Magnetic Nanoparticles Create Hot Spots in Polymer Matrix for Controlled Drug Release.
ABSTRACT: Herein, original magnetic drug delivery nanomaterials for cancer therapy are developed and compared, with the purpose to show active control over drug release by using an alternative magnetic field (AMF). The rationale is to combine polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles to trigger such drug release under AMF. Two magnetic nanosystems are thus presented: magnetic nanogels made of thermosensitive and biocompatible polymers and core-shell nanoparticles with a magnetic core and a molecularly imprinted polymer as shell. Both encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and the DOX controlled release was investigated in vitro and in cells under AMF excitation. It confirms that the local heat profile at the vicinity of the iron oxide core can be used for the DOX controlled release. It also shows that both nanosystems help delivering more DOX inside the cells compared to internalization of free DOX. Finally, the DOX intracellular release could be remotely triggered under AMF, in athermal conditions, thus enhancing DOX cytotoxicity.
Project description:Multifunctional nanosystems combining magnetic and plasmonic properties are a promising approach for cancer therapy, allowing magnetic guidance and a local temperature increase. This capability can provide a triggered drug release and synergistic cytotoxic effect in cancer cells. In this work, nickel ferrite/gold nanoparticles were developed, including nickel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles decorated with plasmonic gold nanoparticles and core/shell nanostructures (with a nickel ferrite core and a gold shell). These nanoparticles were covered with a surfactant/lipid bilayer, originating liposome-like structures with diameters below 160 nm. The heating capacity of these systems, upon excitation with light above 600 nm wavelength, was assessed through the emission quenching of rhodamine B located in the lipid layer. The developed nanosystems show promising results for future applications in thermotherapy.
Project description:With advances in nanoparticle (NP) synthesis and engineering, nanoscale agents with both therapeutic and diagnostic functions have been increasingly exploited for cancer management. Herein, we synthesized a new type of zwitterionic polymer-gated Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, which showed that they could selectively target and efficiently eliminate cancer cells via photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), pH/NIR-induced drug release, and cationic therapy. Methods: In the present study, the multifunctional therapeutic agent [Mn@P(CitAPDMAEMA)@Au@TiO2@DOX] was prepared to treat cancer with imaging-guided combination method. Firstly, Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized. Taking advantage of broad and strong photoabsorption and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs facilitated the single light-induced PTT and PDT. Next, a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs. Then, a biocompatible zwitterionic polymer P(CitAPDMAEMA) was grafted to improve the hemocompatibility of NPs and prolong the circulation time. The polymer also served as a capping or switching material for pH-triggered drug release. In addition, the cationic nature of P(CitAPDMAEMA) eased the binding to human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and effectively inhibited their growth in acidic environments (termed cationic therapy). Moreover, with Mn2+ ions immanently chelated, Mn@P(CitAPDMAEMA)@Au@TiO2@DOX NPs were able to provide enhanced contrast under T 1- or T 2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: The in vitro and in vivo anticancer experiments demonstrated the tumor was effectively inhibited with minimal side effects by the multifunctional NPs. Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first presentation of four therapeutic methods into one nanomaterial, which will open up a new dimension for the design of combined treatment.
Project description:A kind of core-shell hybrid nanoparticle comprised of a hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMS) core and a copolymer shell bearing N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl) methacrylamide (DMA) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) as responsive moieties was prepared. Moreover, the factors that could impact the surface morphology and hierarchical porous structure were discussed. In the presence of Fe3+, catechol-Fe3+ complexes were formed to achieve pH-responsive polymer shell, combining with thermal-sensitiveness of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Doxorubicin (DOX) was applied as a model drug and the behaviors of its loading/release behaviors were investigated to prove the idea. The results exhibited a significant drug loading capacity of 8.6% and embed efficiency of 94.6% under 1 mg ml-1 DOX/PBS solution. In fact, the loading capacity of drug can be easily improved to as high as 28.0% by increasing the DOX concentration. The vitro cytotoxicity assay also indicated that the as-prepared nanoparticles have no significant cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro experiment showed that the cumulative release of DOX was obviously dependent on the temperature and pH values. This pH/temperature-sensitive hollow mesoporous silica nanosphere is expected to have potential applications in controlled drug release.
