Short- and long-term outcomes after postsurgical acute kidney injury requiring dialysis.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Prompt assessment of perioperative complications is critical for the comprehensive care of surgical patients. Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is associated with high mortality, yet little is known about how long-term outcomes of patients have evolved. The association of AKI-D with postsurgical outcomes has not been well studied. Methods:We investigated patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database and validated by the multicenter Clinical Trial Consortium for Renal Diseases cohort. All patients with AKI-D 18 years or older undergoing four major surgeries (cardiothoracic, esophagus, intestine, and liver) were retrospectively investigated (N=106,573). Patient demographics, surgery type, comorbidities before admission, and postsurgical outcomes, including the in-hospital, 30-day, and long-term mortality together with dialysis dependence were collected. Results:AKI-D is the top risk factor for 30-day and long-term mortality after major surgery. Of 1,664 individuals with AKI-D and 6,656 matched controls, AKI-D during the hospital stay was associated with in-hospital (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=3.04, 95% CI 2.79-3.31), 30-day (aHR=3.65, 95% CI 3.37-3.94), and long-term (aHR=3.22, 95% CI 3.01-3.44) mortality. Patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) showed less in-hospital (aHR=0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.97), 30-day (aHR=0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.89), and long-term (aHR=0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.90) mortality compared with non-CTS patients with AKI-D. CTS patients had a high risk of 30-day dialysis dependence (subhazard ratio [sHR]=1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.38), but the risk of long-term dialysis dependence was similar (sHR=1.38, 95% CI 0.96-2.00) after AKI-D by taking mortality as a competing risk. Non-CTS patients had more comorbidities of sepsis, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and metabolic acidosis compared with CTS patients. Conclusion:AKI exhibits paramount effects on postsurgical outcomes that extend well beyond discharge from the hospital. The goal of the perioperative assessment should include the reassurance of enhancing renal function recovery among different surgeries, and optimized follow-up is warranted in attenuating the complications after postsurgical AKI has occurred.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term outcomes of adult patients with AKI who receive ECMO. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The study analyzed encrypted datasets from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. The data of 3251 patients who received first-time ECMO treatment between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013, were analyzed. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients who required dialysis for AKI (D-AKI) and those who did not in order to evaluate the impact of D-AKI on long-term mortality and major adverse kidney events. RESULTS:Of the 3251 patients, 54.1% had D-AKI. Compared with the patients without D-AKI, those with D-AKI had higher rates of all-cause mortality (52.3% vs. 33.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-2.17), chronic kidney disease (13.7% vs. 8.1%; adjusted subdistribution HR [aSHR] 1.66, 95% CI 1.16-2.38), and end-stage renal disease (5.2% vs. 0.5%; aSHR 14.28, 95% CI 4.67-43.62). The long-term mortality of patients who survived more than 90 days after discharge was 22.0% (153/695), 32.3% (91/282), and 50.0% (10/20) in the patients without D-AKI, with recovery D-AKI, and with nonrecovery D-AKI who required long-term dialysis, respectively, demonstrating a significant trend (Pfor trend <0.001). CONCLUSION:AKI is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and major adverse kidney events in adult patients who receive ECMO.
Project description:There are few reports on temporary dialysis-requiring AKI as a risk factor for future upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). This study sought to explore the long-term association between dialysis-requiring AKI and UGIB.This nationwide cohort study used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched controls were selected from hospitalized patients age ?18 years between 1998 and 2006. The cumulative incidences of long-term de novo UGIB were calculated, and the risk factors of UGIB and mortality were identified using time-varying Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for subsequent CKD and ESRD after AKI.A total of 4565 AKI-recovery patients and the same number of matched patients without AKI were analyzed. After a median follow-up time of 2.33 years (interquartile range, 0.97-4.81 years), the incidence rates of UGIB were 50 (by stringent criterion) and 69 (by lenient criterion) per 1000 patient-years in the AKI-recovery group and 31 (by stringent criterion) and 48 (by lenient criterion) per 1000 patient-years in the non-AKI group (both P<0.001). When compared with patients in the non-AKI group, the multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for UGIB was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.14 to 1.48) for dialysis-requiring AKI, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.53 to 2.20) for time-varying CKD, and 2.31 (95% CI, 1.92 to 2.79) for time-varying ESRD (all P<0.001). Finally, the risk for long-term mortality increased after UGIB (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.38) and dialysis-requiring AKI (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.54 to 1.78).Recovery from dialysis-requiring AKI was associated with future UGIB and mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) is increasingly common worldwide, consuming enormous healthcare resources. Factors that modify PMV outcome are still obscure. METHODS: We selected patients without preceding mechanical ventilation within the one past year and who developed PMV during index admission in Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) system during 1998-2007 for comparison of mortality and resource use. They were divided into three groups: (1) patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) before the index admission for PMV onset; (2) patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-dialysis) during the hospitalization course; and (3) patients without AKI or with non dialysis-requiring AKI during the hospitalization course (non-AKI). We used a random-effects logistic regression model to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Compared with the other two groups, patients with AKI-dialysis had significantly longer mechanical ventilation, more frequent use of vasopressors, longer intensive care unit/hospital stay and higher inpatient expenditures during the index admission. Relative to non-AKI patients, patients with AKI-dialysis had an elevated mortality hazard; the adjusted relative risk ratios were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.46-1.56), 1.27 (95% CI: 1.23-1.32), and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.12) for mortality rates at discharge, 3 months, and 4 years after PMV, respectively. Patients with AKI-dialysis also consumed significantly higher total in-patient expenditure than the other two patient groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients that need PMV care during an admission, the presence of de novo AKI requiring dialysis significantly increased short and long term mortality, and demand for health care resources.
