Phlda3 overexpression impairs specification of hemangioblasts and vascular development.
ABSTRACT: The phlda3 gene encodes a small, 127-amino acid protein with only a PH domain, and is involved in tumor suppression, proliferation of islet ?-cells, insulin secretion, glucose tolerance, and liver injury. However, the role of phlda3 in vascular development is unknown. Here, we show that phlda3 overexpression decreases the expression levels of hemangioblast markers scl, fli1, and etsrp and intersegmental vessel (ISV) markers flk1 and cdh5, and disrupts ISV development in tg(flk1:GFP) and tg(fli1:GFP) zebrafish. Moreover, phlda3 overexpression inhibits the activation of protein kinase B (AKT) in zebrafish embryos, and the developmental defects of ISVs by phlda3 overexpression were reversed by the expression of a constitutively active form of AKT. These data suggest that phlda3 is a negative regulator of hemangioblast specification and ISV development via AKT signaling.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in liver injury, but molecular determinants are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member-3 (PHLDA3), in hepatocyte death caused by ER stress and the regulatory basis.Hepatic PHLDA3 expression was assessed in HCV patients with hepatitis and in several animal models with ER stress. Immunoblottings, PCR, reporter gene, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and mutation analyses were done to explore gene regulation. The functional effect of PHLDA3 on liver injury was validated using lentiviral delivery of shRNA.PHLDA3 was overexpressed in relation to hepatocyte injury in patients with acute liver failure or liver cirrhosis or in toxicant-treated mice. In HCV patients with liver injury, PHLDA3 was upregulated in parallel with the induction of ER stress marker. Treatment of mice with tunicamycin (Tm) (an ER stress inducer) increased PHLDA3 expression in the liver. X box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) was newly identified as a transcription factor responsible for PHLDA3 expression. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) (an upstream regulator of Xbp1) was required for PHLDA3 induction by Tm, whereas other pathways (c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) were not. PHLDA3 overexpression correlated with the severity of hepatocyte injury in animal or cell model of ER stress. In p53-deficient cells, ER stress inducers transactivated PHLDA3 with a decrease in cell viability. ER stress-induced hepatocyte death depended on serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) inhibition by PHLDA3. Lentiviral delivery of PHLDA3 shRNA to mice abrogated p-Akt inhibition in the liver by Tm, attenuating hepatocyte injury.ER stress in hepatocytes induces PHLDA3 via IRE1-Xbp1s pathway, which facilitates liver injury by inhibiting Akt.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have not been well defined. We report here that the genomic region of the PHLDA3 gene undergoes loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at a remarkably high frequency in human PanNETs, and this genetic change is correlated with disease progression and poor prognosis. We also show that the PHLDA3 locus undergoes methylation in addition to LOH, suggesting that a two-hit inactivation of the PHLDA3 gene is required for PanNET development. We demonstrate that PHLDA3 represses Akt activity and Akt-regulated biological processes in pancreatic endocrine tissues, and that PHLDA3-deficient mice develop islet hyperplasia. In addition, we show that the tumor-suppressing pathway mediated by MEN1, a well-known tumor suppressor of PanNETs, is dependent on the pathway mediated by PHLDA3, and inactivation of PHLDA3 and MEN1 cooperatively contribute to PanNET development. Collectively, these results indicate the existence of a novel PHLDA3-mediated pathway of tumor suppression that is important in the development of PanNETs.
Project description:Reprogramming of adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells holds great promise in clinical therapy. Increasing evidences have shown that p53 and its target genes play important roles in somatic cell reprogramming. In this study, we report that PHLDA3, a p53 target gene, functions as a blockage of iPSCs generation by activating the Akt-GSK3? pathway. Furthermore, PHLDA3 is found to be transcriptionally regulated by Oct4. These findings reveal that PHLDA3 acts as a new member of the regulatory network of somatic cell reprogramming.
Project description:The hemangioblast is a multipotential progenitor, which is derived from the mesoderm and can further differentiate into hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. The molecular mechanism governing the specification of hemangioblasts is fundamental to regenerative medicine based on embryonic stem cells for the treatment of various hematologic and vascular diseases. Here we show that aggf1 acts at the top of the genetic regulatory hierarchy in the specification of hemangioblasts in zebrafish. Knockdown of aggf1 expression decreases expression of endothelial cell-specific markers (cdh5, admr) and disrupts primitive hematopoiesis as shown by a decreased number of erythroid cells and reduced expression of gata1 (marker for erythroid progenitors) and pu.1 (myeloid progenitors). Aggf1 knockdown also decreases expression of runx1 and c-myb, indicating that it is required for specification of hematopoietic stem cells (definitive hematopoiesis). Aggf1 knockdown led to dramatically reduced expression of hemangioblast markers fli1, etsrp, lmo2, and scl, and hematopoietic/endothelial defects in aggf1 morphants were rescued by messenger RNA for scl, fli-vp16, or etsrp. Taken together, these data indicate that aggf1 is involved in differentiation of both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages and that aggf1 acts upstream of scl, fli1, and etsrp in specification of hemangioblasts.
