A multicity study of air pollution and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits: Comparing approaches for combining estimates across cities.
ABSTRACT: Determining how associations between ambient air pollution and health vary by specific outcome is important for developing public health interventions. We estimated associations between twelve ambient air pollutants of both primary (e.g. nitrogen oxides) and secondary (e.g. ozone and sulfate) origin and cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits for 8 specific outcomes in five U.S. cities including Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Dallas, TX; Pittsburgh, PA; St. Louis, MO. For each city, we fitted overdispersed Poisson time-series models to estimate associations between each pollutant and specific outcome. To estimate multicity and posterior city-specific associations, we developed a Bayesian multicity multi-outcome (MCM) model that pools information across cities using data from all specific outcomes. We fitted single pollutant models as well as models with multipollutant components using a two-stage chemical mixtures approach. Posterior city-specific associations from the MCM models were somewhat attenuated, with smaller standard errors, compared to associations from time-series regression models. We found positive associations of both primary and secondary pollutants with respiratory disease ED visits. There was some indication that primary pollutants, particularly nitrogen oxides, were also associated with cardiovascular disease ED visits. Bayesian models can help to synthesize findings across multiple outcomes and cities by providing posterior city-specific associations building on variation and similarities across the multiple sources of available information.
Project description:Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Determining which sources of PM2.5 are most toxic can help guide targeted reduction of PM2.5. However, conducting multicity epidemiologic studies of sources is difficult because source-specific PM2.5 is not directly measured, and source chemical compositions can vary between cities.We determined how the chemical composition of primary ambient PM2.5 sources varies across cities. We estimated associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease emergency department (ED) visits and examined between-city heterogeneity in estimated associations.We used source apportionment to estimate daily concentrations of primary source-specific PM2.5 for four U.S. cities. For sources with similar chemical compositions between cities, we applied Poisson time-series regression models to estimate associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease ED visits.We found that PM2.5 from biomass burning, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, and dust sources was similar in chemical composition between cities, but PM2.5 from coal combustion and metal sources varied across cities. We found some evidence of positive associations of respiratory disease ED visits with biomass burning PM2.5; associations with diesel and gasoline PM2.5 were frequently imprecise or consistent with the null. We found little evidence of associations with dust PM2.5.We introduced an approach for comparing the chemical compositions of PM2.5 sources across cities and conducted one of the first multicity studies of source-specific PM2.5 and ED visits. Across four U.S. cities, among the primary PM2.5 sources assessed, biomass burning PM2.5 was most strongly associated with respiratory health. Citation: Krall JR, Mulholland JA, Russell AG, Balachandran S, Winquist A, Tolbert PE, Waller LA, Sarnat SE. 2017. Associations between source-specific fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for respiratory disease in four U.S. cities. Environ Health Perspect 125:97-103;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP271.
Project description:Although short-term exposure to ambient ozone (O3) can cause poor respiratory health outcomes, the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) between O3 and respiratory morbidity has not been widely investigated. We estimated the effect of daily O3 on emergency department (ED) visits for selected respiratory outcomes in 5 US cities under various model assumptions and assessed model fit. Population-weighted average 8-h maximum O3 concentrations were estimated in each city. Individual-level data on ED visits were obtained from hospitals or hospital associations. Poisson log-linear models were used to estimate city-specific associations between the daily number of respiratory ED visits and 3-day moving average O3 levels controlling for long-term trends and meteorology. Linear, linear-threshold, quadratic, cubic, categorical, and cubic spline O3 C-R models were considered. Using linear C-R models, O3 was significantly and positively associated with respiratory ED visits in each city with rate ratios of 1.02-1.07 per 25?ppb. Models suggested that O3-ED C-R shapes were linear until O3 concentrations of roughly 60?ppb at which point risk continued to increase linearly in some cities for certain outcomes while risk flattened in others. Assessing C-R shape is necessary to identify the most appropriate form of the exposure for each given study setting.
