Platelet Microparticles Mediate Glomerular Endothelial Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glomerular endothelium dysfunction, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of early diabetic nephropathy, might be caused by circulating metabolic abnormalities. Platelet microparticles, extracellular vesicles released from activated platelets, have recently emerged as a novel regulator of vascular dysfunction. METHODS:We studied the effects of platelet microparticles on glomerular endothelial injury in early diabetic nephropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and primary rat glomerular endothelial cells. Isolated platelet microparticles were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Plasma platelet microparticles were significantly increased in diabetic rats, an effect inhibited in aspirin-treated animals. In cultured glomerular endothelial cells, platelet microparticles induced production of reactive oxygen species, decreased nitric oxide levels, inhibited activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SOD, increased permeability of the glomerular endothelium barrier, and reduced thickness of the endothelial surface layer. Conversely, inhibition of platelet microparticles in vivo by aspirin improved glomerular endothelial injury. Further analysis showed that platelet microparticles activated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in glomerular endothelial cells; inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway by rapamycin or raptor siRNA significantly protected against microparticle-induced glomerular endothelial injury in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, platelet microparticle-derived chemokine ligand 7 (CXCL7) contributed to glomerular endothelial injury, and antagonizing CXCL7 using CXCL7-neutralizing antibody or blocking CXCL7 receptors with a competitive inhibitor of CXCR1 and CXCR2 dramatically attenuated such injury. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role of platelet microparticles in glomerular endothelium dysfunction, and suggest a potential therapeutic target, CXCL7, for treatment of early diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common denominative pathogenic mechanism underlying vascular and renal complications in diabetes mellitus. Endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of vascular ROS, and it has an important role in endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase initiates and worsens the progression of diabetic nephropathy, particularly in the development of albuminuria. We used transgenic mice with endothelial-targeted overexpression of the catalytic subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, Nox2 (NOX2TG). NOX2TG mice were crossed with Akita insulin-dependent diabetic (Akita) mice that develop progressive hyperglycemia. We compared the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Akita versus NOX2TG-Akita mice. NOX2TG-Akita mice and Akita mice developed significant albuminuria above the baseline at 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively. Compared with Akita mice, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited higher levels of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in glomeruli, developed glomerular endothelial perturbations, and attenuated expression of glomerular glycocalyx. Moreover, in contrast to Akita mice, the NOX2TG-Akita mice had numerous endothelial microparticles (blebs), as detected by scanning electron microscopy, and increased glomerular permeability. Furthermore, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited distinct phenotypic changes in glomerular mesangial cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin, and in podocytes expressing increased levels of desmin, whereas the glomeruli generated increased levels of ROS. In conclusion, activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase in the presence of hyperglycemia initiated and exacerbated diabetic nephropathy characterized by the development of albuminuria. Moreover, ROS generated in the endothelium compounded glomerular dysfunctions by altering the phenotypes of mesangial cells and compromising the integrity of the podocytes.