Project description:The influence of acute kidney injury (AKI) on subsequent incident atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been fully addressed. This retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. A total of 41,463 patients without a previous AF, mitral valve disease, and hyperthyroidism who developed de novo dialysis-requiring AKI (AKI-D) during their index hospitalization were enrolled. After propensity score matching, "non-recovery group" (n = 2895), "AKI-recovery group" (n = 2895) and "non-AKI group" (control group, n = 5790) were categorized. Within a follow-up period of 6.52 ± 3.88 years (median, 6.87 years), we found that the adjusted risks for subsequent incident AF were increased in both AKI-recovery group (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.30; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.07?1.58; p ? 0.01) and non-recovery group (aHR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.36?1.94) compared to the non-AKI group. Furthermore, the development of AF carried elevated risks for major adverse cardiac events (aHR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.83?2.43), ischemic stroke (aHR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19?1.49), and all stroke (aHR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15?1.43). (all p ? 0.001, except otherwise expressed) The authors concluded that AKI-D, even in those who withdrew from temporary dialysis, independently increases the subsequent risk of de novo AF.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) associates with higher in-hospital mortality, but whether it also associates with increased long-term mortality is unknown, particularly after accounting for residual kidney function after hospital discharge. We retrospectively analyzed data from US veteran patients who survived at least 90 d after discharge from a hospitalization. We identified AKI events not requiring dialysis from laboratory data and classified them according to the ratio of the highest creatinine during the hospitalization to the lowest creatinine measured between 90 d before hospitalization and the date of discharge. We estimated mortality risks using multivariable Cox regression models adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, medication use, primary diagnosis of admission, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and postdischarge estimated GFR (residual kidney function). Among the 864,933 hospitalized patients in the study cohort, we identified 82,711 hospitalizations of patients with AKI. In the study population of patients who survived at least 90 d after discharge, 17.4% died during follow-up (AKI 29.8%, without AKI 16.1%). The adjusted mortality risk associated with AKI was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39 to 1.43) and increased with increasing AKI stage: 1.36 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.38), 1.46 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.50), and 1.59 (95% CI 1.54 to 1.65; P < 0.001 for trend). In conclusion, AKI that does not require dialysis associates with increased long-term mortality risk, independent of residual kidney function, for patients who survive 90 d after discharge. Long-term mortality risk is highest among the most severe cases of AKI.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent postoperative complication, but the mortality impact within different postoperative time frames and severities of AKI are poorly understood. We examined the occurrence of postoperative AKI among colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery patients and the impact of AKI on mortality during 1 year after surgery. DESIGN:Observational cohort study. We defined the exposure, AKI, as a 50% increase in plasma creatinine or initiation of renal replacement therapy within 7 days after surgery or an absolute increase in creatinine of 26 µmol/L within 48 hours. SETTING:Population-based Danish medical databases. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 6580 patients undergoing CRC surgery in Northern Denmark during 2005-2011 were included from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database. OUTCOMES MEASURE:Occurrence of AKI and 8-30, 31-90 and 91-365 days mortality in patient with or without AKI. RESULTS:AKI occurred in 1337 patients (20.3%) of the 6580 patients who underwent CRC surgery. Among patients with AKI, 8-30, 31-90 and 91-365 days mortality rates were 10.1% (95% CI 8.6% to 11.9%), 7.8% (95% CI 6.4% to 9.5%) and 12.0% (95% CI 10.3% to 14.2%), respectively. Compared with patients without AKI, AKI was associated with increased 8-30 days mortality (adjusted HR (aHR)=4.01,95% CI 3.11 to 5.17) and 31-90 days mortality (aHR 2.08,95% CI 1.60 to 2.69), while 91-365 days aHR was 1.12 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.41). We observed no major differences in stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS:AKI after surgery for CRC is a frequent postoperative complication associated with a substantially increased 90-day mortality. AKI should be considered a potential target for reducing 90-day mortality.