Project description:Winter temperature inversions-layers of air in which temperature increases with altitude-trap air pollutants and lead to higher pollutant concentrations. Previous studies have evaluated associations between pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma, but none have considered inversions as independent risk factors for ED visits for asthma.We aimed to assess associations between winter inversions and ED visits for asthma in Salt Lake County, Utah.We obtained electronic records of ED visits for asthma and data on inversions, weather, and air pollutants for Salt Lake County, Utah, during the winters of 2003 through 2004 to 2007 through 2008. We identified 3,425 ED visits using a primary diagnosis of asthma. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate rate ratios of ED visits for asthma in relation to inversions during a 4-day lag period and prolonged inversions. We evaluated interactions between inversions and weather and pollutants.After adjusting for dew point and mean temperatures, the OR for ED visits for asthma associated with inversions 0-3 days before the visit compared with no inversions during the lag period was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.30). The OR for each 1-day increase in the number of inversion days during the lag period was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07). Associations were only apparent when PM10 and maximum and mean temperatures were above median levels.Our results provide evidence that winter inversions are associated with increased rates of ED visits for asthma.
Project description:Given that fine particulate matter (? 2.5 ?m; PM2.5) is a mixture of multiple components, it has been of high interest to identify its specific health-relevant physical and/or chemical features.We conducted a time-series study of PM2.5 and cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits in the St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois metropolitan area, using 2 years of daily PM2.5 and PM2.5 component measurements (including ions, carbon, particle-phase organic compounds, and elements) made at the St. Louis-Midwest Supersite, a monitoring site of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersites ambient air monitoring research program.Using Poisson generalized linear models, we assessed short-term associations between daily cardiorespiratory ED visit counts and daily levels of 24 selected pollutants. Associations were estimated for interquartile range changes in each pollutant. To allow comparison of relationships among multiple pollutants and outcomes with potentially different lag structures, we used 3-day unconstrained distributed lag models controlling for time trends and meteorology.Considering results of our primary models, as well as sensitivity analyses and models assessing co-pollutant confounding, we observed robust associations of cardiovascular disease visits with 17?(H),21?(H)-hopane and congestive heart failure visits with elemental carbon. We also observed a robust association of respiratory disease visits with ozone. For asthma/wheeze, associations were strongest with ozone and nitrogen dioxide; observed associations of asthma/wheeze with PM2.5 and its components were attenuated in two-pollutant models with these gases. Differential measurement error due to differential patterns of spatiotemporal variability may have influenced patterns of observed associations across pollutants.Our findings add to the growing field examining the health effects of PM2.5 components. Combustion-related components of the pollutant mix showed particularly strong associations with cardiorespiratory ED visit outcomes.
Project description:Few large multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to address the acute health effects of atmospheric ozone pollution.We explored the associations between ozone and daily cause-specific mortality in China.We performed a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 representative Chinese cities between 2013 and 2015. We used distributed lag models and over-dispersed generalized linear models to estimate the cumulative effects of ozone (lagged over 0-3 d) on mortality in each city, and we used hierarchical Bayesian models to combine the city-specific estimates. Regional, seasonal, and demographic heterogeneity were evaluated by meta-regression.At the national-average level, a 10-?g/m3 increase in 8-h maximum ozone concentration was associated with 0.24% [95% posterior interval (PI): 0.13%, 0.35%], 0.27% (95% PI: 0.10%, 0.44%), 0.60% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.11%), 0.24% (95% PI: 0.02%, 0.46%), and 0.29% (95% PI: 0.07%, 0.50%) higher daily mortality from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, coronary diseases, and stroke, respectively. Associations between ozone and daily mortality due to respiratory and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease specifically were positive but imprecise and nonsignificant. There were no statistically significant differences in associations between ozone and nonaccidental mortality according to region, season, age, sex, or educational attainment.Our findings provide robust evidence of higher nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in association with short-term exposure to ambient ozone in China. