Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from the northern Democratic Republic of Congo, with extreme knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation frequencies revealed by a new diagnostic assay.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel at codon 1014 confer knock-down resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in a wide range of insects. Anopheles gambiae exhibits two mutant alleles at codon 1014, serine and phenylalanine; and both are now widespread across Africa. Existing screening methods only allow for one resistant allele to be detected per assay. A new locked nucleic acid (LNA) qPCR assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of both mutant alleles and the wild type allele in a single assay. This tri-allelic detection assay was assessed as part of a study of the insecticide resistance in An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) in the previously un-sampled area of Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS:Samples from three sites were tested for insecticide susceptibility using WHO bioassays, with and without the synergist PBO preceding pyrethroid exposures, and were subsequently analysed for frequency and resistance-association of the Vgsc-1014 and Vgsc-N1575Y mutations. Results from the LNA-kdr 1014 assay were compared to results from standard TaqMan-kdr assays. RESULTS:Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) was by far the predominant vector captured (84%), with only low frequencies of Anopheles funestus s.l. (9%) detected in Nord Ubangi. Molecular identification found An. gambiae s.s. to be the principal vector (99%) although Anopheles coluzzii was detected at very low frequency. Anopheles gambiae were susceptible to the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb, but resistant to DDT and to the pyrethroids permethrin and deltamethrin. Susceptibility to both pyrethroids was partially restored with prior exposure to PBO suggesting likely involvement of metabolic resistance. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was homozygous for kdr resistant alleles with both the L1014F and L1014S mutations present, and the N1575Y polymorphism was present at low frequency. The LNA-kdr assay simultaneously detected both resistant alleles and gave results entirely consistent with those from the two TaqMan-kdr assays. CONCLUSION:This study provides rare data on insecticide resistance and mechanisms in Anopheles from the centre of Africa, with the first detection of N1575Y. Nord Ubangi populations of An. gambiae s.s. show insecticide resistance mediated by both metabolic mechanisms and Vgsc mutations. The LNA-kdr assay is particularly suitable for use in populations in which both 1014S and 1014F kdr alleles co-occur and provides robust results, with higher throughput and at a quarter of the cost of TaqMan assays.
Project description:Insecticide resistance threatens malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel which is the target site for the insecticide. The study aimed to examine risk factors for knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.l. and its relationship with malaria infection in children in rural Gambia. Point mutations at the Vgsc-1014 locus, were measured in An. gambiae s.l. during a 2-year trial. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the end of the transmission season to measure malaria infection in children aged 6 months-14 years.Whilst few Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles coluzzii had Vgsc-1014 mutations, the proportion of An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) mosquitoes homozygous for the Vgsc-1014F mutation increased from 64.8 to 90.9% during the study. The Vgsc-1014S or 1014F mutation was 80% higher in 2011 compared to 2010, and 27% higher in the villages with indoor residual spraying compared to those without. An increase in the proportion of An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes with homozygous Vgsc-1014F mutations and an increase in the proportion of An. gambiae s.s. in a cluster were each associated with increased childhood malaria infection. Homozygous Vgsc-1014F mutations were, however, most common in An. gambiae s.s. and almost reached saturation during the study meaning that the two variables were colinear.As a result of colinearity between homozygous Vgsc-1014F mutations and An. gambiae s.s., it was not possible to determine whether insecticide resistance or species composition increased the risk of childhood malaria infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the principal tool for malaria control in Africa and are presently treated with a single class of insecticide; however, increasing levels of insecticide resistance threaten their success. In response to this threat nets have been developed that incorporate the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), which inhibits the activity of cytochrome P450s which is one main mechanisms of insecticide resistance, allowing resistance to pyrethroids to be reversed. However, data on the value and cost effectiveness of these nets is lacking. A large-scale cluster randomised trial of conventional LLINs and PBO-LLINs was conducted in Uganda in 104 health sub-districts (HSDs) in 2017-2019. Prior to the mass distribution of LLINs, a baseline entomological survey was carried out, the results of which are reported herein. Ten households from each HSD were randomly selected for entomological surveillance at baseline which included household mosquito collections. RESULTS:Prior to LLIN distribution entomological collections were carried out in 1029 houses across the 104 HSDs. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was the principal vector in all but 9 of the 71 HSDs that yielded vector species. Molecular analysis found An. gambiae (s.s.) to be the predominant vector collected. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 5.5% of An. gambiae (s.s.) and in 4.0% of An. funestus (s.s.) examined. Infection rates of other plasmodium species (P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae) were lower with infection rates of 1.2% and 1.7% for An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.), respectively. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation Vgsc-L1014S was found at very high frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the Vgsc-L1014F mutation at low frequency and the wild-type allele virtually absent. In An. arabiensis the wild-type allele was predominant. The resistance-associated alleles, Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at moderate frequencies which varied across the study site. Vgsc-N1575Y mutation was not found in any samples examined. CONCLUSIONS:No significant differences between planned intervention arms was observed in vector densities, sporozoite infection rate or insecticide resistance marker frequency across the study site prior to the distribution of LLINs. Very high levels of kdr resistance were observed in all areas; however, the resistance-associated markers Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at varying frequencies across the study site which may have implications for the effectiveness of standard LLINs. Trial registration This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17516395. Registered 14 February 2017, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17516395.
