Identifying and addressing gaps in reproductive health education for adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Adolescent girls with diabetes are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes due to age, risk-taking behavior, poor glycemic control, and lack of knowledge. Our aims were to assess attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health education (RHE) among diabetes healthcare providers and adolescent girls with diabetes, and to pilot a brief clinic-based RHE intervention. METHODS:We surveyed 29 providers and 50 adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes about RHE experiences, attitudes, and behaviors. We piloted the RHE intervention with 9 adolescent-parent dyads. RESULTS:50% of providers were very uncomfortable discussing pregnancy or contraception. Most (72%) did not proactively initiate RHE; common barriers included insufficient time and subject knowledge. Fewer than 10% recommended long-acting reversible contraceptives. A minority (10%) of adolescents had discussed pregnancy or contraception with a provider. RHE sessions lasted a median of 16 (range 13-24) minutes, and there were promising trends for changes in adolescents' self-efficacy and intentions to use contraception and seek preconception counseling and in their knowledge of reproductive health. CONCLUSION:Adolescent girls with diabetes rarely receive education on pregnancy and contraception due to provider discomfort, limited knowledge, and limited time. RHE using easily-accessible materials with an educator may help address this gap in care.
Project description:Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya.A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya. Two Likert-scale questionnaires were used: the 18-item Stigmatising Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions Scale (SABAS) and the 7-item Contraceptive Use Stigma Scale (CUSS). 74 PAC providers responded to the SABAS, 44 to the CUSS and 12 participated in two focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics, psychometric tests of instruments and qualitative content analysis were conducted and reported in accordance with Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research.Cronbach's ? coefficients for the total instrument was 0.88 (SABAS) and 0.84 (CUSS). The majority, 92% (68/74) agreed that a woman who has had an abortion should be treated equally to everyone else, 27% (20/74) considered abortion a sin and 30% (22/74) believed she will make abortion a habit. Contraceptive use among adolescent women was associated with promiscuity (39%; 17/44), hence contraceptives should only be available to married women (36%; 16/44), and 20% (9/44) believed that contraceptive use causes infertility. The providers encouraged women's autonomy and their rights to sexual and reproductive health; however, unclear regulations reinforce religious and cultural beliefs, which hampers implementation of evidence-based contraceptive counselling.Stigmatising attitudes towards young women in need of abortion and contraception is common among PAC providers. Their work is characterised by a conflict between human rights and societal norms, thus highlighting the need for interventions targeting PAC providers to reduce stigma and misconceptions related to abortion and contraception among adolescent women.
Project description:In China, policy and social taboo prevent unmarried adolescents from accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Research is needed to determine the SRH needs of highly disadvantaged groups, such as adolescent female sex workers (FSWs). This study describes SRH knowledge, contraception use, pregnancy, and factors associated with unmet need for modern contraception among adolescent FSWs in Kunming, China.A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed to recruit adolescents aged 15 to 20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine correlates of low knowledge and unmet need for modern contraception.SRH knowledge was poor among the 310 adolescents surveyed; only 39% had heard of any long-acting reversible contraception (implant, injection or IUD). Despite 98% reporting not wanting to get pregnant, just 43% reported consistent condom use and 28% currently used another form of modern contraception. Unmet need for modern contraception was found in 35% of adolescents, and was associated with having a current non-paying partner, regular alcohol use, and having poorer SRH knowledge. Past abortion was common (136, 44%). In the past year, 76% had reported a contraception consultation but only 27% reported ever receiving SRH information from a health service.This study demonstrated a low level of SRH knowledge, a high unmet need for modern contraception and a high prevalence of unintended pregnancy among adolescent FSWs in Kunming. Most girls relied on condoms, emergency contraception, or traditional methods, putting them at risk of unwanted pregnancy. This study identifies an urgent need for Chinese adolescent FSWs to be able to access quality SRH information and effective modern contraception.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. RESULTS: Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. CONCLUSION: Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the reliable provision of effective contraception, however, innovative strategies will need to be devised, or existing strategies such as community-based health workers and peer educators may be expanded, to encourage girls and women to plan their families.
