Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of patients undergoing haemodialysis.
ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles of Candida albicans isolates recovered from the oral cavities of haemodialysis patients. Oral swab samples were obtained from haemodialysis patients (n?=?126) and healthy control subjects (n?=?233) and Candida species were characterised. There was no significant difference between the haemodialysis and control groups in the prevalence of yeast carriers (23.6% vs. 31.0%, respectively) or C. albicans carriers (19.8% vs. 21.0%, respectively). C. albicans was the most populous species in both cohorts, followed by C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata were more prevalent in the haemodialysis group than in the control group (C. parapsilosis 5.6% vs. 0.9% and C. glabrata 3.2% vs. 0.4%, respectively; P?
Project description:Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) is an affordable alternative to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing. In this study, the MICs of yeast isolates from 1,214 bloodstream infection episodes, generated by SYO during hospital laboratory activity (January 2005 to December 2013), were reanalyzed using current CLSI clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cutoff values to assign susceptibility (or the wild-type [WT] phenotype) to systemic antifungal agents. Excluding Candida albicans (57.4% of all isolates [n = 1,250]), the most predominant species were Candida parapsilosis complex (20.9%), Candida tropicalis (8.2%), Candida glabrata (6.4%), Candida guilliermondii (1.6%), and Candida krusei (1.3%). Among the non-Candida species (1.9%), 7 were Cryptococcus neoformans and 17 were other species, mainly Rhodotorula species. Over 97% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Rates of susceptibility (WT phenotype) to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 98.7% in C. albicans, 92.3% in the C. parapsilosis complex, 96.1% in C. tropicalis, 92.5% in C. glabrata, 100% in C. guilliermondii, and 100% (excluding fluconazole) in C. krusei. The fluconazole-resistant isolates consisted of 6 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 3 C. glabrata isolates, 2 C. albicans isolates, 2 C. tropicalis isolates, and 1 Candida lusitaniae isolate. Of the non-Candida isolates, 2 C. neoformans isolates had the non-WT phenotype for susceptibility to fluconazole, whereas Rhodotorula isolates had elevated azole MICs. Overall, 99.7% to 99.8% of Candida isolates were susceptible (WT phenotype) to echinocandins, but 3 isolates were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to caspofungin (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and C. krusei), anidulafungin (C. albicans and C. guilliermondii), and micafungin (C. albicans). However, when the intrinsically resistant non-Candida isolates were included, the rate of echinocandin nonsusceptibility reached 1.8%. In summary, the SYO method proved to be able to detect yeast species showing antifungal resistance or reduced susceptibility.
Project description:Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise antifungal therapy.
Project description:The susceptibilities of Candida isolates to the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin were determined by using the recently revised CLSI breakpoints and Etest on 238 clinical bloodstream Candida isolates collected between September 2005 and August 2006. The isolates represent approximately 95% of all non-albicans Candida bloodstream infections and one-third of Candida albicans bloodstream infections during this 1-year period in Sweden. The collection included 81 C. albicans, 81 C. glabrata, 36 C. parapsilosis, 14 C. dubliniensis, 8 C. tropicalis, 8 C. lusitaniae, 5 C. krusei, 2 C. guilliermondii and 2 C. inconspicua isolates as well as 1 C. pelliculosa isolate. The MICs were largely consistent with the global epidemiology of bloodstream Candida isolates. All C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were susceptible to all 3 echinocandins (MIC ≤ 0.016 μg/ml in all instances). Resistance (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) to anidulafungin alone was observed for 4 (11.1%) C. parapsilosis isolates and for 1/2 C. guilliermondii isolates. Intermediate susceptibility to caspofungin alone was observed for 2/5 C. krusei isolates. One of the eight C. tropicalis isolates was classified as being intermediately susceptible to micafungin (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and as being resistant to anidulafungin and caspofungin (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml). This isolate harbored a heterozygous FKS1 hot spot mutation (S80P) known to confer echinocandin resistance. This first study to apply the revised CLSI breakpoints for Etest endpoints showed that the breakpoints worked successfully in detecting an isolate with a hot spot mutation. Acquired echinocandin resistance is rare in Sweden. Echinocandin MICs against C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii were lowest for micafungin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Candida species are considered as the cause of one of the most important opportunistic fungal diseases. Accurate identification of Candida species is important because of antifungal susceptibility patterns are