Balanced Activity between Kv3 and Nav Channels Determines Fast-Spiking in Mammalian Central Neurons.
ABSTRACT: Fast-spiking (FS) neurons can fire action potentials (APs) up to 1,000 Hz and play key roles in vital functions such as sound location, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we report that the concerted actions of Kv3 voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ (Nav) channels are sufficient and necessary for inducing and maintaining FS. Voltage-clamp analysis revealed a robust correlation between the Kv3/Nav current ratio and FS. Expressing Kv3 channels alone could convert ?30%-60% slow-spiking (SS) neurons to FS in culture. In contrast, co-expression of either Nav1.2 or Nav1.6 together with Kv3.1 or Kv3.3, but not alone or with Kv1.2, converted SS to FS with 100% efficiency. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing-based genome-wide analysis revealed that the Kv3/Nav ratio and Kv3 expression levels strongly correlated with the maximal AP frequencies. Therefore, FS is established by the properly balanced activities of Kv3 and Nav channels and could be further fine-tuned by channel biophysical features and localization patterns.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The zebrafish has been suggested as a model system for studying human diseases that affect nervous system function and motor output. However, few of the ion channels that control neuronal activity in zebrafish have been characterized. Here, we have identified zebrafish orthologs of voltage-dependent Kv3 (KCNC) K+ channels. Kv3 channels have specialized gating properties that facilitate high-frequency, repetitive firing in fast-spiking neurons. Mutations in human Kv3.3 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13), an autosomal dominant genetic disease that exists in distinct neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative forms. To assess the potential usefulness of the zebrafish as a model system for SCA13, we have characterized the functional properties of zebrafish Kv3.3 channels with and without mutations analogous to those that cause SCA13. RESULTS:The zebrafish genome (release Zv8) contains six Kv3 family members including two Kv3.1 genes (kcnc1a and kcnc1b), one Kv3.2 gene (kcnc2), two Kv3.3 genes (kcnc3a and kcnc3b), and one Kv3.4 gene (kcnc4). Both Kv3.3 genes are expressed during early development. Zebrafish Kv3.3 channels exhibit strong functional and structural homology with mammalian Kv3.3 channels. Zebrafish Kv3.3 activates over a depolarized voltage range and deactivates rapidly. An amino-terminal extension mediates fast, N-type inactivation. The kcnc3a gene is alternatively spliced, generating variant carboxyl-terminal sequences. The R335H mutation in the S4 transmembrane segment, analogous to the SCA13 mutation R420H, eliminates functional expression. When co-expressed with wild type, R335H subunits suppress Kv3.3 activity by a dominant negative mechanism. The F363L mutation in the S5 transmembrane segment, analogous to the SCA13 mutation F448L, alters channel gating. F363L shifts the voltage range for activation in the hyperpolarized direction and dramatically slows deactivation. CONCLUSIONS:The functional properties of zebrafish Kv3.3 channels are consistent with a role in facilitating fast, repetitive firing of action potentials in neurons. The functional effects of SCA13 mutations are well conserved between human and zebrafish Kv3.3 channels. The high degree of homology between human and zebrafish Kv3.3 channels suggests that the zebrafish will be a useful model system for studying pathogenic mechanisms in SCA13.
Project description:The GABA projection neurons in the substantial nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are key output neurons of the basal ganglia motor control circuit. These neurons fire sustained high-frequency, short-duration spikes that provide a tonic inhibition to their targets and are critical to movement control. We hypothesized that a robust voltage-activated K(+) conductance that activates quickly and resists inactivation is essential to the remarkable fast-spiking capability in these neurons. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis on laser capture-microdissected nigral neurons indicated that mRNAs for Kv3.1 and Kv3.4, two key subunits for forming high activation threshold, fast-activating, slow-inactivating, 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive, fast delayed rectifier (I(DR-fast)) type Kv channels, are more abundant in fast-spiking SNr GABA neurons than in slow-spiking nigral dopamine neurons. Nucleated patch clamp recordings showed that SNr GABA neurons have a strong Kv3-like I(DR-fast) current sensitive to 1 mM TEA that activates quickly at depolarized membrane potentials and is resistant to inactivation. I(DR-fast) is smaller in nigral dopamine neurons. Pharmacological blockade of I(DR-fast) by 1 mM TEA impaired the high-frequency firing capability in SNr GABA neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that Kv3-like channels mediating fast-activating, inactivation-resistant I(DR-fast) current are critical to the sustained high-frequency firing in SNr GABA projection neurons and hence movement control.