Project description:Core-shell nanostructures are promising platforms for combination drug delivery. However, their complicated synthesis process, poor stability, surface engineering, and low biocompatibility are major hurdles. Herein, a carboxymethyl chitosan-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (cmcPLGA) core-shell nanostructure is prepared via a simple one-step nanoprecipitation self-assembly process. Engineered core-shell nanostructures are tested for combination delivery of loaded docetaxel and doxorubicin in a cancer-mimicked environment. The drugs are compartmentalized in a shell (doxorubicin, Dox) and a core (docetaxel, Dtxl) with loading contents of ?1.2 and ?2.06%, respectively. Carboxymethyl chitosan with both amine and carboxyl groups act as a polyampholyte in diminishing ?-potential of nanoparticles from fairly negative (-13 mV) to near neutral (-2 mV) while moving from a physiological pH (7.4) to an acidic tumor pH (6) that can help the nanoparticles to accumulate and release the drug on-site. The dual-drug formulation was found to carry a clinically comparable 1.7:1 weight ratio of Dtxl/Dox, nanoengineered for the sequential release of Dox followed by Dtxl. Single and engineered combinatorial nanoformulations show better growth inhibition toward three different cancer cells compared to free drug treatment. Importantly, Dox-Dtxl cmcPLGA nanoparticles scored synergism with combination index values between 0.2 and 0.3 in BT549 (breast ductal carcinoma), PC3 (prostate cancer), and A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) cell lines, demonstrating significant cell growth inhibition at lower drug concentrations as compared to single-drug control groups. The observed promising performance of dual-drug formulation is due to the G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis.
Project description:Detailed studies were performed to probe the effects of the core and shell dimensions of amphiphilic, shell crosslinked, knedel-like polymer nanoparticles (SCKs) on the loading and release of doxorubicin (DOX), a widely-used chemotherapy agent, in aqueous buffer, as a function of the solution pH. Effects of the nanoparticle composition were held constant, by employing SCKs constructed from a single type of amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS). A series of four SCK nanoparticle samples, ranging in number-average hydrodynamic diameter from 14-30 nm, was prepared from four block copolymers having different relative block lengths and absolute degrees of polymerization. The ratios of acrylic acid to styrene block lengths ranged from 0.65 to 3.0, giving SCKs with ratios of shell to core volumes ranging from 0.44 to 2.1. Although the shell thicknesses were calculated to be similar (1.5-3.1 nm by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) calculations and 3.5-4.9 nm by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analyses), two of the SCK nanoparticles had relatively large core diameters (19±2 and 20±2 nm by TEM; 17.4 and 15.3 nm by SANS), while two had similar, smaller core diameters (11±2 and 13±2 nm by TEM; 9.0 and 8.9 nm by SANS). The SCKs were capable of being loaded with 1500-9700 DOX molecules per each particle, with larger numbers of DOX molecules packaged within the larger core SCKs. Their shell-to-core volume ratio showed impact on the rates and extents of release of DOX, with the volume occupied by the poly(acrylic acid) shell relative to the volume occupied by the polystyrene core correlating inversely with the diffusion-based release of DOX. Given that the same amount of polymer was used to construct each SCK sample, SCKs having smaller cores and higher acrylic acid vs. styrene volume ratios were present at higher concentrations than were the larger core SCKs, and gave lower final extents of release., Higher final extents of release and faster rates of release were observed for all DOX-loaded particle samples at pH 5.0 vs. pH 7.4, respectively, ca. 60% vs. 40% at 60 h, suggesting promise for enhanced delivery within tumors and cells. By fitting the data to the Higuchi model, quantitative determination of the kinetics of release was made, giving rate constants ranging from 0.0431 to 0.0540 h?¹/² at pH 7.4 and 0.106 to 0.136 h?¹/² at pH 5.0. In comparison, the non-crosslinked polymer micelle analogs exhibited rate constants for release of DOX of 0.245 and 0.278 h?¹/² at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively. These studies point to future directions to craft sophisticated devices for controlled drug release.
Project description:Biodegradable polymer microparticles are promising delivery depots for protein therapeutics due to their relatively simple fabrication and facile administration. Double-wall microspheres (DWMS) comprising a core and shell made of two distinct polymers may provide enhanced control of the drug release profiles. Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse DWMS were fabricated with model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) core and drug-free poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLL) shell of uniform thickness. Monolithic single-wall microspheres were also fabricated to mimic the BSA-loaded PLG core. Using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane as shell- and core-phase solvents, respectively, BSA was encapsulated selectively in the core region within DWMS with higher loading and encapsulation efficiency compared to using dichloromethane as core and shell solvents. BSA in vitro release rates were retarded by the presence of the drug-free PDLL shell. Moreover, increasing PDLL shell thickness resulted in decreasing BSA release rate. With a 14-?m thick PDLL shell, an extended period of constant-rate release was achieved.