Project description:Background: To optimize the success of insecticide-based malaria control intervention, knowledge of the distribution of Anopheles gambiae species and insecticide resistance mechanisms is necessary. This paper reported an updated data on pyrethroids/DDT resistance in the An. gambiae s.l population from Togo. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2015, females of indoor-resting An. gambiae s.l were captured in three locations belonging to three different ecological zones. Resistance to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was screened in F1 progeny of collected mosquitoes using WHO susceptibility tests. The identification of species of An. gambiae complex and the detection of kdr and ace.1 R allele were carried out using DNA-based molecular techniques. Results:An. gambiae from Kovié and Nangbéto were highly resistant to DDT and permethrin with mortalities rate ranging from 0.83% to 1.58% for DDT and zero to 8.54% for permethrin. Mosquitoes collected in Nangbéto displayed 81.53% mortality with deltamethrin. An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s were found in sympatry in Nangbéto and Mango . The allelic frequency of L1014F was high, ranging from 66 to 100% in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. For the first time we detected the L1014S allele in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiaes.s. from Togo at the frequency ranging from 5% to 13% in all the sites. The kdr N1575Y was present at various frequencies in both species ranging from 10% to 45%. Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii shared the ace1 R mutation in all investigated sites with allelic frequency ranging from 4% to 16%. Conclusion: These results showed that multiple mutations are involved in insecticides resistance in An. gambiae populations from Togo including the kdr L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y and ace.1 R G119S mutations.
Project description:The voltage gated sodium channel mutation Vgsc-1014S (kdr-east) was first reported in Kenya in 2000 and has since been observed to occur at high frequencies in the local Anopheles gambiae s.s.The mutation Vgsc-1014F has never been reported from An. gambiae Complex complex mosquitoes in Kenya.Molecularly confirmed An. gambiae s.s. (hereafter An. gambiae) and An. arabiensis collected from 4 different parts of western Kenya were genotyped for kdr from 2011 to 2013. Vgsc-1014F was observed to have emerged, apparently, simultaneously in both An. gambiae and An. arabiensis in 2012. A portion of the samples were submitted for sequencing in order to confirm the Vgsc-1014F genotyping results. The resulting sequence data were deposited in GenBank (Accession numbers: KR867642-KR867651, KT758295-KT758303). A single Vgsc-1014F haplotype was observed suggesting, a common origin in both species.This is the first report of Vgsc-1014F in Kenya. Based on our samples, the mutation is present in low frequencies in both An. gambiae and An. arabiensis. It is important that we start monitoring relative frequencies of the two kdr genes so that we can determine their relative importance in an area of high insecticide treated net ownership.