different among these species, so proper identification helps in the selection of antifungal drugs for the prevention and treatment. Phenotypic methods for identification of Candida species, which are widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories, have some limitations. Real-time PCR followed by the high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a novel approach for the rapid recognition of pathogenic fungi. Molecular phylogeny is essential for obtaining a better understanding of the evolution of the genus Candida and the identification of the relative degree of the Candida species. The purpose of this study was molecular identification of Candida isolates by Real-time PCR-high-resolution melting analysis and investigation of the genetic diversity of Candida species. METHODS:Two hundred and thirty-two Candida isolates including 111 Candida isolates obtained from 96 HIV/AIDS patients and 121 Candida isolates obtained from 98 non-HIV persons were identified by real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. To evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among Candida species, PCR products of nine clinical Candida isolates, as a representative of each kind of species, were randomly selected for DNA sequence analysis. RESULTS:In HIV/AIDS patients, six species of Candida spp. were identified as follows: C albicans (n = 64; 57.7%), C glabrata (n = 31; 27.92%), C parapsilosis (n = 9; 8.1%), C tropicalis (n = 4; 3.6%), C krusei (n = 2; 1.8%), and C kefyr (n = 1; 0.90%). In non-HIV persons, we identified eight species of Candida including C albicans (n = 46; 38.33%) followed by C glabrata and C krusei (each one, n = 18; 15%), C tropicalis (n = 13; 10.83%), C lusitaniae (n = 12; 5.17%), C parapsilosis (n = 10; 4.31%), and C kefyr and C guillermondii (each one, n = 2; 1.66%). Also, the phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of two main clades and six separate subclades. Accordingly, about 88.9% of the isolates were located in clade I and 11.10% of the studied isolates were in clade II. CONCLUSIONS:Real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is known as a reliable, fast, and simple approach for detection and accurate identification of Candida species, especially in clinical samples.
Project description:SCY-078 in vitro activity was determined for 178 isolates of resistant or susceptible Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida parapsilosis, including 44 Candida isolates with known genotypic (FKS1 or FKS2 mutations), phenotypic, or clinical resistance to echinocandins. Results were compared to those for anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. SCY-078 was shown to have excellent activity against both wild-type isolates and echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates of Candida species.
Project description:Background: Candidiasis is a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. Human uterine cervical stem cells conditioned medium (hUCESC-CM) is obtained from stromal stem cells of the cervical transformation zone, which are in permanent contact with a wide array of potential vaginal pathogens. In previous reports we have found that hUCESC-CM has antitumor and antibacterial potential. Since Candida is the most prevalent yeast in the human vagina, it seems plausible that hUCESC-CM might also show activity against it. Methods: In a preliminary step, to evaluate if hUCESC-CM showed any activity at all on Candida growth, in vitro activities of hUCESC-CM against fluconazole-susceptible reference strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida parapsilosis were studied with a microdilution method on RPMI 1640, using the BioScreen C microbiological incubator. Each measurement was repeated five times. The same methodology was used subsequently on fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates from blood and vagina of those species corresponding to the reference strains of Candida against which activity had been detected in the previous study. Moreover, two fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida auris from blood and urine were also included. Findings: In vitro inhibitory activity of hUCESC-CM ranged from 57.5 to 96.6% growth-reduction against fluconazole-susceptible reference strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis. hUCESC-CM also reduced the growth of all fluconazole-susceptible tested vaginal isolates by more than 50%. For fluconazole-resistant isolates, growth-reduction was higher than 67% for Candida albicans, regardless of its origin (vagina or blood). The isolate of Candida auris from urine with a MIC > 128 ?/ml for fluconazole was also significantly inhibited. However, hUCESC-CM was almost inactive against any of the fluconazole-resistant blood isolates of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida auris tested. Interpretation: This is the first report about the growth-inhibiting properties of conditioned medium from human stromal stem cells against different species of Candida. Antifungal activity of stromal stem cells depends on their site of origin, being most effective against Candida species most prevalent at that particular location. If confirmed in further studies, these findings might result in a completely new therapeutic approach against superficial and invasive candidiasis.
