Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in the United States. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage, however, the drug has not been evaluated in a clinical trial in severely injured children. We designed the Traumatic Injury Clinical Trial Evaluating Tranexamic Acid in Children (TIC-TOC) trial to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a confirmatory clinical trial that evaluates the effects of TXA in children with severe trauma and hemorrhagic injuries. METHODS:Children with severe trauma and evidence of hemorrhagic torso or brain injuries will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) TXA dose A (15 mg/kg bolus dose over 20 min, followed by 2 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 h), (2) TXA dose B (30 mg/kg bolus dose over 20 min, followed by 4 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 h), or (3) placebo. We will use permuted-block randomization by injury type: hemorrhagic brain injury, hemorrhagic torso injury, and combined hemorrhagic brain and torso injury. The trial will be conducted at four pediatric Level I trauma centers. We will collect the following outcome measures: global functioning as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) and Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E Peds), working memory (digit span test), total amount of blood products transfused in the initial 48 h, intracranial hemorrhage progression at 24 h, coagulation biomarkers, and adverse events (specifically thromboembolic events and seizures). DISCUSSION:This multicenter trial will provide important preliminary data and assess the feasibility of conducting a confirmatory clinical trial that evaluates the benefits of TXA in children with severe trauma and hemorrhagic injuries to the torso and/or brain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02840097 . Registered on 14 July 2016.
Project description:The use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in the treatment of trauma patients was relatively unexplored until the landmark Clinical Randomisation of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Haemorrhage-2 (CRASH-2) trial in 2010 demonstrated a reduction in mortality with the use of TXA. Although this trial was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study incorporating >20,000 patients, numerous limitations and weaknesses have been described. As a result, additional studies have followed, delineating the potential risks and benefits of TXA administration. A systematic review of the literature to date reveals a mortality benefit of early (ideally <1 hour and no later than 3 hours after injury) TXA administration in the treatment of severely injured trauma patients (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, heart rate >110). Combined with abundant literature showing a reduction in bleeding in elective surgery, the most significant benefit may be administration of TXA before the patient goes into shock. Those trials that failed to show a mortality benefit of TXA in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock acknowledged that most patients received blood products before TXA administration, thus confounding the results. Although the use of prehospital TXA in the severely injured trauma patient will become more clear with the trauma studies currently underway, the current literature supports the use of prehospital TXA in this high-risk population. We recommend considering a 1 g TXA bolus en route to definitive care in high-risk patients and withholding subsequent doses until hyperfibrinolysis is confirmed by thromboelastography.
Project description:Trauma and hemorrhagic shock can lead to acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) that is not fully reversed by prehospital resuscitation as simulated with a limited volume of fresh whole blood (FWB) in a rat model. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) is used as an anti-fibrinolytic agent to reduce surgical bleeding if administered prior to or during surgery, and to improve survival in trauma if given early after trauma. It is not clear from the existing clinical literature whether TXA has the same mechanism of action in both settings. This study sought to explore the molecular mechanisms of TXA activity in trauma and determine whether administration of TXA as a supplement to FWB resuscitation could attenuate the established ATC in a rat model simulating prehospital resuscitation of polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock. In a parallel in-vitro study, the effects on clotting assays of adding plasmin at varying doses along with either simultaneous addition of TXA or pre-incubation with TXA were measured, and the results suggested that maximum anti-fibrinolytic effect of TXA on plasmin-induced fibrinolysis required pre-incubation of TXA and plasmin prior to clot initiation. In the rat model, ATC was induced by polytrauma followed by 40% hemorrhage. One hour after trauma, the rats were resuscitated with FWB collected from donor rats. Vehicle or TXA (10mg/kg) was given as bolus either before trauma (TXA-BT), or 45min after trauma prior to resuscitation (TXA-AT). The TXA-BT group was included to contrast the coagulation effects of TXA when used as it is in elective surgery vs. what is actually feasible in real trauma patients (TXA-AT group). A single dose of TXA prior to trauma significantly delayed the onset of ATC from 30min to 120min after trauma as measured by a rise in prothrombin time (PT). The plasma d-dimer as well as plasminogen/fibrinogen ratio in traumatized liver of TXA-BT were significantly lower as compared to vehicle and TXA-AT. Wet/dry weight ratio and leukocytes infiltration of lungs were significantly decreased only if TXA was administrated later, prior to resuscitation (TXA-AT). In conclusion: Limited prehospital trauma resuscitation that includes FWB and TXA may not correct established systemic ATC, but rather may improve overall outcomes of resuscitation by attenuation of acute lung injury. By contrast, TXA given prior to trauma reduced levels of fibrinolysis at the site of tissue injury and circulatory d-dimer, and delayed development of coagulopathy independent of reduction of fibrinogen levels following trauma. These findings highlight the importance of early administration of TXA in trauma, and suggest that further optimization of dosing protocols in trauma to exploit TXA's various sites and modes of action may further improve patient outcomes.
