Estimating the effect size of surgery to improve walking in children with cerebral palsy from retrospective observational clinical data.
ABSTRACT: Single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) is a standard treatment approach aimed at improving gait for patients with cerebral palsy, but the effect of this approach compared to natural progression without surgical intervention is unclear. In this study, we used retrospective patient history, physical exam, and three-dimensional gait analysis data from 2,333 limbs to build regression models estimating the effect of SEMLS on gait, while controlling for expected natural progression. Post-hoc classifications using the regression model results identified which limbs would exhibit gait within two standard deviations of typical gait at the follow-up visit with or without a SEMLS with 73% and 77% accuracy, respectively. Using these models, we found that, while surgery was expected to have a positive effect on 93% of limbs compared to natural progression, in only 37% of limbs was this expected effect a clinically meaningful improvement. We identified 26% of the non-surgically treated limbs that may have shown a clinically meaningful improvement in gait had they received surgery. Our models suggest that pre-operative physical therapy focused on improving biomechanical characteristics, such as walking speed and strength, may improve likelihood of positive surgical outcomes. These models are shared with the community to use as an evaluation tool when considering whether or not a patient should undergo a SEMLS.
Project description:Equinus deformity is one of the most common gait deformities in children with cerebral palsy. We examined whether estimates of gastrocnemius length in gait could identify limbs likely to have short-term and long-term improvements in ankle kinematics following gastrocnemius lengthening surgery to correct equinus. We retrospectively analyzed data of 891 limbs that underwent a single-event multi-level surgery (SEMLS), and categorized outcomes based on the normalcy of ankle kinematics. Limbs with short gastrocnemius lengths that received a gastrocnemius lengthening surgery as part of a SEMLS (case limbs) were 2.2 times more likely than overtreated limbs (i.e., limbs who did not have short lengths, but still received a lengthening surgery) to have a good surgical outcome at the follow-up gait visit (good outcome rate of 71% vs. 33%). Case limbs were 1.2 times more likely than control limbs (i.e., limbs that had short gastrocnemius lengths but no lengthening surgery) to have a good outcome (71% vs. 59%). Three-fourths of the case limbs with a good outcome at the follow-up gait visit maintained this outcome over time, compared to only one-half of the overtreated limbs. Our results caution against over-prescription of gastrocnemius lengthening surgery and suggest gastrocnemius lengths can be used to identify good surgical candidates.
Project description:Although several studies have investigated the outcomes after distal hamstring lengthening (DHL), no study has undertaken an approach that included all or most of the important factors that could influence the results. This study was performed to evaluate the outcomes after DHL and analyze the factors that influence the improvement and serial change in knee motion after surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), using a linear mixed model (LMM).The study included 314 ambulatory CP patients (594 limbs) with spsastic diplegia who were followed up after undergoing DHL as part of a single-event multilevel surgery and who underwent preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional (3D) gait analyses. Relevant kinematic values, including knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee range of motion (ROM), mean pelvic tilt and gait deviation index (GDI) score, were the outcome measures. Changes in knee motion and the GDI score were adjusted for multiple factors, such as sex, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and concomitant surgeries as fixed effects, and follow-up duration, laterality, and each subject as random effects, using a LMM.We found significant improvements in knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee ROM, and GDI score 2 years after DHL. In patients with GMFCS level I and II, improvement in all sagittal knee kinematics was maintained during follow-up. In addition, GDI score, which represents overall gait pathology, consistently improved throughout the follow-up duration (1.2 per year, p = 0.008).Medial hamstring lengthening with semitendinosus transfer, as a part of a SEMLS, was effective procedure in treating flexed knee gait with regard to sagittal knee kinematics and GDI score in spastic CP with flexed knee gait.