Project description:Background. The intensification of insecticide use for both public health and agriculture in Africa has contributed to growing insecticide resistance. Today, resistance to World Health Organization (WHO)-approved insecticide classes is widespread. In an agricultural area of Southern Côte d'Ivoire, the main malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii shows multiple resistance across insecticides mediated by both target site mutation and metabolic mechanisms. To plan new vector control strategies and avert future resistance liabilities caused by cross-resistance mechanisms extant within populations, it is crucial to monitor the development and spread of both resistance and mechanisms. Methods. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae were collected from natural breeding sites in Tiassalé and Elibou, between April and November 2016 and raised to adults . Adult female non-blood fed mosquitoes, three to five days old, were exposed to deltamethrin in WHO bioassays. Extracted DNA samples from exposed mosquitoes were used for species characterisation and genotyping. Results. Most adult An. gambiae tested were resistant to deltamethrin, with mortality rates of only 25% in Tiassalé and 4.4% in Elibou. Molecular analysis of DNA from samples tested showed the presence of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s in Elibou and only An. coluzzii for Tiassalé. As previously, the L1014F kdr mutation was present at high frequency (79%) in Tiassalé and the L1014S mutation was absent. The N1575Y mutation, which amplifies resistance conferred by L1014F was detected in a single unique individual from a Tiassalé An. coluzzii female whereas in Elibou 1575Y was present in 10 An. gambiae s.s, but not in An. coluzzii. Conclusion. This is the first report of the N1575Y mutation in Côte d'Ivoire, and as in other populations, it is found in both dominant West African malaria vector species. Continued monitoring of N1575Y is underway, as are studies to elucidate its contribution to the resistance of local vector populations.
Project description:Anopheles punctulatus sibling species (An. punctulatus s.s., Anopheles koliensis, and Anopheles farauti species complex [eight cryptic species]) are principal vectors of malaria and filariasis in the Southwest Pacific. Given significant effort to reduce malaria and filariasis transmission through insecticide-treated net distribution in the region, effective strategies to monitor evolution of insecticide resistance among An. punctulatus sibling species is essential. Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene have been associated with knock-down resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids and DDT in malarious regions. By examining VGSC sequence polymorphism we developed a multiplex assay to differentiate wild-type versus kdr alleles and query intron-based polymorphisms that enable simultaneous species identification. A survey including mosquitoes from seven Papua New Guinea Provinces detected no kdr alleles in any An. punctulatus species. Absence of VGSC sequence introgression between species and evidence of geographic separation within species suggests that kdr must be monitored in each An. punctulatus species independently.
Project description:To control malaria in Tanzania, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The main threat to effective malaria control is the selection of insecticide resistance. While resistance to pyrethroids, the primary insecticide used for LLINs and IRS, has been reported among mosquito vectors in only a few sites in Tanzania, neighbouring East African countries are recording increasing levels of resistance. To monitor the rapidly evolving situation, the resistance status of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l to different insecticides and the prevalence of the kdr resistance allele involved in pyrethroid resistance were investigated in north-western Tanzania, an area that has been subject to several rounds of pyrethroid IRS since 2006.Household collections of anopheline mosquitoes were exposed to diagnostic dosages of pyrethroid, DDT, and bendiocarb using WHO resistance test kits. The relative proportions of An. gambiae s.s and Anopheles arabiensis were also investigated among mosquitoes sampled using indoor CDC light traps. Anophelines were identified to species and the kdr mutation was detected using real time PCR TaqMan assays.From the light trap collections 80% of An. gambiae s.l were identified as An. gambiae s.s and 20% as An. arabiensis. There was cross-resistance between pyrethroids and DDT with mortality no higher than 40% reported in any of the resistance tests. The kdr-eastern variant was present in homozygous form in 97% of An. gambiae s.s but was absent in An. arabiensis. Anopheles gambiae s.s showed reduced susceptibility to the carbamate insecticide, bendiocarb, the proportion surviving WHO tests ranging from 0% to 30% depending on season and location.Anopheles gambiae s.s has developed phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and DDT and kdr frequency has almost reached fixation. Unlike in coastal Tanzania, where the ratio of An. gambiae s.s to An. arabiensis has decreased in response to vector control, An. gambiae s.s persists at high frequency in north-western Tanzania, probably due to selection of pyrethroid resistance, and this trend is likely to arise in other areas as resistance spreads or is subject to local selection from IRS or LLINs.
