The Pro-Oxidant Activity of Pheomelanin is Significantly Enhanced by UVA Irradiation: Benzothiazole Moieties Are More Reactive than Benzothiazine Moieties.
ABSTRACT: It is generally considered that eumelanin (EM) is photoprotective while pheomelanin (PM) is phototoxic. A recent study using a mouse model demonstrated that PM produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause DNA damage and eventually lead to melanomagenesis. A biochemical study showed that PM possesses a pro-oxidant activity. PM consists of benzothiazine (BT) and benzothiazole (BZ) moieties, BT moieties being transformed to BZ moieties by heat or light. In this study, we compared the effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation using synthetic PMs with different BT to BZ ratios and using various coat color mouse hairs. We found that UVA irradiation of BZ-PM increased glutathione (GSH) depletion and generated more H?O? than UVA irradiation of BT-PM. Non-irradiated controls did not exhibit strong pro-oxidant activities. Upon UVA irradiation, yellow mouse hairs oxidized GSH and produced H?O? faster than black or albino mouse hairs. Next, to examine the mechanism of the pro-oxidant activity of BT-PM and BZ-PM, we examined the pro-oxidant activities of 7-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-dihydro-1,4-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid (DHBTCA) and 6-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-4-hydroxybenzothiazole (BZ-AA) as BT and BZ monomers, respectively. Their pro-oxidant activities were similar, but a large difference was seen in the effects of ROS scavengers, which suggests that the redox reactions may proceed via singlet oxygen in BZ-AA and via superoxide anions in DHBTCA. These results show that UVA enhances the pro-oxidant activity of PM, in particular BZ-PM.
Project description:An efficient and practical synthesis of benzothiazine by K2S initiated sulfur insertion reaction with enaminones via electron catalysis is developed. This protocol provides a new, environment-friendly and simple strategy to construct benzothiazine derivatives via formation of two C-S bonds under transition metal-free, additive-free and oxidant-free conditions. K2S not only provides the sulfur insertion source, but also ignites the reaction through the formation of a trisulfur radical anion and electrons in DMF.
Project description:Damage to the microvascular endothelium is an important part of normal tissue injury after radiation exposure and driven by the production of pro-oxidants. The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is present in the mitochondrial matrix (mitoCaMKII) where it regulates Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) and pro-oxidant production. Here, we demonstrate that radiation exposure disrupts endothelial cell barrier integrity in vitro, but can be abrogated by inhibition of mitoCaMKII, MCU, or opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Scavenging of mitochondrial pro-oxidants with mitoTEMPO before, but not after irradiation, protected barrier function. Furthermore, markers of apoptosis and mitochondrial pro-oxidant production were elevated at 24?h following irradiation and abolished by mitoCaMKII inhibition. Endothelial barrier dysfunction was detected as early as 2?h after irradiation. Despite only mildly impaired mitochondrial respiration, the intracellular ATP levels were significantly reduced 4?h after irradiation and correlated with barrier function. MitoCaMKII inhibition improved intracellular ATP concentrations by increasing glycolysis. Finally, DNA double strand break repair and non-homologous end joining, two major drivers of ATP consumption after irradiation, were greatly increased but not significantly affected by mitoCaMKII inhibition. These findings support the hypothesis that mitoCaMKII activity is linked to mitochondrial pro-oxidant production, reduced ATP production, and loss of endothelial barrier function following irradiation. The inhibition of mitoCaMKII is a promising approach to limiting radiation-induced endothelial injury.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces detrimental changes in human skin which result in photoaging. UV-induced intracellular changes cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). UV-stimulated cleavage of collagen in ECM occurs via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (±)-syringaresinol (SYR), a phytochemical which belongs to the lignan group of polyphenols, was investigated for its ability to reverse the UVA-induced changes in human HaCaT keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro. Effect of SYR on UVA-induced changes was investigated by production and activation of MMPs and its transcriptional upstream effectors; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and pro-inflammatory mediators. Levels of expression were determined using ELISA, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. UVA irradiation stimulated the production of MMP-1 and inhibited collagen production. SYR treatment suppressed MMP-1 and enhanced collagen production in UVA-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes and HDFs. SYR repressed the UV-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in HaCaT keratinocytes while only suppressing JNK phosphorylation in HDFs. In addition, SYR was able to inhibit UVA-induced production of inflammatory cytokines; TNF-?, COX-2, IL-1? and IL-6. Moreover, SYR suppressed the activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos. SYR-treatment decreased nuclear levels of activated c-Fos and c-Jun as a mechanism to inhibit UVA-induced transcriptional activities leading to MMP-1 production. In conclusion, current results demonstrated that SYR could inhibit UVA-induced upregulation of MMP-1 by suppressing MAPK/AP-1 signaling in HaCaT keratinocytes and HDFs. Therefore, SYR was suggested as a potential compound with antiphotoaging properties against UVA-induced skin aging.
