Chrysoxanthones A?C, Three New Xanthone?Chromanone Heterdimers from Sponge-Associated Penicillium chrysogenum HLS111 Treated with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor.
ABSTRACT: By treating with histone-deacetylase inhibitor valproate sodium, three new heterdimeric tetrahydroxanthone?chromanone lactones chrysoxanthones A?C (1?3), along with 17 known compounds were isolated from a sponge-associated Penicillium chrysogenum HLS111. The planar structures of chrysoxanthones A?C were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analyses, including MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their absolute configurations were established by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Chrysoxanthones A?C exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 5?10 ?g/mL.
Project description:A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3-9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2' of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5-8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79-23.66 ?M), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58-47.35 ?M), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 ?M), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 ?M).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Small, cysteine-rich and cationic antifungal proteins (APs) from filamentous ascomycetes, such as NFAP from Neosartorya fischeri and PAF from Penicillium chrysogenum, are promising candidates for novel drug development. A prerequisite for their application is a detailed knowledge about their structure-function relation and mode of action, which would allow protein modelling to enhance their toxicity and specificity. Technologies for structure analyses, such as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) or NMR spectroscopy, require highly purified samples and in case of NMR milligrams of uniformly 15N-/13C-isotope labelled protein. To meet these requirements, we developed a P. chrysogenum-based expression system that ensures sufficient amount and optimal purity of APs for structural and functional analyses. RESULTS:The APs PAF, PAF mutants and NFAP were expressed in a P. chrysogenum ∆paf mutant strain that served as perfect microbial expression factory. This strain lacks the paf-gene coding for the endogenous antifungal PAF and is resistant towards several APs from other ascomycetes. The expression of the recombinant proteins was under the regulation of the strong paf promoter, and the presence of a paf-specific pre-pro sequence warranted the secretion of processed proteins into the supernatant. The use of defined minimal medium allowed a single-step purification of the recombinant proteins. The expression system could be extended to express PAF in the related fungus Penicillium digitatum, which does not produce detectable amounts of APs, demonstrating the versatility of the approach. The molecular masses, folded structures and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were analysed by ESI-MS, ECD and NMR spectroscopy and growth inhibition assays. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates the implementation of a paf promoter driven expression cassettes for the production of cysteine-rich, cationic, APs in different Penicillium species. The system is a perfect tool for the generation of correctly folded proteins with high quality for structure-function analyses.
Project description:The chemical examination of the solid cultures of the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum MCCC 3A00292 resulted in the isolation of three new versiol-type analogues, namely peniciversiols A-C (1-3), and two novel lactone derivatives, namely penicilactones A and B (6 and 7), along with 11 known polyketides. The planar structures of the new compounds were determined by the comprehensive analyses of the high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, while their absolute configurations were resolved on the basis of comparisons of the experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with the calculated ECD data. Compound 1 is the second example of versiols featuring a 2,3-dihydropyran-4-one ring. Additionally, compounds 6 and 7 are the first representatives of ?-lactone derivatives constructed by a 1,3-dihydroxy-5-methylbenzene unit esterifying with the ?-methyl-?-hydroxy-?-acetic acid ?,?-unsaturated-?-lactone moiety and ?-hydroxy-?-methyl-?-acetic acid ?,?-unsaturated-?-lactone unit, respectively. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines of BIU-87, ECA109, BEL-7402, PANC-1, and Hela-S3. Compound 1 exhibited a selective inhibitory effect against the BIU-87 cell line (IC50 = 10.21 ?M), while compounds 4, 5, 8, and 12-16 showed inhibitory activities against the ECA109, BIU-87, and BEL-7402 cell lines with the IC50 values ranging from 7.70 to > 20 ?M.
Project description:Chromatographic separation of a marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum AD-1540, which was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Grateloupia turuturu, yielded two new benzophenone derivatives, chryxanthones A and B (compounds 1 and 2, respectively). Their structures were undoubtedly determined by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR and HRESIMS). The relative and absolute configurations were assigned by analysis of the coupling constants and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of their electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, respectively. Both compounds possessed an unusual dihydropyran ring (ring D) fused to an aromatic ring, rather than the commonly occurring prenyl moiety, and a plausible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against six human cell lines, and both of the compounds demonstrated weak to moderate cytotoxicities with IC50 values ranging from 20.4 to 46.4 ?M. These new compounds further demonstrate the potential of marine-derived fungi as an untapped source of pharmaceutical components with unique properties that could be developed as drug candidates.