Project description:Abstract Hemorrhage and coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. The development of trauma-induced coagulopathy and hyperfibrinolysis is associated with poor outcomes. Interest in the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in hemorrhaging patients as an antifibrinolytic agent has grown recently. Additionally, several reports describe immunomodulatory effects of TXA that may confer benefit independent of its antifibrinolytic actions. A large trial demonstrated a mortality benefit for early TXA administration in patients at risk for hemorrhage; however, questions remain about the applicability in developed trauma systems and the mechanism by which TXA reduces mortality. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Study of Tranexamic Acid during Air Medical Prehospital transport (STAAMP) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital TXA infusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk of traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with hypotension and tachycardia from 4 level I trauma center air medical transport programs. It includes a 2-phase intervention, with a prehospital and in-hospital phase to investigate multiple dosing regimens. The trial will also explore the effects of TXA on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research and thus required an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as a community consultation process. It was designed to address several existing knowledge gaps and research priorities regarding TXA use in trauma.
Project description:To investigate the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid (TXA) in bleeding trauma patients, we examined the timing of its effect on mortality. We hypothesised that if TXA reduces mortality by decreasing blood loss, its effect should be greatest on the day of the injury when bleeding is most profuse. However, if TXA reduces mortality via an anti-inflammatory mechanism its effect should be greater over the subsequent days.Exploratory analysis, including per-protocol analyses, of data from the CRASH-2 trial, a randomised placebo controlled trial of the effect of TXA on mortality in 20,211 trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding. We examined hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality, deaths due to bleeding and non-bleeding deaths, according to the day since injury. The CRASH-2 trial is registered as ISRCTN86750102 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00375258.The effect of TXA on mortality is greatest for deaths occurring on the day of the injury (HR all-cause mortality = 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93). This survival benefit is only evident in patients in whom treatment is initiated within 3 hours of their injury (HR ? 3 hours = 0.78, 0.68 to 0.90; HR > 3 hours = 1.02, 0.76 to 1.36). Initiation of TXA treatment within 3 hours of injury reduced the hazard of death due to bleeding on the day of the injury by 28% (HR = 0.72, 0.60 to 0.86). TXA treatment initiated beyond 3 hours of injury appeared to increase the hazard of death due to bleeding, although the estimates were imprecise.Early administration of tranexamic acid appears to reduce mortality primarily by preventing exsanguination on the day of the injury.