Project description:Unplanned pregnancy among HIV-infected women can have negative health consequences for women, partners, and neonates. Despite recommendations, preconception counseling (PCC) appears to be infrequently addressed in HIV care. This study explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health-care providers regarding PCC, safer conception and pregnancy among HIV-infected women.Physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (n = 14) providing obstetric/gynecological and HIV care in urban south Florida public and private hospitals completed structured qualitative interviews. Dominant themes arising included provider perceptions of patient knowledge and practices, provider knowledge and attitudes regarding safer conception, and provider practices regarding reproductive health.Providers perceived patients to have limited reproductive knowledge. Patients' internalized HIV stigma was a barrier to patient initiation of conception-focused discussions. Provider knowledge and utilization of PCC protocols were limited. PCC barriers included competing medical priorities, failure to address fertility desires, limited knowledge, time limitations, and unclear standard of care. Providers routinely used condom-based HIV prevention as a proxy for addressing reproductive intentions.Provider, patient, and structural factors prevented implementation of PCC and provision of information on safer conception; neither were routinely discussed during consultations. Both providers and patients may benefit from interventions to enhance communication on conception.
Project description:Avoiding unintended pregnancies is important for the health of adolescents living with HIV and has the additional benefit of preventing potential vertical HIV transmission. Health facility providers represent an untapped resource in understanding the barriers and facilitators adolescents living with HIV face when accessing contraception. By understanding these barriers and facilitators to contraceptive use among adolescent females living with HIV, this study aimed to understand how best to promote contraception within this marginalized population.We conducted structured in-depth interviews with 40 providers at 21 Family AIDS Care & Education Services - supported clinics in Homabay, Kisumu and Migori counties in western Kenya from July to August 2014. Our interview guide explored the providers' perspectives on contraceptive service provision to adolescent females living with HIV with the following specific domains: contraception screening and counselling, service provision, commodity security and clinic structure. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis.According to providers, interpersonal factors dominated the barriers adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraception. Providers felt that adolescent females fear disclosing their sexual activity to parents, peers and providers, because of repercussions of perceived promiscuity. Furthermore, providers mentioned that adolescents find seeking contraceptive services without a male partner challenging, because some providers and community members view adolescents unaccompanied by their partners as not being serious about their relationships or having multiple concurrent relationships. On the other hand, providers noted that institutional factors best facilitated contraception for these adolescents. Integration of contraception and HIV care allows easier access to contraceptives by removing the stigma of coming to a clinic solely for contraceptive services. Youth-friendly services, including serving youth on days separate from adults, also create a more comfortable setting for adolescents seeking contraceptive services.Providers at these facilities identified attitudes of equating seeking contraceptive services with promiscuity by parents, peers and providers as barriers preventing adolescent females living with HIV from accessing contraceptive services. Health facilities should provide services for adolescent females in a youth-friendly manner and integrate HIV and contraceptive services.
Project description:Background:This is a report on the outcomes of a training program for community clinic healthcare providers in identification, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent Depression in Tanzania using a training cascade model. Methods:Lead trainers adapted a Canadian certified adolescent Depression program for use in Tanzania to train clinic healthcare providers in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of Depression in young people. As part of this training program, the knowledge, attitudes, and a number of other outcomes pertaining to healthcare providers and healthcare practice were assessed. Results:The program significantly, substantially, and sustainably improved provider knowledge and confidence. Further, healthcare providers' personal help-seeking efficacy also significantly increased as well as the clinicians' reported number of adolescent patients identified, diagnosed, and treated for Depression. Conclusion:To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting positive outcomes of a training program addressing adolescent Depression in Tanzanian community clinics. These results suggest that the application of this training cascade approach may be a feasible model for developing the capacity of healthcare providers to address youth Depression in a low-income, low-resource setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Knowledge and practices of sexual and reproductive healthcare is pivotal to the Safe Motherhood Initiative; however, only a few studies have investigated adolescent mothers' knowledge of sexual and reproductive health in light of the above initiative. Research should thus focus on the knowledge and attitudes of adolescent girls as well as peer influences related to pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health among adolescents, as the findings may highlight vital health interventions that should be introduced. The aim of this study was thus to determine the knowledge, personal attitudes and peer influences related to pregnancy, sexual and reproductive health among adolescents who attended maternal health services in a district hospital in Ugu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS:A cross sectional study was conducted. Data were collected from 326 adolescents who accessed maternal health services in a peri-urban district hospital during June 2017 and November 2017. The questionnaire surveyed the knowledge, personal attitudes and peer influences related to pregnancy, sexual and reproductive health. The questionnaire was administered by fieldworkers using mobile devices powered by the Mobenzi Researcher® technology. The completed surveys were uploaded to the Mobenzi server where it was stored and aggregated. The data was analysed using R software. RESULTS:Of the 326 participants, 65 (19.9%) experienced repeat pregnancies in adolescence. Overall, only 143 (43.9%) of the participants answered 50% or more of the knowledge questions on pregnancy and HIV/AIDS and STIs correctly, while 183 (56.1%) answered less than 50% of the knowledge questions correctly. There was no relationship between knowledge of pregnancy and HIV/STIs and repeat adolescent pregnancies. CONCLUSION:Adolescents' knowledge of pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health was deficient as, even with repeat pregnancies, these adolescents were evidently no better informed about pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health. This suggests that social determinants, modes and platforms regarding the delivery of adolescent sexual and reproductive health education are important. An innovative mode to the delivery of sexual and reproductive health education includes the emerging digital platform. The digital platform encompasses social media, multimedia and mobile phones which is growing popular among young people.