Project description:To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections have been reported. How these side effects relate to semitendinosus morphology is unknown. This study assessed the effects of bilateral medial hamstring lengthening as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) on (1) knee joint mechanics (2) semitendinosus muscle morphology and (3) gait kinematics. All variables were assessed for the right side only. Six children with spastic paresis selected for surgery to counteract limited knee range of motion were measured before and about a year after surgery. After surgery, in most subjects popliteal angle decreased and knee moment-angle curves were shifted towards a more extended knee joint, semitendinosus muscle belly length was approximately 30% decreased, while at all assessed knee angles tendon length was increased by about 80%. In the majority of children muscle volume of the semitendinosus muscle decreased substantially suggesting a reduction of physiological cross-sectional area. Gait kinematics showed more knee extension during stance (mean change ± standard deviation: 34±13°), but also increased pelvic anterior tilt (mean change ± standard deviation: 23±5°). In most subjects, surgical lengthening of semitendinosus tendon contributed to more extended knee joint angle during static measurements as well as during gait, whereas extensibility of semitendinosus muscle belly was decreased. Post-surgical treatment to maintain muscle belly length and physiological cross-sectional area may improve treatment outcome of medial hamstring lengthening.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study was to review available evidence for physical therapy treatment (PTT) after single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS), and to realize a first step towards an accurate and clinical guideline for developing effective PTT for children with cerebral palsy (CP) after SEMLS. Methods:A qualitative systematic review (PubMed, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library) investigating a program of PTT after SEMLS in children aged 4-18?years with CP classified by Gross Motor Function Classification System level?I-III. Results:Six articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The selected studies provide only incomplete descriptions of interventions, and show no consensus regarding PTT after SEMLS. Neither do they show any consensus on the outcome measures or measuring instruments. Conclusions:Based on the results of this literature review in combination with our best practice, we propose a preliminary protocol of PTT after SEMLS.
Project description:Prostate cancer is the second common etiology of cord compression after lung cancer. Its slow natural history justifies an aggressive treatment. The fact that the metastatic lesion precedes the primary tumor remains rare. We report the case of a 86 year-old man who was admitted for heaviness of both lower limbs responsible for gait disorder. He had flaccid paraplegia. Spinal MRI showed an epidural lesion. Histology after surgery was compatible for a metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Spinal cord compression due to prostate cancer is correlated with poor prognosis. The fact that the metastatic lesion precedes the primary tumor remains rare.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A mirror placed in the mid-sagittal plane of the body has been used to reduce phantom limb pain and improve movement function in medical conditions characterised by asymmetrical movement control. The mirrored illusion of unimpaired limb movement during gait might enhance the effect, but a physical mirror is only capable of showing parallel movement of limbs in real time typically while sitting. We aimed to overcome the limitations of physical mirrors by developing and evaluating a Virtual Mirror Box which delays the mirrored image of limbs during gait to ensure temporal congruency with the impaired physical limb.<h4>Methods</h4>An application was developed in the CAREN system's D-Flow software which mirrors selected limbs recorded by real-time motion capture to the contralateral side. To achieve phase shifted movement of limbs during gait, the mirrored virtual limbs are also delayed by a continuously calculated amount derived from past gait events. In order to accommodate non-normal proportions and offsets of pathological gait, the movements are morphed so that the physical and virtual contact events match on the mirrored side. Our method was tested with a trans-femoral amputee walking on a treadmill using his artificial limb. Joint angles of the elbow and knee were compared between the intact and mirrored side using cross correlation, root mean squared difference and correlation coefficients.<h4>Results</h4>The time delayed adaptive virtual mirror box produced a symmetrical looking gait of the avatar coupled with a reduction of the difference between the intact and virtual knee and elbow angles (10.86° and 5.34° reduced to 4.99° and 2.54° respectively). Dynamic morphing of the delay caused a non-significant change of toe-off events when compared to delaying by 50% of the previous gait cycle, as opposed to the initial contact events which showed a practically negligible but statistically significant increase (p?<?0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adding an adaptive time delay to the Virtual Mirror Box has extended its use to treadmill gait, for the first time. Dynamic morphing resulted in a compromise between mirrored movement of the intact side and gait events of the virtual limbs matched with physical events of the impaired side. Asymmetrical but repeatable gait is expected to provide even more faithful mirroring.
Project description:Purpose:Children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy (SUCP) frequently undergo lower limb surgery to improve gait. Postoperatively, ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are used to maintain the surgical corrections and provide adequate mechanical support. Our aim was to evaluate changes in gait and impacts of AFOs one-year postoperatively. Methods:In all, 33 children with SUCP, 17 girls and 16 boys, mean age 9.2 years (5 to 16.5) were measured by 3D gait analysis walking barefoot preoperatively and walking barefoot and with AFOs one-year postoperatively. Changes in Gait Profile Scores (GPS), kinematic, kinetic and temporal spatial variables were examined using linear mixed models, with gender, gross motor function and AFO type as fixed effects. Results:The results confirm significant gait improvements in the GPS, kinematics and kinetics walking barefoot one year after surgery. Comparing AFOs with barefoot walking postoperatively, there was additionally reduced ankle plantarflexion by an average of 5.1° and knee flexion by 4.7° at initial contact, enhanced ankle moments during loading response, increased velocity, longer steps and inhibited push-off power generation. Stance and swing phase dorsiflexion increased in children walking with hinged AFOs versus children walking with ground reaction AFOs. Changes in the non-affected limbs indicated less compensatory gait postoperatively. Conclusion:Major changes were found between pre- and postoperative barefoot conditions. The main impact of AFOs was correction of residual drop foot and improved prepositioning for initial contact, which could be considered as indications for continued use after the one-year follow-up. Level of Evidence:Level II - Therapeutic.