Project description:PI3K/AKT signaling is known to regulate cancer metabolism, but whether metabolic feedback regulates the PI3K/AKT pathway is unclear. Here, we demonstrate the important reciprocal crosstalk between the PI3K/AKT signal and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branching metabolic pathways. PI3K/AKT activation stabilizes G6PD, the rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP, by inhibiting the newly identified E3 ligase TIRM21 and promotes the PPP. PPP metabolites, in turn, reinforce AKT activation and further promote cancer metabolic reprogramming by blocking the expression of the AKT inhibitor PHLDA3. Knockout of TRIM21 or PHLDA3 promotes crosstalk and cell proliferation. Importantly, PTEN null human cancer cells and in vivo murine models are sensitive to anti-PPP treatments, suggesting the importance of the PPP in maintaining AKT activation even in the presence of a constitutively activated PI3K pathway. Our study suggests that blockade of this reciprocal crosstalk mechanism may have a therapeutic benefit for cancers with PTEN loss or PI3K/AKT activation.
Project description:The loss of functional beta cell mass characterises all forms of diabetes. Beta cells are highly susceptible to stress, including cytokine, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress. This study examined the role of pleckstrin homology-like, domain family A, member 3 (Phlda3) in beta cell survival under stress conditions and the regulatory basis. We found that the mRNA levels of Phlda3 were markedly upregulated in vivo in the islets of diabetic humans and mice. In vitro, exposure of MIN6 cells or islets to cytokines, palmitate, thapsigargin or ribose upregulated Phlda3 mRNA and protein levels, concurrent with the induction of ER stress (Ddit3 and Trb3) and antioxidant (Hmox1) genes. Furthermore, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treatment markedly increased PHLDA3 immunostaining in human islets. Phlda3 expression was differentially regulated by adaptive (Xbp1) and apoptotic (Ddit3) unfolded protein response (UPR) mediators. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Xbp1 inhibited the induction of Phlda3 by cytokines and palmitate, whereas knockdown of Ddit3 upregulated Phlda3. Moreover, knockdown of Phlda3 potentiated cytokine-induced apoptosis in association with upregulation of inflammatory genes (iNos, IL1? and I?B?) and NF?B phosphorylation and downregulation of antioxidant (Gpx1 and Srxn1) and adaptive UPR (Xbp1, Hspa5 and Fkbp11) genes. Knockdown of Phlda3 also potentiated apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions induced by ribose treatment. These findings suggest that Phlda3 is crucial for beta cell survival under stress conditions. Phlda3 regulates the cytokine, oxidative and ER stress responses in beta cells via the repression of inflammatory gene expression and the maintenance of antioxidant and adaptive UPR gene expression. Phlda3 may promote beta cell survival in diabetes.
Project description:Islet transplantation is a useful cell replacement therapy that can restore the glycometabolic function of severe diabetic patients. It is known that many transplanted islets failed to engraft, and thus, new approaches for overcoming graft loss that may improve the outcome of future clinical islet transplantations are necessary. Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 3 (PHLDA3) is a known suppressor of neuroendocrine tumorigenicity, yet deficiency of this gene increases islet proliferation, prevents islet apoptosis, and improves their insulin-releasing function without causing tumors. In this study, we examined the potential use of PHLDA3-deficient islets in transplantation. We observed that: 1) transplanting PHLDA3-deficient islets into diabetic mice significantly improved their glycometabolic condition, 2) the improved engraftment of PHLDA3-deficient islets resulted from increased cell survival during early transplantation, and 3) Akt activity was elevated in PHLDA3-deficient islets, especially under hypoxic conditions. Thus, we determined that PHLDA3-deficient islets are more resistant against stresses induced by islet isolation and transplantation. We conclude that use of islets with suppressed PHLDA3 expression could be a novel and promising treatment for improving engraftment and consequent glycemic control in islet transplantation.