Project description:PURPOSE:The World Health Organization revised its human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendations to include a two (2-) dose schedule for girls aged ??15 years. We investigated acceptability of 2- versus 3-dose schedule among adolescent vaccination providers and mothers of adolescent girls in five countries. METHODS:Adolescent vaccination providers (N?=?151) and mothers of adolescent girls aged 9-14 years (N?=?118) were recruited from Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain. We assessed providers' preference for a 2- versus 3-dose HPV vaccination schedule via quantitative surveys. Mothers' attitudes towards a 2-dose schedule were assessed through focus group discussions. RESULTS:Most adolescent providers preferred a 2- over a 3-dose HPV vaccination schedule (overall: 74%), with preference ranging from 45.2% (South Africa) to 90.0% (South Korea). Lower cost, fewer clinic visits, and higher series completion were commonly cited reasons for 2-dose preference among providers and mothers. Safety and efficacy concerns were commonly cited barriers to accepting a 2-dose HPV vaccination schedule among providers and mothers. Mothers generally accepted the reduced schedule, however requested further information from a trusted source. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescent vaccination providers and mothers preferred the 2-dose over 3-dose HPV vaccination schedule. Acceptability of a 2-dose HPV vaccination could be improved with additional information to providers and mothers on HPV vaccination safety and efficacy.
Project description:Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods can prevent teen pregnancy yet remain underutilized by adolescents in the United States. Pediatric providers are well positioned to discuss LARCs with adolescents, but little is known about how counseling should occur in pediatric primary care settings. We explored adolescent womens' attitudes and experiences with LARCs to inform the development of adolescent-centered LARC counseling strategies.Qualitative analysis of one-on-one interviews.Participants were recruited from 2 urban school-based, primary care centers.Thirty adolescent women aged 14-18 years, diverse in race/ethnicity, and sexual experience.Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive and deductive coding.Major themes were identified to integrate LARC-specific adolescent preferences into existing counseling approaches.Participants (mean age, 16.2 years; range, 14-18 years) represented a diverse range of racial and/or ethnic identities. Half (15/30) were sexually active and 17% (5/30) reported current or past LARC use. Five themes emerged regarding key factors that influence LARC choice, including: (1) strong preferences about device-specific characteristics; (2) previous exposure to information about LARCs from peers, family members, or health counseling sessions; (3) knowledge gaps about LARC methods that affect informed decision-making; (4) personal circumstances or experiences that motivate a desire for effective and/or long-acting contraception; and (5) environmental constraints and supports that might influence adolescent access to LARCs.We identified 5 factors that influence LARC choice among adolescent women and propose a framework for incorporating these factors into contraceptive counseling services in pediatric primary care settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inappropriate gestational weight gain in pregnancy may negatively impact health outcomes for mothers and babies. While optimal gestational weight gain is often not acheived, effective counselling by antenatal health care providers is recommended. It is not known if gestational weight gain counselling practices differ by type of antenatal health care provider, namely, family physicians, midwives and obstetricians, and what barriers impede the delivery of such counselling. The objective of this study was to understand the counselling of family physicians, midwives and obstetricians in Ontario and what factors act as barriers and enablers to the provision of counselling about GWG. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven family physicians, six midwives and five obstetricians in Ontario, Canada, where pregnancy care is universally covered. Convenience and purposive sampling techniques were employed. A grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Codes, categories and themes were generated using NVIVO software. RESULTS:Providers reported that they offered gestational weight gain counselling to all patients early in pregnancy. Counselling topics included gestational weight gain targets, nutrition & exercise, gestational diabetes prevention, while dispelling misconceptions about gestational weight gain. Most do not routinely address the adverse outcomes linked to gestational weight gain, or daily caloric intake goals for pregnancy. The health care providers all faced similar barriers to counselling including patient attitudes, social and cultural issues, and accessibility of resources. Patient enthusiasm and access to a dietician motivated health care providers to provide more in-depth gestational weight gain counselling. CONCLUSION:Reported gestational weight gain counselling practices were similar between midwives, obstetricians and family physicians. Antenatal knowledge translation tools for patients and health care providers are needed, and would seem to be suitable for use across all three types of health care provider specialties.