Project description:The incidence rate of AKI in hospitalized patients is increasing. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the association of AKI with long-term risk of adverse coronary events. Our study investigated hospitalized patients who recovered from de novo dialysis-requiring AKI between 1999 and 2008 using patient data collected from inpatient claims from Taiwan National Health Insurance. We used Cox regression with time-varying covariates to adjust for subsequent CKD and ESRD after discharge. Results were further validated by analysis of a prospectively constructed database. Among 17,106 acute dialysis patients who were discharged, 4869 patients recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI (AKI recovery group) and were matched with 4869 patients without AKI (non-AKI group). The incidence rates of coronary events were 19.8 and 10.3 per 1000 person-years in the AKI recovery and non-AKI groups, respectively. AKI recovery associated with higher risk of coronary events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.36 to 2.04) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.79) independent of the effects of subsequent progression to CKD and ESRD. The risk levels of de novo coronary events after hospital discharge were similar in patients with diabetes alone and patients with AKI alone (P=0.23). Our results reveal that AKI with recovery associated with higher long-term risks of coronary events and death in this cohort, suggesting that AKI may identify patients with high risk of future coronary events. Enhanced postdischarge follow-up of renal function of patients who have recovered from temporary dialysis may be warranted.
Project description:There is little information available on the association between primary renal disease (PRD) and long-term mortality in the pediatric dialysis population. The objective of this study was to explore mortality risks in children and adolescents on chronic dialysis, specifically focused on the risk of various PRDs. The study cohort included children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (aged < 20 years) who had received dialysis for at least 90 days between 2000 and 2014 and were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance medical claims. A total of 530 children and adolescents were included in the study. The median age of the included patients was 13.6 years and 305 (57.5%) patients were males. One hundred and seven patients died during the follow-up period and the median survival time was 6.0 years. Mortality was highest in the youngest patients. For patients with the following PRDs, mortality was significantly higher than that in patients with primary glomerulonephritis: secondary glomerulonephritis (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 2.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03?6.08), urologic disorder (aHR: 4.77; 95% CI: 1.69?13.46), and metabolic diseases (aHR: 5.57; 95% CI: 1.84?16.85). Several kinds of PRDs appear to have high mortality risks in the pediatric dialysis population. These differences in mortality risk highlight the importance of the focused clinical management of these high-risk subgroups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. Hyperbilirubinemia might have some renal protection but with no clear cutoff value for protection. Related studies are typically on limited numbers of patients and only in conditions of vascular intervention. METHODS:We performed this study to elucidate CI-AKI in patients after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CCT). The outcomes were CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality. Patients were divided to three groups based on their serum levels of total bilirubin: ?1.2 mg/dl, 1.3-2.0 mg/dl, and >2.0 mg/dl. RESULTS:We enrolled a total of 9,496 patients who had received CCT. Patients with serum total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI. Those undergoing dialysis had the highest incidence of PC-AKI (p<0.001). No difference was found between the two groups of total bilirubin ?1.2 and 1.3-2.0 mg/dl. Patients with total bilirubin >2mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI (OR = 1.89, 1.53-2.33 of 95% CI), dialysis (OR = 1.40, 1.01-1.95 of 95% CI) and mortality (OR = 1.63, 1.38-1.93 of 95% CI) after adjusting for laboratory data and all comorbidities (i.e., cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding, cirrhosis, peritonitis, ascites, hepatoma, shock lung and colon cancer). We concluded that total bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after CCT. These patients also had high risks for cirrhosis or hepatoma. CONCLUSION:This is the first study providing evidence that hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl) being an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after receiving CCT. Most patients with total bilirubin >2.0mg/dl had cirrhosis or hepatoma.
Project description:The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI.We extended the follow-up of participants in the Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study from 90 days to 4 years after randomization. Primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and requirement for maintenance dialysis, respectively, assessed in 1,464 (97%) patients at a median of 43.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 30.0-48.6 months) post randomization. A total of 468/743 (63%) and 444/721 (62%) patients died in the lower and higher intensity groups, respectively (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12, p?=?0.49). Amongst survivors to day 90, 21 of 411 (5.1%) and 23 of 399 (5.8%) in the respective groups were treated with maintenance dialysis (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00, p?=?0.69). The prevalence of albuminuria among survivors was 40% and 44%, respectively (p?=?0.48). Quality of life was not different between the two treatment groups. The generalizability of these findings to other populations with AKI requires further exploration.Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis. Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria. Increased intensity of RRT does not reduce mortality or subsequent treatment with dialysis.www.ClinicalTrials.govNCT00221013.