V-ATPase (Vacuolar ATPase) Activity Required for ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Protein A1)-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux.
ABSTRACT: Objective- We have shown that ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette protein A1) mediates unfolding of the apoA1 (apolipoprotein A1) N-terminal helical hairpin during apoA1 lipidation. Others have shown that an acidic pH exposes the hydrophobic surface of apoA1. We postulated that the V-ATPase (vacuolar ATPase) proton pump facilitates apoA1 unfolding and promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Approach and Results- We found that V-ATPase inhibitors dose-dependently decreased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux to apoA1 in baby hamster kidney cells and RAW264.7 cells; and similarly, siRNA knockdown of ATP6V0C inhibited ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux to apoA1 in RAW264.7 cells. Although ABCA1 expression did not alter total cellular levels of V-ATPase, ABCA1 increased the cell surface levels of the V0A1 and V1E1 subunits of V-ATPase. We generated a fluorescein isothiocyanate/Alexa647 double-labeled fluorescent ratiometric apoA1 pH indicator whose fluorescein isothiocyanate/Alexa647 emission ratio decreased as the pH drops. We found that ABCA1 induction in baby hamster kidney cells led to acidification of the cell-associated apoA1 pH indicator, compared with control cells without ABCA1 expression. The V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 dose-dependently inhibited the apoA1 pH shift in ABCA1-expressing cells, without affecting the levels of cell-associated apoA1. However, we were not able to detect ABCA1-mediated extracellular proton release. We showed that acidic pH facilitated apoA1 unfolding, apoA1 solubilization of phosphatidycholine:phosphatidyserine liposomes, and increased lipid fluidity of these liposomes. Conclusions- Our results support a model that ABCA1 recruits V-ATPase to the plasma membrane where V-ATPase mediates apoA1 acidification and membrane remodeling that promote apoA1 unfolding and ABCA1-mediated HDL (high-density lipoprotein) biogenesis and lipid efflux.
Project description:HDL cholesterol levels are decreased in Crohn's disease, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-driven chronic inflammatory condition involving the gastrointestinal tract. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), one of several liver X receptor (LXR) target genes, is a cell surface transporter that mediates the rate-controlling step in HDL synthesis. The regulation of ABCA1 and HDL cholesterol efflux by TNF-alpha was investigated in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. In response to cholesterol micelles or T0901317, an LXR nonsterol agonist, TNF-alpha decreased the basolateral efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). TNF-alpha, by attenuating ABCA1 promoter activity, markedly decreased ABCA1 gene expression without attenuating the expression of LXR-alpha, LXR-beta, and most other LXR target genes, such as ABCG1, FAS, ABCG8, scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1), and apoC1. TNF-alpha also decreased ABCA1 mass by markedly enhancing the rate of ABCA1 degradation and modestly inhibiting its rate of synthesis. Inhibitors of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, which is activated by TNF-alpha, partially reverse the effect of TNF-alpha on ABCA1 protein expression. The results suggest that TNF-alpha, the major cytokine implicated in the inflammation of Crohn's disease, decreases HDL cholesterol levels by attenuating the expression of intestinal ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux to apoA1.
Project description:The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major regulator of macrophage cholesterol efflux and protects cells from excess intracellular cholesterol accumulation; however, the mechanism involved in posttranscriptional regulation of ABCA1 is poorly understood. We previously showed that microRNA-33 (miR-33) is 1 regulator. Here, we investigated the potential contribution of other microRNAs (miRNAs) to posttranscriptional regulation of ABCA1 and macrophage cholesterol efflux.We performed a bioinformatic analysis for identifying miRNA target prediction sites in ABCA1 gene and an unbiased genome-wide screen to identify miRNAs modulated by cholesterol excess in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR-758 is repressed in cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Under physiological conditions, high dietary fat excess in mice repressed miR-758 both in peritoneal macrophages and, to a lesser extent, in the liver. In mouse and human cells in vitro, miR-758 repressed the expression of ABCA1, and conversely, the inhibition of this miRNA by using anti-miR-758 increased ABCA1 expression. In mouse cells, miR-758 reduced cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), and anti-miR-758 increased it. miR-758 directly targets the 3'-untranslated region of Abca1 as assessed by 3'-untranslated region luciferase reporter assays. Interestingly, miR-758 is highly expressed in the brain, where it also targets several genes involved in neurological functions, including Slc38a1, Ntm, Epha7, and Mytl1.We identified miR-758 as a novel miRNA that posttranscriptionally controls ABCA1 levels in different cells and regulates macrophage cellular cholesterol efflux to apoA1, opening new avenues to increase apoA1 and raise high-density lipoprotein levels.