Project description:The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts.Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain.Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed.Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Moreover, some mosquito populations exhibited resistance to propoxur and possible resistance to bendiocarb. Target site mutation kdr L1014F was detected in all mosquito populations while elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) was detected in some mosquito populations. The reduced susceptibility of An. arabiensis to propoxur and bendiocarb, which are currently used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Ethiopia, calls for continuous resistance monitoring, in order to plan and implement evidence based insecticide resistance management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America. METHODS:Degenerate primers were designed to amplify a partial fragment on the VGSC and Ace-1 genes. Wild-caught individuals for Anopheles albimanus (also historical samples and individuals from a laboratory strain), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles vestitipennis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis were used to optimize the PCR assays. All samples were sequenced to validate the PCR results and DNA alignments were constructed for each gene using the unique haplotypes observed. RESULTS:Primers designed successfully amplified the VGSC gene in An. albimanus, An. darlingi, An. vestitipennis and An. pseudopunctipennis, and the Ace-1 gene in both An. albimanus and An. darlingi. DNA sequencing revealed that compared with Anopheles gambiae, there were a total of 29, 28, 21 and 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the VGSC gene for An. albimanus (308 bp), An. darlingi (311 bp), An. pseudopunctipennis (263 bp) and An. vestitipennis (254 bp), respectively. On the 459 bp fragment of the Ace-1 gene, a total of 70 SNPs were detected in An. darlingi and 59 SNPs were detected in An. albimanus compared with An. gambiae. The SNPs detected on the VGSC gene were all synonymous. On the Ace-1 gene, non-synonymous substitutions were identified on three different codons. All species showed the homozygous wild-type kdr allele (coding for leucine) at codon 995 (formerly reported as codon 1014) on the VGSC gene, but one sample was heterozygous at codon 280 (formerly reported as codon 119) on the Ace-1 gene, coding for both the resistant (serine) and susceptible (glycine) amino acids. CONCLUSIONS:New molecular assays to amplify and screen the regions of the VGSC and Ace-1 genes associated with insecticide resistance are reported for An. albimanus, An. darlingi, An. vestitipennis, and An. pseudopunctipennis. The development of these PCR assays presents an important advance in the analysis of target-site resistance in malaria vectors in the Americas, and will further facilitate the characterization of insecticide resistance mechanisms in these species.
Project description:Members of the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex are one of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. LLINs and IRS are the most effective tools used in vector control of malaria. However, their effectiveness may be hampered by the development and spread of insecticide resistance in the target vectors species. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from South-West Cameroon to deltamethrin, permethrin and to malathion, four years after the mass deployment of LLINs.Anopheles larvae were collected from Limbe, Tiko and Buea, three cities of the Fako division and reared until adult emergence. Adult mosquitoes from field larvae were identified as belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex using standard identification keys. Susceptibility of mosquito samples to deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion was assessed using WHO susceptibility tests protocol for adult mosquitoes. Molecular identification of tested samples was performed using the PCR SINE200 protocol and by PCR-RFLP. The kdr alleles were genotyped using the hot ligation oligonucleotide assay (HOLA).Two species of the An. gambiae (s.l.) complex, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) were identified in all three study locations with high proportions of An. coluzzii in Limbe (84.06%) and Tiko (92.2%), while in Buea, An. coluzzii (55.6%) and An. gambiae (s.s.) (44.4%) occurred almost in the same proportions. Tested samples were found resistant to pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) in all locations (< 90% mortality), with > 3-fold increase of KDT50 values compared with the Kisumu susceptible reference strain of An. gambiae (s.s.). However, the mosquito populations from Limbe and Buea were fully susceptible to malathion. The L1014F kdr was found in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) with the highest frequencies found in An. gambiae (s.l.) populations from Tiko (94%) and Buea (90%) compared with the Limbe population (66%) (P = 0.00063, df = 2). No kdr L1014S was observed in analyzed samples.These findings reemphasize the ongoing development of An. gambiae (s.l.) resistance to pyrethroids used in impregnating LLINs and suggest the use of malathion as an alternative insecticide for IRS in complementarity with LLINs.