Acute Sleep Restriction Has Differential Effects on Components of Attention.
ABSTRACT: Inadequate nightly sleep duration can impair daytime functioning, including interfering with attentional and other cognitive processes. Current models posit that attention is a complex function regulated by several separate, but interacting, neural systems responsible for vigilance, orienting, and executive control. However, it is not clear to what extent each of these underlying component processes is affected by sleep loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute sleep restriction on these attentional components using the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB). DalCAB tasks were administered to healthy women (aged 19-25 years) on two consecutive mornings: once after a night with 9 h time in bed (TIB), and once again after either another night with 9 h TIB (control condition, n = 19) or after a night with 3 h TIB (sleep restriction condition, n = 20). Self-ratings of sleepiness and mood were also obtained following each sleep condition. Participants showed increases in self-reported sleepiness and fatigue after the second night only in the sleep restriction group. Sleep restriction primarily affected processing speed on tasks measuring vigilance; however, performance deficits were also observed on some measures of executive function (e.g., go/no-go task, flanker task, working memory). Tasks assessing orienting of attention were largely unaffected. These results indicate that acute sleep restriction has differential effects on distinct components of attention, which should be considered in modeling the impacts of sleep loss on the underlying attentional networks.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>To characterize adolescents' neurobehavioral changes during two cycles of restricted and recovery sleep and to examine the effectiveness of afternoon naps in ameliorating neurobehavioral deficits associated with multiple nights of sleep restriction.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (aged 15-19 years; 31 males) participated in a parallel group study. They underwent two cycles of sleep restriction (5-hr time in bed [TIB] for five and three nights in the first and the second cycles, respectively; 01:00-06:00) and recovery (9-hr TIB for two nights per cycle; 23:00-08:00) intended to simulate the weekday sleep loss and weekend attempt to "catch up" on sleep. Half of the participants received a 1-hr nap opportunity at 14:00 following each sleep-restricted night, while the other half stayed awake. Sustained attention, sleepiness, speed of processing, executive function, and mood were assessed 3 times each day.<h4>Results</h4>Participants who were not allowed to nap showed progressive decline in sustained attention that did not return to baseline after two nights of recovery sleep. Exposure to the second period of sleep restriction increased the rate of vigilance deterioration. Similar patterns were found for other neurobehavioral measures. Napping attenuated but did not eliminate performance decline. These findings contrasted with the stable performance of adolescents, given 9-hr TIB each night in our recent study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescents' neurobehavioral functions may not adapt to successive cycles of sleep curtailment and recovery. In sleep-restricted adolescents, weekend "catch-up sleep," even when combined with napping during weekdays, is inferior to receiving a 9-hr sleep opportunity each night.
Project description:Study Objectives:There is contradictory evidence on whether sleep need decreases across adolescence. We investigated this question longitudinally with a dose-response design to test the effects of varied sleep durations on daytime sleepiness and on vigilance and to test whether these relations change with age across early and mid-adolescence. Methods:Data from 76 participants who completed at least 2 years of the 3-year study are included in this report. Annually, participants ranging in age from 9.8 to 16.2 years completed three different time in bed (TIB) schedules each consisting of four consecutive nights of 7, 8.5, or 10 hours. Daytime sleepiness (multiple sleep latency test [MSLT]) and vigilance (psychomotor vigilance test [PVT]) were measured on the day following the fourth night of each TIB schedule. Results:Electroencephalogram (EEG)-measured sleep durations changed linearly with TIB. MSLT-measured daytime sleepiness decreased with longer TIB and increased with age. The TIB and age effects interacted such that the TIB effect decreased with age. PVT performance improved with longer TIB and improved with age, but the benefit that increased TIB conferred on PVT performance did not change with age. Conclusions:These results seem paradoxical because daytime sleepiness increased but vigilance improved with age. The significant age effect on the relation between TIB and sleepiness compared to the lack of an age effect on the relation between TIB and vigilance performance suggests different rates of maturation in underlying brain systems. We interpret these findings in relation to our model of adolescent brain development driven by synaptic elimination.