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1849.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coarse particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) air pollution is a severe environmental problem in developing countries, but its challenges to public health were rarely evaluated. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to investigate the associations between day-to-day changes in [Formula: see text] and cause-specific mortality in China. METHODS:We conducted a nationwide daily time-series analysis in 272 main Chinese cities from 2013 to 2015. The associations between [Formula: see text] concentrations and mortality were analyzed in each city using overdispersed generalized additive models. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate national and regional average associations, and random-effect models were used to pool city-specific concentration-response curves. Two-pollutant models were adjusted for fine particles with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or gaseous pollutants. RESULTS:Overall, we observed positive and approximately linear concentration-response associations between [Formula: see text] and daily mortality. A [Formula: see text] increase in [Formula: see text] was associated with higher mortality due to nonaccidental causes [0.23%; 95% posterior interval (PI): 0.13, 0.33], cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; 0.25%; 95% PI: 0.13, 0.37), coronary heart disease (CHD; 0.21%; 95% PI: 0.05, 0.36), stroke (0.21%; 95% PI: 0.08, 0.35), respiratory diseases (0.26%; 95% PI: 0.07, 0.46), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; 0.34%; 95% PI: 0.12, 0.57). Associations were stronger for cities in southern vs. northern China, with significant differences for total and cardiovascular mortality. Associations with [Formula: see text] were of similar magnitude to those for [Formula: see text] in both single- and two-pollutant models with mutual adjustment. Associations were robust to adjustment for gaseous pollutants other than nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Meta-regression indicated that a larger positive correlation between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] predicted stronger city-specific associations between [Formula: see text] and total mortality. CONCLUSIONS:This analysis showed significant associations between short-term [Formula: see text] exposure and daily nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortality based on data from 272 cities located throughout China. Associations appeared to be independent of exposure to [Formula: see text], carbon monoxide, and ozone. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2711.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) visit and hospital admissions (HA) data have been an indispensible resource for assessing acute morbidity impacts of air pollution. ED visits and HAs are types of health care visits with similarities, but also potentially important differences. Little previous information is available regarding the impact of health care visit type on observed acute air pollution-health associations from studies conducted for the same location, time period, outcome definitions and model specifications. METHODS: As part of a broader study of air pollution and health in St. Louis, individual-level ED and HA data were obtained for a 6.5 year period for acute care hospitals in the eight Missouri counties of the St. Louis metropolitan area. Patient demographic characteristics and diagnostic code distributions were compared for four visit types including ED visits, HAs, HAs that came through the ED, and non-elective HAs. Time-series analyses of the relationship between daily ambient ozone and PM?.? and selected cardiorespiratory outcomes were conducted for each visit type. RESULTS: Our results indicate that, compared with ED patients, HA patients tended to be older, had evidence of greater severity for some outcomes, and had a different mix of specific outcomes. Consideration of 'HA through ED' appeared to more effectively select acute visits than consideration of 'non-elective HA'. While outcomes with the strongest observed temporal associations with air pollutants tended to show strong associations for all visit types, we found some differences in observed associations for ED visits and HAs. For example, risk ratios for the respiratory disease-ozone association were 1.020 for ED visits and 1.004 for 'HA through ED'; risk ratios for the asthma/wheeze-ozone association were 1.069 for ED visits and 1.106 for 'HA through ED'. Several factors (e.g. age) were identified that may be responsible, in part, for the differences in observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic and diagnostic differences between visit types may lead to preference for one visit type over another for some questions and populations. The strengths of observed associations with air pollutants sometimes varied between different health care visit types, but the relative strengths of association generally were specific to the pollutant-outcome combination.