Project description:This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI-TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antifungals used was collected and summarized. The isolates sensitivity to different antifungals was tested by broth microdilution method and interpreted according to CLSI/EUCAST guidelines. Forty one percent of candidaemia cases were associated with Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata (35%), C. parapsilosis (11.5%), and remainder with other Candida spp. C. albicans and C. glabrata infections were associated with 20.9 and 16.3% mortality, respectively. Survival of patients with C. albicans was significantly lower compared to non-C. albicans and catheter line removal in C. albicans patients significantly increases the survival days. Predisposing factors such as total parenteral nutrition, and number of days on mechanical ventilation or in intensive care, were significantly associated with C. albicans infections. Fluconazole was used extensively (64.5%) for treating candidaemia cases followed by echinocandins (33.8%). Based on CLSI breakpoints, MIC test found no resistance to any antifungals tested except 5.26% fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata isolates. Moreover, by comparing to EUCAST breakpoints we found 3.95% of C. glabrata isolates were resistant to anidulafungin. We have observed a shift in Candida spp. with an increasing isolation of C. glabrata. Delay and choice of antifungal treatment are associated with poor clinical outcomes.
Project description:Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay.From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole.The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8?% when using the molecular method and 15.0?% when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8?%), Candida glabrata (13.5?%), Candida parapsilosis (3.7?%), Candida krusei (2.2?%) and Candida tropicalis (1.1?%). We found that 90.7?% of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6?%). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B.By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.
Project description:Objectives: Invasive Candida infections pose a major public health problem worldwide and is a major cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Our aim was to assess dynamics in incidence, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of candidemia episodes in Jerusalem, to better understand the epidemiology of invasive isolates and to better direct therapy. Methods: We analyzed the incidence dynamics, species distribution and susceptibility pattern of 899 candidemia episodes during 2005-2016 in Jerusalem. Results: The overall incidence of candidemia was relatively low of 0.62 per 1,000 admissions. Candida albicans was the leading pathogen (39.4%); however, there was a shift toward non-albicans species, with Candida glabrata predominating among them (40%). As expected, more than one-third of candidemias occurred in intensive care units. However, the distribution between species varied and Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen in hematology-oncology patients. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungals remained stable throughout the years. Only a minority of Candida albicans isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole (3.3%), however, an unexpectedly high resistance rate (37.8%) was observed in Candida parapsilosis isolates. We found an alarming rate of caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata (33.6%) and Candida krusei (67%); this may reflect misclassification of resistance by the E-test method. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive candidemia analysis in the Jerusalem area that should serve as a basis for decision-making regarding appropriate antifungal treatment in the hospital setting. The exceptional high resistance rate amongst Candida parapsilosis emphasizes the importance of antifungal susceptibility monitoring in medical centers serving large urban areas to better direct appropriate treatment.
Project description:To determine the dynamic changes of pathogenic yeast prevalence and antifungal susceptibility patterns in tertiary hospitals in China, we analyzed 527 yeast isolates preserved in the Research Center for Medical Mycology at Peking University, Beijing, China, between Jan 2010 and Dec 2019 and correctly identified 19 yeast species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ribosomal DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed following a Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric microdilution panel with nine clinically available antifungals. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-approved standard M27-A3 (S4) and newly revised clinical breakpoints or species-specific and method-specific epidemiological cutoff values were used for the interpretation of susceptibility test data. In this study, although Candida albicans was the predominant single species, non-C. albicans species constituted >50% of isolates in 6 out of 10 years, and more rare species were present in the recent 5 years. The non-C. albicans species identified most frequently were Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. The prevalence of fluconazole and voriconazole resistance in the C. parapsilosis sensu stricto population was <3%, but C. tropicalis exhibited decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (42, 57.5%) and voriconazole (31, 42.5%), and 22 (30.1%) C. tropicalis isolates exhibited wild-type minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to posaconazole. Furthermore, fluconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance prevalence in C. tropicalis was 19 (26.1%). The overall prevalence of fluconazole resistance in the C. glabrata population was 14 (26.9%), and prevalence of isolates exhibiting voriconazole non-wild-type MICs was 33 (63.5%). High-level echinocandin resistance was mainly observed in C. glabrata, and the prevalence rates of isolate resistance to anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin were 5 (9.6%), 5 (9.6%), and 4 (7.7%), respectively. Moreover, one C. glabrata isolate showed multidrug resistant to azoles, echinocandins, and flucytosine. Overall, the 10-year surveillance study showed the increasing prevalence of non-C. albicans species over time; the emergence of azole resistance in C. tropicalis and multidrug resistance in C. glabrata over the years reinforced the need for epidemiological surveillance and monitoring.