Project description:The prevalence of tranexamic acid (TXA) use for trauma and other conditions in children is unknown.The objective of this study was to describe the use of TXA in United States (US) children's hospitals for children in general, and specifically for trauma.We conducted a secondary analysis of a large, administrative database of 36 US children's hospitals. We included children <18 years of age who received TXA (based on pharmacy charge codes) between 2009 and 2013. Patients were grouped into the following diagnostic categories: trauma, congenital heart surgery, scoliosis surgery, craniosynostosis/craniofacial surgery, and other, based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision principal procedure and diagnostic codes. TXA administration and dosage, in-hospital clinical variables, and diagnostic and procedure codes were documented.A total of 35,478 pediatric encounters with a TXA charge were included in the study cohort. The proportions of children who received TXA were similar across the years 2009 to 2013. Only 110 encounters (0.31%) were for traumatic conditions. Congenital heart surgery accounted for more than one-half of the encounters (22,863; 64%). Overall, the median estimated weight-based dose of TXA was 22.4 mg/kg (interquartile range, 7.3-84.9 mg/kg).We identified a wide frequency of use and range of doses of TXA for several diagnostic conditions in children. The use of TXA among injured children, however, appears to be rare despite its common use and efficacy among injured adults. Additional work is needed to identify appropriate indications for TXA and provide dosage guidelines among children with a variety of conditions, including trauma.
Project description:Many trauma systems are examining whether to implement prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) protocols since hemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially preventable early trauma mortality, and early in-hospital administration of TXA within 3?hours of injury is associated with reduced mortality. But robust evidence regarding the efficacy of prehospital administration of the antifibrinolytic drug TXA on trauma outcomes is lacking. This review examines the current evidence available regarding prehospital TXA efficacy in both military and civilian trauma, and updates available evidence regarding in-hospital TXA efficacy in trauma.
Project description:The CRASH-2 trial showed that early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) safely reduces mortality in bleeding in trauma patients. Based on data from the CRASH-2 trial, global mortality data and a systematic literature review, we estimated the number of premature deaths that might be averted every year worldwide through the use of TXA.We used CRASH-2 trial data to examine the effect of TXA on death due to bleeding by geographical region. We used WHO mortality data (2008) and data from a systematic review of the literature to estimate the annual number of in-hospital trauma deaths due to bleeding. We then used the relative risk estimates from the CRASH-2 trial to estimate the number of premature deaths that could be averted if all hospitalised bleeding trauma patients received TXA within one hour of injury, and within three hours of injury. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the effect of uncertainty in the parameter estimates and the assumptions made in the model.There is no evidence that the effect of TXA on death due to bleeding varies by geographical region (heterogeneity p = 0.70). Based on WHO data and our systematic literature review, we estimate that each year worldwide there are approximately 400,000 in-hospital trauma deaths due to bleeding. If patients received TXA within one hour of injury then approximately 128,000 (uncertainty range [UR] ? 72,000 to 172,000) deaths might be averted. If patients received TXA within three hours of injury then approximately 112,000 (UR ? 68,000 to 148,000) deaths might be averted. Country specific estimates show that the largest numbers of deaths averted would be in India and China.The use of TXA in the treatment of traumatic bleeding has the potential to prevent many premature deaths every year. A large proportion of the potential health gains are in low and middle income countries.
Project description:Background:The hemostatic properties of tranexamic acid (TXA) are well described, but the immunological effects of TXA administration after traumatic injury have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesized TXA would reduce monocyte activation in bleeding trauma patients with severe injury. Methods:This was a single center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing placebo to a 2 g or 4 g intravenous TXA bolus dose in trauma patients with severe injury. Fifty patients were randomized into each study group. The primary outcome was a reduction in monocyte activation as measured by human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes 72 h after TXA administration. Secondary outcomes included kinetic assessment of immune and hemostatic phenotypes within the 72 h window post-TXA administration. Results:The trial occurred between March 2016 and September 2017, when data collection ended. 