Project description:A system for regulated heterologous gene expression in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum was established. This is the first heterologous expression system to be developed for this organism. Expression of a recombinant fungal xylanase gene (xylp) and the cDNA for the human tear lipocalin (LCNI) was achieved by placing the encoding sequences under the control of the repressible acid phosphatase gene (phoA) promoter of P. chrysogenum. Secreted recombinant proteins were detected in the growth media of transformed P. chrysogenum cells by means of bioassays, zymogramography, and Western blotting. Levels of transcription and amounts of recombinant proteins secreted varied among transformants, mainly due to the copy number and the integration site of the expression vector on the fungal chromosome.
Project description:Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two highly supported clades, and we show here that these two clades represent two species, P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. These species are phenotypically similar, but extrolite analysis shows that P. chrysogenum produces secalonic acid D and F and/or a metabolite related to lumpidin, while P. rubens does not produce these metabolites. Fleming's original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed.
Project description:We have investigated the significance of autophagy in the production of the ?-lactam antibiotic penicillin (PEN) by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. In this fungus PEN production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. We demonstrate that under PEN-producing conditions significant amounts of cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins are degraded via autophagy. Morphological analysis, based on electron and fluorescence microscopy, revealed that this phenomenon might contribute to progressive deterioration of late subapical cells. We show that deletion of the P. chrysogenum ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serine-threonine kinase atg1 results in impairment of autophagy. In P. chrysogenum atg1 cells, a distinct delay in cell degeneration is observed relative to wild-type cells. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the enzyme levels of the PEN biosynthetic pathway and enhanced production levels of this antibacterial compound.
Project description:Three new diketopiperazine alkaloids, including two oxepine-containing diketopiperazines, chrysopiperazines A and B (1 and 2), and one quinazoline-containing diketopiperazine, chrysopiperazine C (5), together with three known analogues (3, 4, and 6), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived Penicillium chrysogenum fungus. The relative and absolute configurations of C-3 and C-15 in 1 and 2, C-3 and C-14 in 5 were established by NOE modified Marfey's analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Particularly, the absolute configurations of C-19 in 1 and 3, which was very challenging to be identified due to the flexible conformation in a short aliphatic chain, were successfully determined by the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) method, supplying with a reliable and optional method to define the absolute configurations. Additionally, this is the first report on oxepine-containing diketopiperazines from the genus Penicillium.
Project description:Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Penicillium chrysogenum has been used in producing penicillin and derived ?-lactam antibiotics for many years. Although the genome of the mutant strain P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 has already been sequenced, the versatility and genetic diversity of this species still needs to be intensively studied. In this study, the genome of the wild-type P. chrysogenum strain KF-25, which has high activity against Ustilaginoidea virens, was sequenced and characterized. RESULTS: The genome of KF-25 was about 29.9 Mb in size and contained 9,804 putative open reading frames (orfs). Thirteen genes were predicted to encode two-component system proteins, of which six were putatively involved in osmolarity adaption. There were 33 putative secondary metabolism pathways and numerous genes that were essential in metabolite biosynthesis. Several P. chrysogenum virus untranslated region sequences were found in the KF-25 genome, suggesting that there might be a relationship between the virus and P. chrysogenum in evolution. Comparative genome analysis showed that the genomes of KF-25 and Wisconsin 54-1255 were highly similar, except that KF-25 was 2.3 Mb smaller. Three hundred and fifty-five KF-25 specific genes were found and the biological functions of the proteins encoded by these genes were mainly unknown (232, representing 65%), except for some orfs encoding proteins with predicted functions in transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. Numerous KF-25-specific genes were found to be associated with the pathogenicity and virulence of the strains, which were identical to those of wild-type P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951. CONCLUSION: Genome sequencing and comparative analysis are helpful in further understanding the biology, evolution, and environment adaption of P. chrysogenum, and provide a new tool for identifying further functional metabolites.