Project description:RATIONALE:The molecular mechanism by which ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates cellular binding of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) and nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) assembly is not well understood. OBJECTIVE:To determine the cell surface lipid that mediates apoA1 binding to ABCA1-expressing cells and the role it plays in nascent HDL assembly. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using multiple biochemical and biophysical methods, we found that apoA1 binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bis-phosphate (PIP2). Flow cytometry and PIP2 reporter-binding assays demonstrated that ABCA1 led to PIP2 redistribution from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Enzymatic cleavage of cell surface PIP2 or decreased cellular PIP2 by knockdown of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase impaired apoA1 binding and cholesterol efflux to apoA1. PIP2 also increased the spontaneous solubilization of phospholipid liposomes by apoA1. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that ABCA1's PIP2 and phosphatidylserine translocase activities are independent from each other. Furthermore, we discovered that PIP2 is effluxed from cells to apoA1, where it is associated with HDL in plasma, and that PIP2 on HDL is taken up by target cells in a scavenger receptor-BI-dependent manner. Mouse plasma PIP2 levels are apoA1 gene dosage-dependent and are >1 ?M in apoA1 transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS:ABCA1 has PIP2 floppase activity, which increases cell surface PIP2 levels that mediate apoA1 binding and lipid efflux during nascent HDL assembly. We found that PIP2 itself is effluxed to apoA1 and it circulates on plasma HDL, where it can be taken up via the HDL receptor scavenger receptor-BI.
Project description:The crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1) shows a large helical bundle structure in the amino half of the protein, from residues 8 to 115. Using site directed mutagenesis, guanidine or thermal denaturation, cell free liposome clearance, and cellular ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux assays, we demonstrate that apoA1 lipidation can occur when the thermodynamic barrier to this bundle unfolding is lowered. The absence of the C-terminus renders the bundle harder to unfold resulting in loss of apoA1 lipidation that can be reversed by point mutations, such as Trp8Ala, and by truncations as short as 8 residues in the amino terminus, both of which facilitate helical bundle unfolding. Locking the bundle via a disulfide bond leads to loss of apoA1 lipidation. We propose a model in which the C-terminus acts on the N-terminus to destabilize this helical bundle. Upon lipid binding to the C-terminus, Trp8 is displaced from its interaction with Phe57, Arg61, Leu64, Val67, Phe71, and Trp72 to destabilize the bundle. However, when the C-terminus is deleted, Trp8 cannot be displaced, the bundle cannot unfold, and apoA1 cannot be lipidated.
Project description:At the time of diagnosis, 20% of patients with colorectal cancer present metastasis. Among individuals with primary lesions, 50% of them will develop distant tumours with time. Therefore, early diagnosis and prediction of aggressiveness is crucial for therapy design and disease prognosis. Tumoral cells must undergo significant changes in energy metabolism to meet increased structural and energetic demands for cell proliferation, and metabolic alterations are considered to be a hallmark of cancer. Here, we present the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1), a regulator of cholesterol transport, as a new marker for invasion and colorectal cancer survival. ABCA1 is significantly overexpressed in patients at advanced stages of colorectal cancer, and its overexpression confers proliferative advantages together with caveolin-1 dependent-increased migratory and invasive capacities. Thus, intracellular cholesterol imbalances mediated by ABCA1 overexpression may contribute to primary tumour growth and dissemination to distant locations. Furthermore, we demonstrate here that increased levels of apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), a protein involved in cholesterol efflux and high-density lipoprotein constitution, in the extracellular compartment modulates expression of ABCA1 by regulating COX-2, and compensate for ABCA1-dependent excessive export of cholesterol. APOA1 emerges as a new therapeutic option to inhibit the promotion of colorectal cancer to metastasis by modulating intracellular cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, we propose apabetalone, an orally available small molecule that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of atherosclerosis, as a new putative therapeutic option to prevent colorectal cancer progression by increasing APOA1 expression and regulating reverse transport of cholesterol.