Project description:Few studies have been conducted on the effect of air pollution on morbidity in Latin America. This study analyzed the effects of air pollution on respiratory and circulatory morbidity in four major cities in Colombia. An ecological time-series analysis was conducted with pollution data from air quality monitoring networks and information on emergency department visits between 2011 and 2014. Daily 24-h averages were calculated for NO?, PM10, PM2.5, and SO? as well as 8-h averages for CO and O?. Separate time-series were constructed by disease group and pollutant. Conditional negative binomial regression models were used with average population effects. Effects were calculated for the same day and were adjusted for weather conditions, age groups, and their interactions. The results showed that effects of some of the pollutants differed among the cities. For NO?, PM10, and PM2.5, the multi-city models showed greater and statistically significant percentage increases in emergency department visits for respiratory diseases, particularly for the 5 to 9-year-old age group. These same pollutants also significantly affected the rate of emergency department visits for circulatory diseases, especially for the group of persons over 60 years of age.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Relatively few studies have been conducted of the association between air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits, and most of these have been based on a small number of visits, for a limited number of health conditions and pollutants, and only daily measures of exposure and response. METHODS: A time-series analysis was conducted on nearly 400,000 ED visits to 14 hospitals in seven Canadian cities during the 1990 s and early 2000s. Associations were examined between carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM 10 and PM2.5), and visits for angina/myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmia/conduction disturbance, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and respiratory infections. Daily and 3-hourly visit counts were modeled as quasi-Poisson and analyses controlled for effects of temporal cycles, weather, day of week and holidays. RESULTS: 24-hour average concentrations of CO and NO2 lag 0 days exhibited the most consistent associations with cardiac conditions (2.1% (95% CI, 0.0-4.2%) and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.2-5.0%) increase in visits for myocardial infarction/angina per 0.7 ppm CO and 18.4 ppb NO2 respectively; 3.8% (95% CI, 0.7-6.9%) and 4.7% (95% CI, 1.2-8.4%) increase in visits for heart failure). Ozone (lag 2 days) was most consistently associated with respiratory visits (3.2% (95% CI, 0.3-6.2%), and 3.7% (95% CI, -0.5-7.9%) increases in asthma and COPD visits respectively per 18.4 ppb). Associations tended to be of greater magnitude during the warm season (April - September). In particular, the associations of PM 10 and PM2.5 with asthma visits were respectively nearly three- and over fourfold larger vs. all year analyses (14.4% increase in visits, 95% CI, 0.2-30.7, per 20.6 microg/m3 PM 10 and 7.6% increase in visits, 95% CI, 5.1-10.1, per 8.2 microg/m3 PM2.5). No consistent associations were observed between three hour average pollutant concentrations and same-day three hour averages of ED visits. CONCLUSION: In this large multicenter analysis, daily average concentrations of CO and NO2 exhibited the most consistent associations with ED visits for cardiac conditions, while ozone exhibited the most consistent associations with visits for respiratory conditions. PM 10 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with asthma visits during the warm season.
Project description:Childhood asthma morbidity has been associated with short-term air pollution exposure. To date, most investigations have used time-series models, and it is not well understood how exposure misclassification arising from unmeasured spatial variation may impact epidemiological effect estimates. Here, we develop case-crossover models integrating temporal and spatial individual-level exposure information, toward reducing exposure misclassification in estimating associations between air pollution and child asthma exacerbations in New York City (NYC).Air pollution data included: (a) highly spatially-resolved intra-urban concentration surfaces for ozone and co-pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter) from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS), and (b) daily regulatory monitoring data. Case data included citywide hospital records for years 2005-2011 warm-season (June-August) asthma hospitalizations (n=2353) and Emergency Department (ED) visits (n=11,719) among children aged 5-17 years. Case residential locations were geocoded using a multi-step process to maximize positional accuracy and precision in near-residence exposure estimates. We used conditional logistic regression to model associations between ozone and child asthma exacerbations for lag days 0-6, adjusting for co-pollutant and temperature exposures. To evaluate the effect of increased exposure specificity through spatial air pollution information, we sequentially incorporated spatial variation into daily exposure estimates for ozone, temperature, and co-pollutants.Percent excess risk per 10ppb ozone exposure in spatio-temporal models were significant on lag days 1 through 5, ranging from 6.5 (95% CI: 0.2-13.1) to 13.0 (6.0-20.6) for inpatient hospitalizations, and from 2.9 (95% CI: 0.1-5.7) to 9.4 (6.3-12.7) for ED visits, with strongest associations consistently observed on lag day 2. Spatio-temporal excess risk estimates were consistently but not statistically significantly higher than temporal-only estimates on lag days 0-3.Incorporating case-level spatial exposure variation produced small, non-significant increases in excess risk estimates. Our modeling approach enables a refined understanding of potential measurement error in temporal-only versus spatio-temporal air pollution exposure assessments. As ozone generally varies over much larger spatial scales than that observed within NYC, further work is necessary to evaluate potential reductions in exposure misclassification for populations spanning wider geographic areas, and for other pollutants.