Project description:Sleep is one of our most important physiological functions that maintains physical and mental health. Two studies examined whether discrete areas of attention are equally affected by sleep loss. This was achieved using a repeated-measures within-subjects design, with two contrasting conditions: normal sleep and partial sleep restriction of 5-h. Study 1 compared performance on a sustained attention task (Psychomotor Vigilance task; PVT) with performance on a transient attention task (Attentional Blink; AB). PVT performance, but not performance on the AB task, was impaired after sleep restriction. Study 2 sought to determine the neural underpinnings of the phenomenon, using electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency analysis, which measured activity during the brief eyes-closed resting state before the tasks. AB performance was unaffected by sleep restriction, despite clearly observable changes in brain activity. EEG results showed a significant reduction in resting state alpha oscillations that was most prominent centrally in the right hemisphere. Changes in individual alpha and delta power were also found to be related to changes in subjective sleepiness and PVT performance. Results likely reflect different levels of impairment in specific forms of attention following sleep loss.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:Many adolescents are exposed to sleep restriction on school nights. We assessed how different apportionment of restricted sleep (continuous vs. split sleep) influences neurobehavioral function and glucose levels. METHODS:Adolescents, aged 15-19 years, were evaluated in a dormitory setting using a parallel-group design. Following two baseline nights of 9-hour time-in-bed (TIB), participants underwent either 5 nights of continuous 6.5-h TIB (n = 29) or 5-hour nocturnal TIB with a 1.5-hour afternoon nap (n = 29). After two recovery nights of 9-hour TIB, participants were sleep restricted for another three nights. Sleep was assessed using polysomnography (PSG). Cognitive performance and mood were evaluated three times per day. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted on mornings after baseline sleep, recovery sleep, and the third day of each sleep restriction cycle. RESULTS:The split sleep group had fewer vigilance lapses, better working memory and executive function, faster processing speed, lower level of subjective sleepiness, and more positive mood, even though PSG-verified total sleep time was less than the continuous sleep group. However, vigilance in both sleep-restricted groups was inferior to adolescents in a prior sample given 9-hour nocturnal TIB. During both cycles of sleep restriction, blood glucose during the OGTT increased by a greater amount in the split sleep schedule compared with persons receiving 6.5-hour continuous sleep. CONCLUSIONS:In adolescents, modest multinight sleep restriction had divergent negative effects on cognitive performance and glucose levels depending on how the restricted sleep was apportioned. They are best advised to obtain the recommended amount of nocturnal sleep. TRIAL REGISTRATION:https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03333512.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that sleeping <7 h and ?8 h is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The risks of short sleep may be consistent with results from experimental sleep deprivation studies. However, there has been little study of chronic moderate sleep restriction and little evaluation of older adults who might be more vulnerable to negative effects of sleep restriction, given their age-related morbidities. Moreover, the risks of long sleep have scarcely been examined experimentally. Moderate sleep restriction might benefit older long sleepers who often spend excessive time in bed (TIB) in contrast to older adults with average sleep patterns. Our aims are: (1) to examine the ability of older long sleepers and older average sleepers to adhere to 60 min TIB restriction; and (2) to contrast effects of chronic TIB restriction in older long vs. average sleepers. Older adults (n = 100) (60-80 years) who sleep 8-9 h per night and 100 older adults who sleep 6-7.25 h per night will be examined at 4 sites over 5 years. Following a 2-week baseline, participants will be randomized to one of two 12-week treatments: (1) a sleep restriction involving a fixed sleep-wake schedule, in which TIB is reduced 60 min below each participant's baseline TIB; and (2) a control treatment involving no sleep restriction, but a fixed sleep schedule. Sleep will be assessed with actigraphy and a diary. Measures will include glucose tolerance, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive performance, incidence of illness or accident, and inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day.<h4>Results</h4>During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep.<h4>Commentary</h4>A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The association of fast backward-rotating shift work (ie, anticlockwise sequence of afternoon, morning, and night shifts) with subjective and objective measures of sleep-wake quality, daytime attention, and tiredness of health care workers has not yet been established.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the association of shift rotation direction with tiredness, sleepiness, and sustained attention among nurses working forward- and backward-rotating shifts.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Data of this cohort study were collected from nurses working at 5 midsized Italian hospitals. The nurses had either a forward-rotating schedule (ie, morning to afternoon to night) and or a backward-rotating schedule (ie, afternoon to morning to night). The data were collected from July 2017 to February 2020. Data analysis was performed from May to October 2020.<h4>Exposures</h4>Participants were working either forward- or backward-rotating schedules, in which the sequence of 3 shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) changed in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Sleep data were collected using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sustained attention was measured using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Tiredness was evaluated using the Tiredness Symptom Scale.