Project description:Angiogenesis has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for early stages of diabetic nephropathy in a number of animal experiments. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main mediator for abnormal angiogenesis in diabetic glomeruli. Although beneficial effects of anti-VEGF antibodies have previously been demonstrated in diabetic animal experiments, recent basic and clinical evidence has revealed that the blockade of VEGF signaling resulted in proteinuria and renal thrombotic microangiopathy, suggesting the importance of maintaining normal levels of VEGF in the kidneys. Therefore, antiangiogenic therapy for diabetic nephropathy should eliminate excessive glomerular angiogenic response without accelerating endothelial injury. Some endogenous antiangiogenic factors such as endostatin and tumstatin inhibit overactivation of endothelial cells but do not specifically block VEGF signaling. In addition, the novel endothelium-derived antiangiogenic factor vasohibin-1 enhances stress tolerance and survival of the endothelial cells, while inhibiting excess angiogenesis. These factors have been demonstrated to suppress albuminuria and glomerular alterations in a diabetic mouse model. Thus, antiangiogenic therapy with promising candidates will possibly improve renal prognosis in patients with early stages of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of ESRD in high-income countries and a growing problem across the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is thought to be a critical mediator of vascular dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy, yet VEGF-A knockout and overexpression of angiogenic VEGF-A isoforms each worsen diabetic nephropathy. We examined the vasculoprotective effects of the VEGF-A isoform VEGF-A165b in diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of VEGF-A165b mRNA was upregulated in diabetic individuals with well preserved kidney function, but not in those with progressive disease. Reproducing this VEGF-A165b upregulation in mouse podocytes in vivo prevented functional and histologic abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy. Biweekly systemic injections of recombinant human VEGF-A165b reduced features of diabetic nephropathy when initiated during early or advanced nephropathy in a model of type 1 diabetes and when initiated during early nephropathy in a model of type 2 diabetes. VEGF-A165b normalized glomerular permeability through phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 in glomerular endothelial cells, and reversed diabetes-induced damage to the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. VEGF-A165b also improved the permeability function of isolated diabetic human glomeruli. These results show that VEGF-A165b acts via the endothelium to protect blood vessels and ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:The objective of this study is to create an encyclopedia of all genes expressed in the glomerular endothelial cell under normal and diabetic conditions. We utilized Tie2-GFP transgenic mice to mark cells of the glomerular endothelium. To induce diabetic nephropathy (DB), a genetic model of DB, BKS.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb/J from Jax laboratories was used. We utilized fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate glomerular endothelial cells from normal and diabetic mice. The RNAs from these samples were isolated and utilized to hybridize to microarrays, which offers a powerful, efficient and effective method for the creation of a gene expression atlas. Microarrays were used to identify the transciptional differences that occur in the glomular endothelium of a diabetic mouse. Diabetic and control mice carrying the Tie2-GFP transgenic were utilized to isolate the endothelial cells from the adult glomerulus. The endothelial cells were isolated from the glomerulus using FACS. RNA was isolated and the gene expression profiles were determined by microarrays.
Project description:The objective of this study is to create an encyclopedia of all genes expressed in the glomerular endothelial cell under normal and diabetic conditions. We utilized Tie2-GFP transgenic mice to mark cells of the glomerular endothelium. To induce diabetic nephropathy (DB), a genetic model of DB, BKS.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb/J from Jax laboratories was used. We utilized fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate glomerular endothelial cells from normal and diabetic mice. The RNAs from these samples were isolated and utilized to hybridize to microarrays, which offers a powerful, efficient and effective method for the creation of a gene expression atlas. Microarrays were used to identify the transciptional differences that occur in the glomular endothelium of a diabetic mouse. Overall design: Diabetic and control mice carrying the Tie2-GFP transgenic were utilized to isolate the endothelial cells from the adult glomerulus. The endothelial cells were isolated from the glomerulus using FACS. RNA was isolated and the gene expression profiles were determined by microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A glycocalyx envelope consisting of proteoglycans and adhering proteins covers endothelial cells, both the luminal and abluminal surface. We previously demonstrated that short-term loss of integrity of the luminal glycocalyx layer resulted in perturbed glomerular filtration barrier function. METHODS:To explore the role of the glycocalyx layer of the endothelial extracellular matrix in renal function, we generated mice with an endothelium-specific and inducible deletion of hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), the enzyme that produces hyaluronan, the main structural component of the endothelial glycocalyx layer. We also investigated the presence of endothelial hyaluronan in human kidney tissue from patients with varying degrees of diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS:Endothelial deletion of Has2 in adult mice led to substantial loss of the glycocalyx structure, and analysis of their kidneys and kidney function showed vascular destabilization, characterized by mesangiolysis, capillary ballooning, and albuminuria. This process develops over time into glomerular capillary rarefaction and glomerulosclerosis, recapitulating the phenotype of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. Using a hyaluronan-specific probe, we found loss of glomerular endothelial hyaluronan in association with lesion formation in tissue from patients with diabetic nephropathy. We also demonstrated that loss of hyaluronan, which harbors a specific binding site for angiopoietin and a key regulator of endothelial quiescence and maintenance of EC barrier function results in disturbed angiopoietin 1 Tie2. CONCLUSIONS:Endothelial loss of hyaluronan results in disturbed glomerular endothelial stabilization. Glomerular endothelial hyaluronan is a previously unrecognized key component of the extracelluar matrix that is required for glomerular structure and function and lost in diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a shear stress-inducible transcription factor, has endoprotective effects. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, we found that glomerular Klf2 expression was reduced in comparison with nondiabetic rats. However, normalization of hyperglycemia by insulin treatment increased Klf2 expression to a level higher than that of nondiabetic rats. Consistent with this, we found that Klf2 expression was suppressed by high glucose but increased by insulin in cultured endothelial cells. To determine the role of KLF2 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, we used endothelial cell-specific Klf2 heterozygous knockout mice and found that diabetic knockout mice developed more kidney/glomerular hypertrophy and proteinuria than diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of Vegfa, Flk1, and angiopoietin 2 increased, but expression of Flt1, Tie2, and angiopoietin 1 decreased, in diabetic knockout mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of ZO-1, glycocalyx, and eNOS was also decreased in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice. These data suggest knockdown of Klf2 expression in the endothelial cells induced more endothelial cell injury. Interestingly, podocyte injury was also more prominent in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice, indicating a cross talk between these two cell types. Thus, KLF2 may play a role in glomerular endothelial cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can cause hepatic failure after liver surgery or transplantation. IRI causes oxidative stress, which injures sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), leading to recruitment and activation of Kupffer cells, platelets and microcirculatory impairment. We investigated whether injured SECs and other cell types release microparticles during post-ischemic reperfusion, and whether such microparticles have pro-inflammatory, platelet-activating and pro-injurious effects that could contribute to IRI pathogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>C57BL6 mice underwent 60 min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 15 min-24 hrs of reperfusion. We collected blood and liver samples, isolated circulating microparticles, and determined protein and lipid content. To establish mechanism for microparticle production, we subjected murine primary hepatocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Because microparticles express everted phosphatidylserine residues that are the target of annexin V, we analyzed the effects of an annexin V-homodimer (Diannexin or ASP8597) on post-ischemia microparticle production and function.<h4>Results</h4>Microparticles were detected in the circulation 15-30 min after post-ischemic reperfusion, and contained markers of SECs, platelets, natural killer T cells, and CD8+ cells; 4 hrs later, they contained markers of macrophages. Microparticles contained F2-isoprostanes, indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Injection of mice with TNF-? increased microparticle formation, whereas Diannexin substantially reduced microparticle release and prevented IRI. Hypoxia-re-oxygenation generated microparticles from primary hepatocytes by processes that involved oxidative stress. Exposing cultured hepatocytes to preparations of microparticles isolated from the circulation during IRI caused injury involving mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Microparticles also activated platelets and induced neutrophil migration in vitro. The inflammatory properties of microparticles involved activation of NF-?B and JNK, increased expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. All these processes were blocked by coating microparticles with Diannexin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Following hepatic IRI, microparticles circulate and can be taken up by hepatocytes, where they activate signaling pathways that mediate inflammation and hepatocyte injury. Diannexin prevents microparticle formation and subsequent inflammation.
Project description:Recent studies have implicated dysfunctional endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) as a common pathogenic pathway in diabetic vascular complications. However, functional consequences are still incompletely understood. To determine the role of eNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO) in diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes in eNOS knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice on the C57BL6 background, using low-dose streptozotocin injection, and we investigated their glomerular phenotype at up to 20 weeks of diabetes. Although the severity of hyperglycemia in diabetic eNOS KO mice was similar to diabetic WT mice, diabetic eNOS KO mice developed overt albuminuria, hypertension, and glomerular mesangiolysis, whereas diabetic WT and nondiabetic control mice did not. Glomerular hyperfiltration was also significantly reduced in diabetic eNOS KO mice. Electron micrographs from diabetic eNOS KO mice revealed an injured endothelial morphology, thickened glomerular basement membrane, and focal foot process effacement. Furthermore, the anionic sites at glomerular endothelial barrier estimated by cationic ferritin binding were reduced in diabetic eNOS KO mice. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that deficiency of eNOS-derived NO causes glomerular endothelial injury in the setting of diabetes and results in overt albuminuria and glomerular mesangiolysis in nephropathy-resistant inbred mice. The findings indicate a vital role for eNOS-derived NO in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions associate with deeper vessel injury affecting vascular smooth muscle cells.