Project description:Background:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) includes a group of heterogeneous tumors with generally invasive behavior. The PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HNSCC. Methods:In the current study, we investigated the expression of two negative feedback regulators of the PI3K pathway, namely PHLDA3 and GRHL3, in 45 paired samples of HNSCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCTs). Results:While expression of GRHL3 was down-regulated in tumoral tissues compared with ANCTs by the factor 4.21, PHLDA3 expression levels were up-regulated by 5.99-times. Gender-based analysis revealed a significant down-regulation of GRHL3 gene expression level in male patients compared with the control samples and significant up-regulation of PHLDA3 gene expression level in both sexes compared with the control samples. Differences in the expressions of both genes were significant in patients aged more than 60 years, but not in the younger patients. Expression of GRHL3 was only down-regulated in patients with positive smoking history. Expression of GRHL3 was decreased in grades 2 and 3 samples compared with controls. There was a significant increase in transcript levels of PHLDA3 in stages II and III HNSCC samples compared with the controls group. ROC curve analysis indicated that the expression level of PHLDA3 could be a promising marker for the diagnosis of HNSCC patients with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.666 and 0.688, respectively. In addition, sensitivity and specificity of GRHL3 were 0.755 and 0.577, respectively. Discussion:The current study indicates dysregulation of regulators of PI3K pathway in HNSCC and their potential application as putative biomarkers for this cancer.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation of hematopoietic and endothelial cells from mesoderm are poorly understood. To define the underlying mechanisms, we compared gene expression profiles between embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived hemangioblasts (Blast-Colony-Forming Cells, BL-CFCs) and their differentiated progeny, Blast cells. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that BL-CFCs resembled other stem cell populations. A role for Gata2, one of the BL-CFC-enriched transcripts, was further characterized by utilizing the in vitro model of ES cell differentiation. Our studies revealed that Gata2 was a direct target of BMP4 and that enforced GATA2 expression upregulated Bmp4, Flk1 and Scl. Conditional GATA2 induction resulted in a temporal-sensitive increase in hemangioblast generation, precocious commitment to erythroid fate, and increased endothelial cell generation. GATA2 additionally conferred a proliferative signal to primitive erythroid progenitors. Collectively, we provide compelling evidence that GATA2 plays specific, contextual roles in the generation of Flk-1+ mesoderm, the Flk-1+Scl+ hemangioblast, primitive erythroid and endothelial cells. Keywords: Comparison of induced differetiated state to original cell line. Generation of Hemangioblast and Blast Colony cell populations: Scl+/hCD4 ES cells (Chung et al., Development, 2002) were maintained on a layer of mitotically inactivated STO cells in DMEM media in the presence of LIF. Two days before differentiation, the cells were transferred to gelatinized tissue culture flasks and the media was changed to IMDM-based. ES cells were differentiated in liquid-differentiation media in the presence of FCS for 2.75 days. D2.75 EBs were recovered, dissociated in Trypsin/EDTA and stained with antibodies against Flk-1 and human CD4. Cells were then flow sorted on the basis of Flk-1 and Scl expression and the hemangioblast population was considered to be Flk-1+Scl+. D2.75 EB cells were replated as described (Chung et al., 2002) and individual Blast colonies were picked and pooled, and RNA was generated with TRIzol according to the manufacturers protocol. RNA (20 ug) was given to the Washington University Array core were it was reverse transcribed and cRNA synthesized. Replicated of the two populations (hCD4, Blast) were made. Pairwaise comparisons were performed to identify enriched genes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Development of the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages derives from a common mesodermal precursor, the Flk1(+) hemangioblast. However, the signaling pathways that regulate the development of hematopoietic and endothelial cells from this common progenitor cell remains incompletely understood. Using mouse models with a conditional Spry1 transgene, and a Spry1 knockout mouse, we investigated the role of Spry1 in the development of the endothelial and hematopoietic lineages during development.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that Spry1, Spry2, and Spry4 are expressed in Flk1(+) hemangioblasts in vivo, and decline significantly in c-Kit(+) and CD41(+) hematopoietic progenitors, while expression is maintained in developing endothelial cells. Tie2-Cre-mediated over-expression of Spry1 results in embryonic lethality. At E9.5 Spry1;Tie2-Cre embryos show near normal endothelial cell development and vessel patterning but have reduced hematopoiesis. FACS analysis shows a reduction of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and erythroblastic cells in Spry1;Tie2-Cre embryos compared to controls. Colony forming assays confirm the hematopoietic defects in Spry1;Tie2-Cre transgenic embryos. Immunostaining shows a significant reduction of CD41 or CD71 and dpERK co-stained cells in Spry1;Tie2-Cre embryos compared to controls, whereas the number of VEC(+) and dpERK co-stained cells is comparable. Compared to controls, Spry1;Tie2-Cre embryos also show a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, loss of Spry1 results in an increase of CD41(+) and CD71(+) cells at E9.5 compared with controls.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>These data indicate that primitive hematopoietic cells derive from Tie2-expressing hemangioblasts and that Spry1 over expression inhibits primitive hematopoietic progenitor and erythroblastic cell development and expansion while having no obvious effect on endothelial cell development.