Project description:The development of neuroprotective and repair strategies for treating progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) requires new insights into axonal injury. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a blocker of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, is used in symptomatic treatment of progressive MS, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that deleting Kv3.1-the channel with the highest 4-AP sensitivity-reduces clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. In Kv3.1 knockout (KO) mice, EAE lesions in sensory and motor tracts of spinal cord were markedly reduced, and radial astroglia were activated with increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Kv3.3/Kv3.1 and activated BDNF receptors were upregulated in demyelinating axons in EAE and MS lesions. In spinal cord myelin coculture, BDNF treatment promoted myelination, and neuronal firing via altering channel expression. Therefore, suppressing Kv3.1 alters neural circuit activity, which may enhance BNDF signaling and hence protect axons from inflammatory insults.
Project description:Synaptic inputs received at dendrites are converted into digital outputs encoded by action potentials generated at the axon initial segment in most neurons. Here, we report that alternative splicing regulates polarized targeting of Kv3.1 voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels to adjust the input-output relationship. The spiking frequency of cultured hippocampal neurons correlated with the level of endogenous Kv3 channels. Expression of axonal Kv3.1b, the longer form of Kv3.1 splice variants, effectively converted slow-spiking young neurons to fast-spiking ones; this was not the case for Kv1.2 or Kv4.2 channel constructs. Despite having identical biophysical properties as Kv3.1b, dendritic Kv3.1a was significantly less effective at increasing the maximal firing frequency. This suggests a possible role of channel targeting in regulating spiking frequency. Mutagenesis studies suggest the electrostatic repulsion between the Kv3.1b N/C termini, created by its C-terminal splice domain, unmasks the Kv3.1b axonal targeting motif. Kv3.1b axonal targeting increased the maximal spiking frequency in response to prolonged depolarization. This finding was further supported by the results of local application of channel blockers and computer simulations. Taken together, our studies have demonstrated that alternative splicing controls neuronal firing rates by regulating the polarized targeting of Kv3.1 channels.
Project description:Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is prominently expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and is known to be important for cerebellar function, as human and mouse movement disorders result from mutations in Kv3.3. To understand these behavioral deficits, it is necessary to know the role of Kv3.3 channels on the physiological responses of Purkinje cells. We studied the function of Kv3.3 channels in regulating the synaptically evoked Purkinje cell complex spike, the massive postsynaptic response to the activation of climbing fiber afferents, believed to be fundamental to cerebellar physiology. Acute slice recordings revealed that Kv3.3 channels are required for generation of the repetitive spikelets of the complex spike. We found that spikelet expression is regulated by somatic, and not by dendritic, Kv3 activity, which is consistent with dual somatic-dendritic recordings that demonstrate spikelet generation at axosomatic membranes. Simulations of Purkinje cell Na+ currents show that the unique electrical properties of Kv3 and resurgent Na+ channels are coordinated to limit accumulation of Na+ channel inactivation and enable rapid, repetitive firing. We additionally show that Kv3.3 knock-out mice produce altered complex spikes in vitro and in vivo, which is likely a cellular substrate of the cerebellar phenotypes observed in these mice. This characterization presents new tools to study complex spike function, cerebellar signaling, and Kv3.3-dependent human and mouse phenotypes.
Project description:Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 voltage-gated potassium channels are expressed on parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in corticolimbic brain regions and contribute to high-frequency neural firing. The channels are also expressed on GABAergic neurons of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area (VTA) where they regulate firing patterns critical for movement control, reward, and motivation. Modulation of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels may therefore have potential in the treatment of disorders in which these systems have been implicated, such as bipolar disorder. Following the recent development of a potassium channel modulator, AUT1-an imidazolidinedione compound that specifically increases currents mediated by Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels in recombinant systems-we report that the compound is able to reverse 'manic-like' behavior in two mouse models: amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and Clock?19 mutants. AUT1 completely prevented amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent manner, similar to the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine. Similar efficacy was observed in Kv3.2 knockout mice. In contrast, AUT1 was unable to prevent amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice lacking Kv3.1 channels. Notably, Kv3.1-null mice displayed baseline hyperlocomotion, reduced anxiety-like behavior, and antidepressant-like behavior. In Clock?19 mice, AUT1 reversed hyperactivity. Furthermore, AUT1 application modulated firing frequency and action potential properties of Clock?19 VTA dopamine neurons potentially through network effects. Kv3.1 protein levels in the VTA of Clock?19 and WT mice were unaltered by acute AUT1 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the modulation of Kv3.1 channels may provide a novel approach to the treatment of bipolar mania.
