Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Ultrasonic Joints Using Cu Interlayer.
ABSTRACT: NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of functional materials which can be significantly deformed and recover their original shape via a reversible martensitic phase transformation. Developing effective joining techniques can expand the application of SMAs in the medical and engineering fields. In this study, ultrasonic spot welding (USW), a solid-state joining technique, was used to join NiTi sheets using a Cu interlayer in between the two joining sheets. The influence of USW process on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical behavior of the NiTi joints was investigated. Compared with conventional fusion welding techniques, no intermetallic compounds formed in the joints, which is extreme importance for this particular class of alloys. The joining mechanisms involve a combination of shear plastic deformation, mechanical interlocking and formation of micro-welds. A better bonding interface was obtained with higher welding energy levels, which contributed to a higher tensile load. An interfacial fracture mode occurred and the fracture surfaces exhibited both brittle and ductile-like characteristics with the existence of tear ridges and dimples. The fracture initiated at the weak region of the joint border and then propagated through it, leading to tearing of Cu foil at the fracture interface.
Project description:Conventional fusion welding of brass (Cu-Zn) alloys has some difficulties such as evaporation of Zn, toxic behavior of Zn vapor, solidification cracking, distortion, and oxidation , , . Fortunately, friction stir welding (FSW) has been proved to be a good candidate for joining the brass alloys, which can overcome the fusion welding short comes , , , . The data presented here relates to FSW of the single and double phase brass alloys. The data is the microstructure and mechanical properties of the base metals and joints.
Project description:Due to a distinct nature of thermomechanical smart materials' reaction to applied loads, a revolutionary approach is needed to measure the hardness and to understand its size effect for pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) during the solid-state phase transition. Spherical hardness is increased with depths during the phase transition in NiTi SMAs. This behaviour is contrary to the decrease in the hardness of NiTi SMAs with depths using sharp tips and the depth-insensitive hardness of traditional metallic alloys using spherical tips. In contrast with the common dislocation theory for the hardness measurement, the nature of NiTi SMAs' hardness is explained by the balance between the interface and the bulk energy of phase transformed SMAs. Contrary to the energy balance in the indentation zone using sharp tips, the interface energy was numerically shown to be less dominant than the bulk energy of the phase transition zone using spherical tips.
Project description:Porous shape memory alloys (SMAs), including NiTi and Ni-free Ti-based alloys, are unusual materials for hard-tissue replacements because of their unique superelasticity (SE), good biocompatibility, and low elastic modulus. However, the Ni ion releasing for porous NiTi SMAs in physiological conditions and relatively low SE for porous Ni-free SMAs have delayed their clinic applications as implantable materials. The present article reviews recent research progresses on porous NiTi and Ni-free SMAs for hard-tissue replacements, focusing on two specific topics: (i) synthesis of porous SMAs with optimal porous structure, microstructure, mechanical, and biological properties; and, (ii) surface modifications that are designed to create bio-inert or bio-active surfaces with low Ni releasing and high biocompatibility for porous NiTi SMAs. With the advances of preparation technique, the porous SMAs can be tailored to satisfied porous structure with porosity ranging from 30% to 85% and different pore sizes. In addition, they can exhibit an elastic modulus of 0.4?15 GPa and SE of more than 2.5%, as well as good cell and tissue biocompatibility. As a result, porous SMAs had already been used in maxillofacial repairing, teeth root replacement, and cervical and lumbar vertebral implantation. Based on current research progresses, possible future directions are discussed for "property-pore structure" relationship and surface modification investigations, which could lead to optimized porous biomedical SMAs. We believe that porous SMAs with optimal porous structure and a bioactive surface layer are the most competitive candidate for short-term and long-term hard-tissue replacement materials.
Project description:The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW)-at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with "river-flow" patterns and characteristic fatigue striations.
Project description:Recently, amorphous alloys have attracted many researchers' attention for amorphous structures and excellent properties. However, the welding of amorphous alloys to traditional metals in the microscale is not easy to realize in the process with amorphous structures unchanged, which restrains the application in industry. In this paper, a new method of welding Fe-based amorphous alloys (GB1K101) to crystalline copper by laser impact welding (LIW) is investigated. A series of experiments was conducted under different laser energies, during which Fe-based amorphous alloys and crystalline copper were welded successfully by LIW. In addition, the microstructure and mechanical properties of welding joints were observed and measured, respectively. The results showed that the surface wave and springback were observed on the flyer plate after LIW. The welding interface was straight or wavy due to different plastic deformation under different laser energies. The welding interface was directly bonded tightly without visible defects. No visible element diffusion and intermetallic phases were found in the welding interface. The Fe-based amorphous alloys retained amorphous structures after LIW under the laser energy of 835 mJ. The nanoindentation hardness across the welding interface showed an increase on both sides of the welding interface. The results of the lap shearing test showed that the fracture position was on the side of copper coil.
Project description:Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) such as Mg17Al12 and Mg₂Al₃. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.
Project description:Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing-microstructure-property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.
Project description:Martensitic transformation and phase stability of Ti50(Ni50-xCux) and Ni50(Ti50-xZrx) shape memory alloys are investigated based on density functional theory (DFT). According to the results of formation energy we calculated, upon substitution of Ni by Cu at levels of about 10.4 at.%, Ti50(Ni50-xCux) alloys lose the monoclinic martensite in favor of the orthorhombic martensite structure. The martensite monoclinic B19´ structure of Ni50(Ti50-xZrx) becomes more stable with increasing of the Zr content. The energy difference between austenite and martensite decreases when Cu < 10.4 at.%, and then increases slightly, which suggesting that Cu addition reduces the composition sensitivity of martensitic transformation temperature comparing with binary NiTi alloys. The energy difference decreases slightly firstly when Zr < 10.4 at.% and then increases sharply, which indicates that Zr addition increases martensitic transformation temperature dramatically. Furthermore, a geometric model is used to evaluate the thermal hysteresis. More interestingly, it is found that the lowest thermal hysteresis is achieved at 10.4 at.% for Cu-doped NiTi; whereas the thermal hysteresis increases with increasing of Zr. The electronic structures of austenite phase are also discussed in detail.
Project description:Ultrasonic welding (USW) is a promising method for the welds between dissimilar materials. Ultrasonic thermal welding by the third phase (TWTP) method was proposed in combination with the formation of a third phase, which was confirmed as an effective technology for polymer welding between the two dissimilar materials compared with the traditional USW. This review focused on the advances of applying the ultrasonic TWTP for thermoplastic materials. The research development on the ultrasonic TWTP of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyformaldehyde (POM), and PLA and PMMA are summarized according to the preparation of the third phase, welded strength, morphologies of rupture surfaces, thermal stability, and others. The review aimed at providing guidance for using ultrasonic TWTP in polymers and a basic understanding of the welding mechanism, i.e., interdiffusion and molecular motion mechanisms between the phases.
Project description:Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: ?a (R = -1) = 1.68 HV (?a is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.