Project description:FeCo/graphitic carbon shell (FeCo/GC) nanocrystals (?4-5 nm in diameter) with ultrahigh magnetization are synthesized, functionalized, and developed into multifunctional biocompatible materials. We demonstrate the ability of this material to serve as an integrated system for combined drug delivery, near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro. We show highly efficient loading of doxorubicin (DOX) by ?-stacking on the graphitic shell to afford FeCo/GC-DOX complexes and pH sensitive DOX release from the particles. We observe enhanced intracellular drug delivery by FeCo/GC-DOX under 20 min of NIR laser (808 nm) induced hyperthermia to 43 °C, resulting in a significant increase of FeCo/GC-DOX toxicity toward breast cancer cells. The synergistic cancer cell killing by FeCo/GC-DOX drug delivery under photothermal heating is due to a ?two-fold enhancement of cancer cell uptake of FeCo/GC-DOX complex and the increased DOX toxicity under the 43 °C hyperthermic condition. The combination of synergistic NIR photothermally enhanced drug delivery and MRI with the FeCo/GC nanocrystals could lead to a powerful multimodal system for biomedical detection and therapy.
Project description:A multifunctional targeted drug delivery platform (CDHA⁻MGO) has been successfully constructed by grafting β-cyclodextrin⁻hyaluronic acid polymers (CDHA) to Fe₃O₄⁻graphene oxide (MGO). The obtained CDHA⁻MGO nanocomposite has good water-dispersibility, easy magnetic separation, high near-infrared (NIR) photothermal heating, and excellent biocompatibility. The β-cyclodextrin-hyaluronic acid polymers efficaciously enhance the doxorubicin (DOX) loading amount up to 485.43 mg·g-1. Meanwhile, the Fe₃O₄⁻graphene oxide provides a facile photothermal response mechanism to handle the NIR-triggered release of DOX in weak acidic solvent environments. Significantly, the DOX-loaded nanocomposite (DOX@CDHA⁻MGO) has displayed CD44 receptor-mediated active targeting recognition and chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of hepatoma cells. These findings suggest that the as-prepared drug delivery platform would be of valuable potential for cancer-targeted photo-chemotherapy.
Project description:Recently, living cells with tumor-homing properties have provided an exciting opportunity to achieve optimal delivery of nanotherapeutic agents. However, premature payload leakage may impair the host cells, often leading to inadequate in vivo investigations or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, a nanoplatform that provides a high drug-loading capacity and the precise control of drug release is required. In the present study, a robust one-step synthesis of a doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded gold nanorod/albumin core-shell nanoplatform (NR@DOX:SA) was designed for effective macrophage-mediated delivery to demonstrate how nanoparticle-loaded macrophages improve photothermal/chemodrug distribution and retention ability to achieve enhanced antitumor effects. The serum albumin shell of these nanoagents served as a drug reservoir to delay the intracellular DOX release and drug-related toxicity that impairs the host cell carriers. Near-infrared laser irradiation enabled on-demand payload release to destroy neighboring tumor cells. A series of in vivo quantitative analyses demonstrated that the nanoengineered macrophages delivered the nanodrugs through tumor-tropic migration to tumor tissues, resulting in the twice homogenous and efficient photothermal activations of drug release to treat prostate cancer. By contrast, localized pristine NR@DOX:SAs exhibit limited photothermal drug delivery that further reduces their retention ability and therapeutic efficacy after second combinational treatment, leading to a failure of cancer therapy. Moreover, the resultant unhealable wounds impair quality of life. Free DOX has rapid clearance and therefore exhibits limited antitumor effects. Our findings suggest that in comparison with pristine nanoparticles or free DOX, the nanoengineered macrophages effectively demonstrate the importance and effect of homogeneous drug distribution and retention ability in cancer therapy.
Project description:Multifunctional liposomes containing manganese ferrite/gold core/shell nanoparticles were developed. These magnetic/plasmonic nanoparticles were covered by a lipid bilayer or entrapped in liposomes, which form solid or aqueous magnetoliposomes as nanocarriers for simultaneous chemotherapy and phototherapy. The core/shell nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Visible absorption, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The magnetoliposomes were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and TEM. Fluorescence-based techniques (FRET, steady-state emission, and anisotropy) investigated the incorporation of a potential anti-tumor drug (a thienopyridine derivative) in these nanosystems. The core/shell nanoparticles exhibit sizes of 25 ± 2 nm (from TEM), a plasmonic absorption band (λmax = 550 nm), and keep magnetic character. XRD measurements allowed for the estimation of 13.3 nm diameter for manganese ferrite core and 11.7 nm due to the gold shell. Aqueous magnetoliposomes, with hydrodynamic diameters of 152 ± 18 nm, interact with model membranes by fusion and are able to transport the anti-tumor compound in the lipid membrane, with a high encapsulation efficiency (EE (%) = 98.4 ± 0.8). Solid magnetoliposomes exhibit hydrodynamic diameters around 140 nm and also carry successfully the anticancer drug (with EE (%) = 91.2 ± 5.2), while also being promising as agents for phototherapy. The developed multifunctional liposomes can be promising as therapeutic agents for combined chemo/phototherapy.