Project description:The conventional kinesin motor transports many different cargos to specific locations in neurons. How cargos regulate motor function remains unclear. Here we focus on KIF5, the heavy chain of conventional kinesin, and report that the Kv3 (Shaw) voltage-gated K(+) channel, the only known tetrameric KIF5-binding protein, clusters and activates KIF5 motors during axonal transport. Endogenous KIF5 often forms clusters along axons, suggesting a potential role of KIF5-binding proteins. Our biochemical assays reveal that the high-affinity multimeric binding between the Kv3.1 T1 domain and KIF5B requires three basic residues in the KIF5B tail. Kv3.1 T1 competes with the motor domain and microtubules, but not with kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), for binding to the KIF5B tail. Live-cell imaging assays show that four KIF5-binding proteins, Kv3.1, KLC1 and two synaptic proteins SNAP25 and VAMP2, differ in how they regulate KIF5B distribution. Only Kv3.1 markedly increases the frequency and number of KIF5B-YFP anterograde puncta. Deletion of Kv3.1 channels reduces KIF5 clusters in mouse cerebellar neurons. Therefore, clustering and activation of KIF5 motors by Kv3 regulate the motor number in carrier vesicles containing the channel proteins, contributing not only to the specificity of Kv3 channel transport, but also to the cargo-mediated regulation of motor function.
Project description:Precise targeting of various voltage-gated ion channels to proper membrane domains is crucial for their distinct roles in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. How each channel protein is transported within the cytoplasm is poorly understood. Here, we report that KIF5/kinesin I transports Kv3.1 voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels through the axon initial segment (AIS) via direct binding. First, we have identified a novel interaction between Kv3.1 and KIF5, confirmed by immunoprecipitation from mouse brain lysates and by pull-down assays with exogenously expressed proteins. The interaction is mediated by a direct binding between the Kv3.1 N-terminal T1 domain and a conserved region in KIF5 tail domains, in which proper T1 tetramerization is crucial. Overexpression of this region of KIF5B markedly reduces axonal levels of Kv3.1bHA. In mature hippocampal neurons, endogenous Kv3.1b and KIF5 colocalize. Suppressing the endogenous KIF5B level by RNA interference significantly reduces the Kv3.1b axonal level. Furthermore, mutating the Zn(2+)-binding site within T1 markedly decreases channel axonal targeting and forward trafficking, likely through disrupting T1 tetramerization and hence eliminating the binding to KIF5 tail. The mutation also alters channel activity. Interestingly, coexpression of the YFP (yellow fluorescent protein)-tagged KIF5B assists dendritic Kv3.1a and even mutants with a faulty axonal targeting motif to penetrate the AIS. Finally, fluorescently tagged Kv3.1 channels colocalize and comove with KIF5B along axons revealed by two-color time-lapse imaging. Our findings suggest that the binding to KIF5 ensures properly assembled and functioning Kv3.1 channels to be transported into axons.
Project description:Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, including Kv3.1 and Kv3.4, are known as oxygen sensors, and their function in hypoxia has been well investigated. However, the relationship between Kv channels and tumor hypoxia has yet to be investigated. This study demonstrates that Kv3.1 and Kv3.4 are tumor hypoxia-related Kv channels involved in cancer cell migration and invasion. Kv3.1 and Kv3.4 protein expression in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells increased in a cell density-dependent manner, and the pattern was similar to the expression patterns of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) according to cell density, whereas Kv3.3 protein expression did not change in A549 cells with an increase in cell density. The Kv3.1 and Kv3.4 blocker blood depressing substance (BDS) did not affect cell proliferation; instead, BDS inhibited cell migration and invasion. We found that BDS inhibited intracellular pH regulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in A549 cells cultured at a high density, potentially resulting in BDS-induced inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Our data suggest that Kv3.1 and Kv3.4 might be new therapeutic targets for cancer metastasis.
Project description:We have examined gating and pharmacological characteristics of somatic K+ channels in fast-spiking interneurons and regularly spiking principal neurons of hippocampal slices. In nucleated patches isolated from basket cells of the dentate gyrus, a fast delayed rectifier K+ current component that was highly sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <0.1 mM) predominated, contributing an average of 58% to the total K+ current in these cells. By contrast, in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region a rapidly inactivating A-type K+ current component that was TEA-resistant prevailed, contributing 61% to the total K+ current. Both types of neurons also showed small amounts of the K+ current component mainly found in the other type of neuron and, in addition, a slow delayed rectifier K+ current component with intermediate properties (slow inactivation, intermediate sensitivity to TEA). Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of mRNA revealed that Kv3 (Kv3.1, Kv3.2) subunit transcripts were expressed in almost all (89%) of the interneurons but only in 17% of the pyramidal neurons. In contrast, Kv4 (Kv4.2, Kv4.3) subunit mRNAs were present in 87% of pyramidal neurons but only in 55% of interneurons. Selective block of fast delayed rectifier K+ channels, presumably assembled from Kv3 subunits, by 4-AP reduced substantially the action potential frequency in interneurons. These results indicate that the differential expression of Kv3 and Kv4 subunits shapes the action potential phenotypes of principal neurons and interneurons in the cortex.