Project description:Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we investigated proteins that regulate macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and ABCA1-specific CEC (ABCA1 CEC), 2 functional assays that predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). Macrophage CEC and the concentration of HDL particles were markedly reduced in mice deficient in apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) or apolipoprotein E (APOE) but not apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4). ABCA1 CEC was markedly reduced in APOA1-deficient mice but was barely affected in mice deficient in APOE or APOA4. High-resolution size-exclusion chromatography of plasma produced 2 major peaks of ABCA1 CEC activity. The early-eluting peak, which coeluted with HDL, was markedly reduced in APOA1- or APOE-deficient mice. The late-eluting peak was modestly reduced in APOA1-deficient mice but little affected in APOE- or APOA4-deficient mice. Ion-exchange chromatography and shotgun proteomics suggested that plasminogen (PLG) accounted for a substantial fraction of the ABCA1 CEC activity in the peak not associated with HDL. Human PLG promoted cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway, and PLG-dependent efflux was inhibited by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Our observations identify APOA1, APOE, and PLG as key determinants of CEC. Because PLG and Lp(a) associate with human CVD risk, interplay among the proteins might affect atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Project description:ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (encoded by ABCA1) regulates cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoproteins A-I and E (ApoA-I and APOE; encoded by APOA1 and APOE, respectively) and the generation of high density lipoproteins. In Abca1 knockout mice (Abca1(ko)), high density lipoproteins and ApoA-I are virtually lacking, and total APOE and APOE-containing lipoproteins in brain substantially decreased. As the ?4 allele of APOE is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, ABCA1 role as a modifier of APOE lipidation is of significance for this disease. Reportedly, Abca1 deficiency in mice expressing human APP accelerates amyloid deposition and behaviour deficits. We used APP/PS1dE9 mice crossed to Apoe and Apoa1 knockout mice to generate Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice. We hypothesized that Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice would mimic the phenotype of APP/Abca1(ko) mice in regards to amyloid plaques and cognitive deficits. Amyloid pathology, peripheral lipoprotein metabolism, cognitive deficits and dendritic morphology of Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice were compared to APP/Abca1(ko), APP/PS1dE9, and single Apoa1 and Apoe knockouts. Contrary to our prediction, the results demonstrate that double deletion of Apoe and Apoa1 ameliorated the amyloid pathology, including amyloid plaques and soluble amyloid. In double knockout mice we show that (125)I-amyloid-? microinjected into the central nervous system cleared at a rate twice faster compared to Abca1 knockout mice. We tested the effect of Apoe, Apoa1 or Abca1 deficiency on spreading of exogenous amyloid-? seeds injected into the brain of young pre-depositing APP mice. The results show that lack of Abca1 augments dissemination of exogenous amyloid significantly more than the lack of Apoe. In the periphery, Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice exhibited substantial atherosclerosis and very high levels of low density lipoproteins compared to APP/PS1dE9 and APP/Abca1(ko). Plasma level of amyloid-?42 measured at several time points for each mouse was significantly higher in Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout then in APP/Abca1(ko) mice. This result demonstrates that mice with the lowest level of plasma lipoproteins, APP/Abca1(ko), have the lowest level of peripheral amyloid-?. Unexpectedly, and independent of amyloid pathology, the deletion of both apolipoproteins worsened behaviour deficits of double knockout mice and their performance was undistinguishable from those of Abca1 knockout mice. Finally we observed that the dendritic complexity in the CA1 region of hippocampus but not in CA2 is significantly impaired by Apoe/Apoa1 double deletion as well as by lack of ABCA1.(i) plasma lipoproteins may affect amyloid-? clearance from the brain by the 'peripheral sink' mechanism; and (ii) deficiency of brain APOE-containing lipoproteins is of significance for dendritic complexity and cognition.
