Estrogen Modulates Glycerol Permeability in Sertoli Cells through Downregulation of Aquaporin-9.
ABSTRACT: High 17?-Estradiol (E2) levels are known to cause alterations of spermatogenesis and environments throughout the male reproductive tract. Sertoli cells (SCs) ensure an adequate environment inside the seminiferous tubule. Glycerol stands as essential for the maintenance of blood?testis barrier created by SCs, however, the role of E2 in this process is not known. Herein, we hypothesized that the effect of E2 on glycerol permeability in mouse SCs (mSCs) could be mediated by aquaglyceroporins. The expression of aquaglyceroporins was assessed by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Glycerol permeability was evaluated by stopped-flow light scattering. We were able to identify the expression of AQP3 and AQP9 in mSCs where AQP9 is more abundant than AQP3. Our results show that high E2 levels decrease AQP9 mRNA abundance with no influence on AQP3 in mSCs. Interestingly, high E2 levels decreased mSCs' permeability to glycerol, while downregulating AQP9 expression, thus suggesting a novel mechanism by which E2 modulates fluid secretion in the testis. In conclusion, E2 is an important regulator of mSCs physiology and secretion through changes in AQP9 expression and function. Thus, alterations in glycerol permeability induced by E2 may be the cause for male infertility in cases associated with the presence of high E2 levels.
Project description:The aquaglyceroporins are a subfamily of aquaporins that conduct both water and glycerol. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) has an important physiological function in renal water reabsorption, and AQP3-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) permeability can enhance cytokine signaling in several cell types. The related aquaglyceroporin AQP7 is required for dendritic cell chemokine responses and antigen uptake. Selective small-molecule inhibitors are desirable tools for investigating the biological and pathological roles of these and other AQP isoforms. Here, using a calcein fluorescence quenching assay, we screened a library of 7360 drug-like small molecules for inhibition of mouse AQP3 water permeability. Hit confirmation and expansion with commercially available substances identified the ortho-chloride-containing compound DFP00173, which inhibited mouse and human AQP3 with an IC50 of ?0.1-0.4 ?m but had low efficacy toward mouse AQP7 and AQP9. Surprisingly, inhibitor specificity testing revealed that the methylurea-linked compound Z433927330, a partial AQP3 inhibitor (IC50, ?0.7-0.9 ?m), is a potent and efficacious inhibitor of mouse AQP7 water permeability (IC50, ?0.2 ?m). Stopped-flow light scattering measurements confirmed that DFP00173 and Z433927330 inhibit AQP3 glycerol permeability in human erythrocytes. Moreover, DFP00173, Z433927330, and the previously identified AQP9 inhibitor RF03176 blocked aquaglyceroporin H2O2 permeability. Molecular docking to AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9 homology models suggested interactions between these inhibitors and aquaglyceroporins at similar binding sites. DFP00173 and Z433927330 constitute selective and potent AQP3 and AQP7 inhibitors, respectively, and contribute to a set of isoform-specific aquaglyceroporin inhibitors that will facilitate the evaluation of these AQP isoforms as drug targets.
Project description:Aquaglyceroporins (AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10) encompass a subfamily of aquaporins that allow the movement of water and other small solutes, especially glycerol, through cell membranes. Adipose tissue constitutes a major source of glycerol via AQP7. We have recently reported that, in addition to the well-known expression of AQP7 in adipose tissue, AQP3 and AQP9 are also expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat depots. Moreover, insulin and leptin act as regulators of aquaglyceroporins through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. AQP3 and AQP7 appear to facilitate glycerol efflux from adipose tissue while reducing the glycerol influx into hepatocytes via AQP9 to prevent the excessive lipid accumulation and the subsequent aggravation of hyperglycemia in human obesity. This Extra View focuses on the control of glycerol release by aquaglyceroporins in the adipose tissue and briefly discusses the importance of glycerol as a substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis, pancreatic insulin secretion and cardiac ATP production.
Project description:Glycerol is an important metabolite for the control of lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous administration of leptin improves features of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice via the regulation of AQP3 and AQP7 (glycerol channels mediating glycerol efflux in adipocytes) and AQP9 (aquaglyceroporin facilitating glycerol influx in hepatocytes). Twelve-week-old male wild type and ob/ob mice were divided in three groups as follows: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and pair-fed. Leptin deficiency was associated with obesity and NAFLD exhibiting an AQP3 and AQP7 increase in WAT, without changes in hepatic AQP9. Adipose Aqp3 and hepatic Aqp9 transcripts positively correlated with markers of adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Chronic leptin administration (4-weeks) was associated with improved body weight, whole-body adiposity, and hepatosteatosis of ob/ob mice and to a down-regulation of AQP3, AQP7 in WAT and an up-regulation of hepatic AQP9. Acute leptin stimulation in vitro (4-h) induced the mobilization of aquaglyceroporins towards lipid droplets (AQP3) and the plasma membrane (AQP7) in murine adipocytes. Our results show that leptin restores the coordinated regulation of fat-specific AQP7 and liver-specific AQP9, a step which might prevent lipid overaccumulation in WAT and liver in obesity.
Project description:Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a member of the aquaglyceroporin family, which transports water and glycerol, is robustly expressed in epidermis and plays an important role in stratum corneum hydration, permeability barrier function and wound healing. PPAR and LXR activation regulates the expression of many proteins in the epidermis and thereby can affect epidermal function. Here, we report that PPARgamma activators markedly stimulate AQP3 mRNA expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated cultured human keratinocytes (CHKs). The increase in AQP3 mRNA by PPARgamma activator occurs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Increased AQP3 mRNA levels are accompanied by an increase in AQP3 protein in undifferentiated keratinocytes and a significant increase in glycerol uptake. Activation of LXR, RAR and RXR also increases AQP3 mRNA levels in undifferentiated and differentiated CHKs, but to a lesser extent. PPARdelta activation stimulates AQP3 expression in undifferentiated CHKs but decreases expression in differentiated CHKs. In contrast, PPARalpha activators do not alter AQP3 expression. AQP9 and AQP10, other members of aquaglyceroporin family, are less abundantly expressed in CHKs, and their expression levels are not significantly a