances. Atlantic salmon were exposed to a mix of salmon lice copepodids from a fully sensitive, a double resistant and a multi-resistant strain. Once the lice reached pre-adult stages, one group was exposed to 100 ?g/L azamethiphos for 60 minutes, the other to 2 ?g/L deltamethrin for 30 minutes, and the last was kept in a seawater control. Detached lice were collected at a series of time points following exposure, and all lice (immobilized and surviving) were analysed for both pyrethroid (sensitive "S" and resistant "R") and azamethiphos (fully sensitive "SS", heterozygous resistant "RS" and fully resistant "RR") resistance markers. We found that the efficacies of deltamethrin on parasites with genotype S and R were 70.3 and 13.2%, respectively. The overall efficacy of the deltamethrin treatment was 32.3%. The efficacies of azamethiphos on parasites with genotype SS, RS and RR were 100, 80 and 19.1%, respectively. The overall efficacy of the azamethiphos treatment was 80.4%. Survival analyses revealed that the median survival time in deltamethrin-sensitive and-resistant parasites were 16.8 and >172 hours, respectively. The differences were even more pronounced in the azamethiphos-treated group, where SS, RS and RR parasites survived for 0.26, 6.6 and >172 hours, respectively. The substantial differences in survival between sensitive and resistant lice following treatment demonstrate the ability of medicinal treatments to drive genetic selection towards a much more resistant salmon lice population within a very short time span if there is no influx of sensitive genotypes.
Project description:The parasitic salmon louse, and its resistance to chemical delousing agents, represents one of the largest challenges to the salmon aquaculture industry. We genotyped lice sampled from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway with the recently identified Phe362Tyr mutation that conveys resistance to organophosphates. These results were compared to data from lice sampled on farmed salmon in the same regions. The resistant (R) allele was observed in salmon lice from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway, although its frequency was highest in farming-intense regions. In most regions, the frequency of the R allele was higher in lice collected from wild sea trout than wild Atlantic salmon, and in all regions, the frequency of the R allele was similar in lice collected from wild sea trout and farmed Atlantic salmon. The R allele is only selected for in fish-farms where organophosphates are used for delousing. Therefore, our results suggest extensive exchange of lice between farmed and wild hosts, and indicate that in farming-dense regions in Norway, aquaculture represents a major driver of salmon louse population structure. Finally, these data suggest that the wild hosts within the regions studied will not delay the spread of resistance when organophosphates are used.