Project description:Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition that leads to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. A decrease in cholesterol efflux capacity is linked to CVD. We hypothesized that in preeclampsia there would be a disruption of maternal/fetal plasma to efflux cholesterol, as well as differences in the concentrations of both placental sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and apoA1 binding protein (AIBP). Total, HDL-, and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol effluxes were performed with maternal and fetal plasma from women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls (both n = 17). apoA1 and apoE were quantified by chemiluminescence, and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) by GC-MS. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine placental expression/localization of CYP27A1, AIBP, apoA1, apoE, and SRB1. Maternal and fetal total and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities were increased in preeclampsia (by 10-20%), but ABCA1-mediated efflux was decreased (by 20-35%; P < 0.05). Maternal and fetal apoE concentrations were higher in preeclampsia. Fetal plasma 27-OHC levels were decreased in preeclamptic samples (P < 0.05). Placental protein expression of both CYP27A1 and AIBP were localized around fetal vessels and significantly increased in preeclampsia (P = 0.04). Placental 27-OHC concentrations were also raised in preeclampsia (P < 0.05). Increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and placental CYP27A1/27-OHC could be a rescue mechanism in preeclampsia, to remove cholesterol from cells to limit lipid peroxidation and increase placental angiogenesis.
Project description:Cholesterol efflux capacity associates strongly and negatively with the incidence and prevalence of human CVD. We investigated the relationships of HDL's size and protein cargo with its cholesterol efflux capacity using APOB-depleted serum and HDLs isolated from five inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to atherosclerosis. Like humans, mouse HDL carried >70 proteins linked to lipid metabolism, the acute-phase response, proteinase inhibition, and the immune system. HDL's content of specific proteins strongly correlated with its size and cholesterol efflux capacity, suggesting that its protein cargo regulates its function. Cholesterol efflux capacity with macrophages strongly and positively correlated with retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and PLTP, but not APOA1. In contrast, ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux correlated strongly with HDL's content of APOA1, APOC3, and APOD, but not RBP4 and PLTP. Unexpectedly, APOE had a strong negative correlation with ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Moreover, the ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL isolated from APOE-deficient mice was significantly greater than that of HDL from wild-type mice. Our observations demonstrate that the HDL-associated APOE regulates HDL's ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. These findings may be clinically relevant because HDL's APOE content associates with CVD risk and ABCA1 deficiency promotes unregulated cholesterol accumulation in human macrophages.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated lipid efflux to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA-I) initiates the biogenesis of high density lipoprotein. Here we show that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG bind to the C terminus of ABCA1 by a PDZ-PDZ interaction and prevent ABCA1 protein degradation by activating RhoA. ABCA1 is a protein with a short half-life, and apoA-I stabilizes ABCA1 protein; however, depletion of PDZ-RhoGEF/LARG by RNA interference suppressed the apoA-I stabilization of ABCA1 protein in human primary fibroblasts. Exogenous PDZ-RhoGEF expression activated RhoA and increased ABCA1 protein levels and cholesterol efflux activity. Likewise, forced expression of a constitutively active RhoA mutant significantly increased ABCA1 protein levels, whereas a dominant negative RhoA mutant decreased them. The constitutively active RhoA retarded ABCA1 degradation, thus accounting for its ability to increase ABCA1 protein. Moreover, stimulation with apoA-I transiently activated RhoA, and the pharmacological inhibition of RhoA or the dominant negative RhoA blocked the ability of apoA-I to stabilize ABCA1. Finally, depletion of RhoA or RhoGEFs/RhoA reduces the cholesterol efflux when transcriptional regulation via PPARgamma is eliminated. Taken together, our results have identified a novel physical and functional interaction between ABCA1 and PDZ-RhoGEF/LARG, which activates RhoA, resulting in ABCA1 stabilization and cholesterol efflux activity.