Project description:A general regioselective one-pot synthesis of 1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxides from 2-iodo benzenesulfonamide moieties and allenylstannanes is described using a domino Stille-like/Azacyclization reaction. The conditions developed also opened a novel access to ?-carbolinones, indolopyranones, thienopyranones and pyrano-imidazopyridines.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin pigmentation, which relies on the intercellular crosstalk of melanin between melanocytes to keratinocytes. However, studying the separate effects of UVA and UVB irradiation reveals differences in cellular response. Herein, we show an immediate shedding of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the plasma membrane when exposing human melanocytes to UVA, but not UVB. The EV-shedding is preceded by UVA-induced plasma membrane damage, which is rapidly repaired by Ca(2+)-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. Using co-cultures of melanocytes and keratinocytes, we show that EVs are preferably endocytosed by keratinocytes. Importantly, EV-formation is prevented by the inhibition of exocytosis and increased lysosomal pH but is not affected by actin and microtubule inhibitors. Melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes is equally stimulated by UVA and UVB and depends on a functional cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we show a novel cell response after UVA irradiation, resulting in transfer of lysosome-derived EVs from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
Project description:To perform various physiological functions, erythrocytes possess a unique biconcave shape provided by a special architecture of the membrane-skeleton system. In the present work, we use a simple irradiation method to treat human erythrocytes with 365?nm ultraviolet-A (UVA) light at the single-cell level in vitro. Depending on the irradiation dose, UVA show protection of the biconcave profile against the detrimental action of distilled water. This protective effect can also be confirmed for saponin that damages the membrane-skeleton by vesiculation and pore formation. Interestingly, at two irradiation doses of UVA pretreatment, erythrocytes still seem to exhibit cell viability as tested by trypan blue assay even if distilled water or saponin is added. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide partly simulate the protective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 365?nm UVA irradiation can protect the biconcave profile of human erythrocytes through membrane-skeleton enhancement associated with a production of oxidants.
Project description:Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis.
Project description:In this study, we found a role for H(2)O(2) in UVA-induced AP-2alpha expression in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. UVA irradiation not only increased AP-2alpha, but also caused accumulation of H(2)O(2) in the cell culture media, and H(2)O(2) by itself could induce the expression of AP-2alpha. By catalyzing the removal of H(2)O(2) from cells through over-expression of GPx-1, induction of AP-2alpha expression by UVA was abolished. Induction of transcription factor AP-2alpha by UVA had been previously shown to be mediated through the second messenger ceramide. We found that not only UVA irradiation, but also H(2)O(2) by itself caused increases of ceramide in HaCaT cells, and C2-ceramide added to cells induced the AP-2alpha signaling pathway. Finally, forced expression of GPx-1 eliminated UVA-induced ceramide accumulation as well as AP-2alpha expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2alpha expression by suppressing the accumulation of H(2)O(2).
Project description:Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is responsible for a variety of changes in cell biology. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of aspartic acid on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). Furthermore, we elucidated the UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of aspartic acid. The results of this study showed that aspartic acid attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs, as evidenced by increased proliferative activity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 in response to the aspartic acid treatment. UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? was also significantly recovered by aspartic acid. In addition, the antagonizing effects of aspartic acid against the UVA effects were found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through the inhibition of JNK and p42/44 MAPK. Taken together, these findings show that aspartic acid improves reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA and its effects are mediated by upregulation of HIF-1? via the inhibition of PGE2-cAMP signaling. In addition, aspartic acid may be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA.
Project description:Root caries is an increasingly problem in aging societies with severe implications for the general health and wellbeing of large numbers of people. Strengthening type-I collagen, a major organic component of human dentin, has proved effective in preventing root caries. This study sought to determine whether exposure to riboflavin followed by UVA irradiation (RF/UVA) could promote additional collagen crosslinking, and thus improve the acid and enzymatic resistance of human dentin under simulated oral environments. If so, it could offer potential for treatment of the intractable problem of root caries. The greatest flexural strengths were found in dentin exposed to a 0.1% riboflavin solution for 1?minute followed by 1,600 mW/cm2 UVA irradiation for 10?minutes. Mineral loss and lesion depth were significantly lower in the RF/UVA group than in the control group. The microstructures of dentinal tubules and collagen networks after RF/UVA treatment retained their original forms after acidic and enzymatic degradation. In conclusion, RF/UVA treatment may be a new method for preventing root caries with promising prospects for clinical application.