149 patients were analyzed (placebo, n = 50; 2 g TXA, n = 49; 4 g TXA, n = 50). The fold change in HLA-DR expression on monocytes [reported as median (Q1-Q3)] from pre-TXA to 72 h post-TXA was similar between placebo [0.61 (0.51-0.82)], 2 g TXA [0.57 (0.47-0.75)], and 4 g TXA [0.57 (0.44-0.89)] study groups (p = 0.82). Neutrophil CD62L expression was reduced in the 4 g TXA group [fold change: 0.73 (0.63-0.97)] compared to the placebo group [0.97 (0.78-1.10)] at 24 h post-TXA (p = 0.034). The fold decrease in plasma IL-6 was significantly less in the 4 g TXA group [1.36 (0.87-2.42)] compared to the placebo group [0.46 (0.19-1.69)] at 72 h post-TXA (p = 0.028). There were no differences in frequencies of myeloid or lymphoid populations or in classical complement activation at any of the study time points. Conclusion:In trauma patients with severe injury, 4 g intravenous bolus dosing of TXA has minimal immunomodulatory effects with respect to leukocyte phenotypes and circulating cytokine levels. Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02535949.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The CRASH-2 trial showed that tranexamic acid (TXA) administration reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients. However, the effect appeared to depend on how soon after injury TXA treatment was started. Treatment within 3 h reduced bleeding deaths whereas treatment after 3 h increased the risk. We examine how patient characteristics vary by time to treatment and explore whether any such variations explain the time-dependent treatment effect. METHODS:Exploratory analysis were carried out, including per-protocol analyses, of data from the CRASH-2 trial, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of the effect of TXA on mortality in 20,211 trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding. We examine how patient characteristics (age, type of injury, presence or absence of head injury, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure and capillary refill time) vary with time to treatment and use univariable (restriction) and multivariable methods to examine whether any such variations explain the time-dependent effect of TXA. If not explained by differences in patient characteristics, we planned to conduct separate prespecified subgroup analyses for the early benefit and late harm. RESULTS:There was no substantial variation in age or capillary refill by time to treatment. However, the proportion of patients with blunt trauma, the proportion with head injury and mean systolic blood pressure increased as time to treatment increased. Mean GCS decreased as time to treatment increased. Analyses restricted to patients with blunt trauma, those without head injury and those with a systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg showed that these characteristics did not explain the time-dependent treatment effect. In a multivariable analysis the interaction with time to treatment remained highly significant (p?<?0.0001). Separate subgroup analyses that examine how the benefits of early TXA treatment and the harms of late TXA treatment vary by systolic blood pressure (?75, 76-89, >89 mmHg); GCS (severe 3-8, moderate 9-12, mild 13-15); and type of injury (penetrating versus blunt) showed no significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS:The time-dependent effect of TXA in bleeding trauma patients is not explained by the type of injury, the presence or absence of head injury or systolic blood pressure. When given within 3 h of injury, TXA reduces death due to bleeding regardless of type of injury, GCS or blood pressure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00375258 . Registered on 11 September 2006.
Project description:To assess the cost effectiveness of giving tranexamic acid (TXA) to bleeding trauma patients in low, middle and high income settings.The CRASH-2 trial showed that TXA administration reduces the risk of death in bleeding trauma patients with a small but statistically significant increase in non-intensive care stay. A Markov model was used to assess the cost effectiveness of TXA in Tanzania, India and the United Kingdom (UK). The health outcome was the number of life years gained (LYs). Two costs were considered: the cost of administering TXA and the cost of additional days in hospital. Cost data were obtained from hospitals, World Health Organization (WHO) database and UK reference costs. Cost-effectiveness was measured in international dollars ($) per LY. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results to model assumptions.Administering TXA to bleeding trauma patients within three hours of injury saved an estimated 372, 315 and 755 LYs per 1,000 trauma patients in Tanzania, India and the UK respectively. The cost of giving TXA to 1,000 patients was $17,483 in Tanzania, $19,550 in India and $30,830 in the UK. The incremental cost of giving TXA versus not giving TXA was $18,025 in Tanzania, $20,670 in India and $48,002 in the UK. The estimated incremental cost per LY gained of administering TXA is $48, $66 and $64 in Tanzania, India and the UK respectively.Early administration of TXA to bleeding trauma patients is likely to be highly cost effective in low, middle and high income settings.This paper uses data collected by the CRASH 2 trial: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86750102, Clinicaltrials.govNCT00375258 and South African Clinical Trial Register DOH-27-0607-1919.