Project description:Clinical signs in Parkinson's disease (PD), including parkinsonian gait, are often asymmetric, but mechanisms underlying gait asymmetries in PD remain poorly understood. A translational toolkit, a set of standardized measures to capture gait asymmetries in relevant mouse models and patients, would greatly facilitate research efforts. We validated approaches to quantify asymmetries in placement and timing of limbs in mouse models of parkinsonism and human PD subjects at speeds that are relevant for human walking. In mice, we applied regression analysis to compare left and right gait metrics within a condition. To compare alternation ratios of left and right limbs before and after induction of parkinsonism, we used circular statistics. Both approaches revealed asymmetries in hind- and forelimb step length in a unilateral PD model, but not in bilateral or control models. In human subjects, a similar regression approach showed a step length asymmetry in the PD but not control group. Sub-analysis of cohorts with predominant postural instability-gait impairment and with predominant tremor revealed asymmetries for step length in both cohorts and for swing time only in the former cohort. This translational approach captures asymmetries of gait in mice and patients. Application revealed striking differences between models, and that spatial and temporal asymmetries may occur independently. This approach will be useful to investigate circuit mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity between models.
Project description:Background:Spasticity of the upper extremity often occurs after injury to the upper motor neurons (UMN). This condition can greatly interfere with the hand positioning in space and the functional use of the arm, affecting many daily living activities including walking. As gait and balance involve the coordination of all segments of the body, the control of upper limbs movement is necessary for smooth motion and stability. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of surgical interventions on upper extremity spasticity to gait patterns in three spastic patients, as a way to assess the effect on patient's mobility. Methods:Three patients with an anoxic brain injury, upper extremity spasticity, and an altered gait participated in this study. A specific treatment plan based on the patient was tailored by the orthopedic hand surgeon to help release the contractures and spastic muscles. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed before surgery, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. During each experimental session, the patient walked at a self-selected pace in a straight line across four force plates embedded into the floor (Kistler®). Motion data were acquired using Vicon® Motion Capturing System. Spatiotemporal measurements as well as bilateral kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle were studied. The results from matched non-disabled controls were included as reference. Results:Overtime, clinical assessment displayed recovery in hand functions and restored sensation in the fingers. Gait analysis results demonstrated overall improvements in spatiotemporal parameters, specifically in cadence and walking speed. Improvements in kinematics of the lower limbs were also evident. Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that, within a timeframe of one year, gait patterns improved in all patients. These observations suggest that, over time, upper limb surgery has the potential to improve the biomechanics of gait in spastic patients.
Project description:Assessment of lameness in cattle after foot surgery is important to monitor the recovery period, to improve the long-term success and the cows` welfare. This longitudinal multicenter retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of automated tools of weight bearing and gait analysis following foot surgery to support the clinician to monitor lameness in cattle. For this purpose, the effect of involvement of different anatomical structures and the use of different surgery methods on gait parameters of post-operative recovery was assessed. The study consisted of 2 experiments and included cattle with unilateral foot pathologies located in the digital region which needed 1 (experiment 1; n = 30) or 2 (experiment 2; n = 4) surgical interventions. The surgical techniques were debridement, joint lavage, partial resection of bones, tendons or synovial structures, total resection of the sesamoid bone and digit amputation. Two accelerometers (400 Hz; kinematic outcome = stance phase duration; kinetic outcome = foot load and toe-off), a 4-scale weighing platform (difference of mean weight distribution across the limbs; ?weight) and a subjective locomotion score were used to evaluate gait parameters every 3 to 4 days after surgery. A repeated measures ANOVA was used in experiment 1 and a receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff values in experiment 2. Results showed that the differences across limbs for the pedogram variables of stance phases and peaks of foot load and toe-off, ?weight and the locomotion score were highest if joints or sesamoid bones were involved, suggesting that these cattle were more severely lame compared to cattle with more superficial foot pathologies. There was a significantly lower degree of lameness after surgical debridement and after digit amputation compared to partial and total resection of anatomical structures of the foot. The use of accelerometers and a 4-scale weighing platform represent promising objective tools for post-operative monitoring of lameness and can support the clinician in gait assessment to improve the long-term success of surgical interventions in the area of the foot.