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 144 nurses (mean [SE] age, 41.3 [0.8] years; 92 women [63.9%]) participated in the study; 80 nurses had forward-rotating schedules, and 64 had backward-rotating schedules. Nurses with irregular sleep-wake patterns due to night shift work had poor sleep quality (46 [57.5%] in forward-rotating schedule group; 37 [57.8%] in backward-rotating schedule group). Nurses working backward-rotating shifts exhibited significantly greater sleepiness (F1,139 = 41.23; P < .001) and cognitive slowing (ie, longer median reaction times; F1,139 = 42.12; P < .001) than those working forward rotations. Importantly, these differences were not affected by age, years of employment, and quality of sleep. Of nurses working on a backward-rotating schedule, 60 (93.8%) reported elevated sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale score ≥7) after the night shift. The median reaction time (F1,139 = 42.12; P < .001), 10% fastest reaction time (F1,139 = 97.07; P < .001), minor lapses (F1,139 = 46.29; P < .001), and reaction time distribution (F1,139 = 60.13; P < .001) of nurses on backward-rotating schedules indicated a lower level of vigilance, which is negatively associated with neurobehavioral performance.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this study, both shift rotation models were negatively associated with health and cognitive performance. These findings suggest that forward shift rotation may be more beneficial than backward rotation for several measured performance attentional outcomes and sleepiness. Optimization of shift rotations should be implemented to decrease the combination of the negative outcomes associated with shift work and reduce the potential risk of medical errors in health care systems.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>The amount of recovery sleep needed to fully restore well-established neurobehavioral deficits from sleep loss remains unknown, as does whether the recovery pattern differs across measures after total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (SR).<h4>Methods</h4>In total, 83 adults received two baseline nights (10-12-hour time in bed [TIB]) followed by five 4-hour TIB SR nights or 36-hour TSD and four recovery nights (R1-R4; 12-hour TIB). Neurobehavioral tests were completed every 2 hours during wakefulness and a Maintenance of Wakefulness Test measured physiological sleepiness. Polysomnography was collected on B2, R1, and R4 nights.<h4>Results</h4>TSD and SR produced significant deficits in cognitive performance, increases in self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, decreases in vigor, and increases in physiological sleepiness. Neurobehavioral recovery from SR occurred after R1 and was maintained for all measures except Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) lapses and response speed, which failed to completely recover. Neurobehavioral recovery from TSD occurred after R1 and was maintained for all cognitive and self-reported measures, except for vigor. After TSD and SR, R1 recovery sleep was longer and of higher efficiency and better quality than R4 recovery sleep.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PVT impairments from SR failed to reverse completely; by contrast, vigor did not recover after TSD; all other deficits were reversed after sleep loss. These results suggest that TSD and SR induce sustained, differential biological, physiological, and/or neural changes, which remarkably are not reversed with chronic, long-duration recovery sleep. Our findings have critical implications for the population at large and for military and health professionals.
Project description:We investigated whether interindividual attentional vulnerability moderates performance on domain-specific cognitive tasks during sleep restriction (SR) and subsequent recovery sleep. Fifteen healthy men (M ± SD, 22.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to three nights of baseline, five nights of 5-h time in bed SR, and two nights of recovery sleep. Participants completed tasks assessing working memory, visuospatial processing, and processing speed approximately every two hours during wake. Analyses examined performance across SR and recovery (linear predictor day or quadratic predictor day<sup>2</sup>) moderated by attentional vulnerability per participant (difference between mean psychomotor vigilance task lapses after the fifth SR night versus the last baseline night). For significant interactions between day/day<sup>2</sup> and vulnerability, we investigated the effect of day/day<sup>2</sup> at 1 SD below (less vulnerable level) and above (more vulnerable level) the mean of attentional vulnerability (N = 15 in all analyses). Working memory accuracy and speed on the Fractal 2-Back and visuospatial processing speed and efficiency on the Line Orientation Task improved across the entire study at the less vulnerable level (mean - 1SD) but not the more vulnerable level (mean + 1SD). Therefore, vulnerability to attentional lapses after SR is a marker of susceptibility to working memory and visuospatial processing impairment during SR and subsequent recovery.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>To synthesize original articles exploring the effects of sleep restriction on cognitive performance specifically for Elite Cognitive Performers, i.e. those who engage in cognitively demanding tasks with critical or safety-critical outcomes in their occupation or area of expertise.<h4>Methods</h4>Backward snowballing techniques, gray literature searches, and traditional database searches (Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, PSYCinfo, and SportDiscus) were used to obtain relevant articles. A quality assessment was performed, and the risk of training effects was considered. Results were narratively synthesized. Fourteen articles fit the criteria. Cognitive outcomes were divided into three categories defined by whether cognitive demands were "low-salience," "high-salience stable," or "high-salience flexible."<h4>Results</h4>Low-salience tests (i.e. psychomotor vigilance tasks & serial reaction tests), mainly requiring vigilance and rudimentary attentional capacities, were sensitive to sleep restriction, however, this did not necessarily translate to significant performance deficits on low-salience occupation-specific task performance. High-salience cognitive outcomes were typically unaffected unless when cognitive flexibility was required.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sleep restriction is of particular concern to occupations whereby individuals perform (1) simple, low-salience tasks or (2) high-salience tasks with demands on the flexible allocation of attention and working memory, with critical or safety-critical outcomes.