ABSTRACT: Metasurfaces offer a unique platform to precisely control optical wavefronts and enable the realization of flat lenses, or metalenses, which have the potential to substantially reduce the size and complexity of imaging systems and to realize new imaging modalities. However, it is a major challenge to create achromatic metalenses that produce a single focal length over a broad wavelength range because of the difficulty in simultaneously engineering phase profiles at distinct wavelengths on a single metasurface. For practical applications, there is a further challenge to create broadband achromatic metalenses that work in the transmission mode for incident light waves with any arbitrary polarization state. We developed a design methodology and created libraries of meta-units-building blocks of metasurfaces-with complex cross-sectional geometries to provide diverse phase dispersions (phase as a function of wavelength), which is crucial for creating broadband achromatic metalenses. We elucidated the fundamental limitations of achromatic metalens performance by deriving mathematical equations that govern the tradeoffs between phase dispersion and achievable lens parameters, including the lens diameter, numerical aperture (NA), and bandwidth of achromatic operation. We experimentally demonstrated several dielectric achromatic metalenses reaching the fundamental limitations. These metalenses work in the transmission mode with polarization-independent focusing efficiencies up to 50% and continuously provide a near-constant focal length over ??=?1200-1650?nm. These unprecedented properties represent a major advance compared to the state of the art and a major step toward practical implementations of metalenses.
Project description:Among various flat optical devices, metasurfaces have presented their great ability in efficient manipulation of light fields and have been proposed for variety of devices with specific functionalities. However, due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, metasurfaces significantly suffer from large chromatic aberration. Here we propose a design principle to realize achromatic metasurface devices which successfully eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous wavelength region from 1200 to 1680?nm for circularly-polarized incidences in a reflection scheme. For this proof-of-concept, we demonstrate broadband achromatic metalenses (with the efficiency on the order of ?12%) which are capable of focusing light with arbitrary wavelength at the same focal plane. A broadband achromatic gradient metasurface is also implemented, which is able to deflect wide-band light by the same angle. Through this approach, various flat achromatic devices that were previously impossible can be realized, which will allow innovation in full-color detection and imaging.Metasurfaces suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, limiting their applications. Here, Wang et al. design achromatic metasurface devices which eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous region from 1200 to 1680?nm in a reflection schleme.
Project description:Metasurfaces provide a compact, flexible, and efficient platform to manipulate the electromagnetic waves. However, chromatic aberration imposes severe restrictions on their applications in broadband polarization control. Here, we propose a broadband achromatic methodology to implement polarization-controlled multifunctional metadevices in mid-wavelength infrared with birefringent meta-atoms. We demonstrate the generation of polarization-controlled and achromatically on-axis focused optical vortex beams with diffraction-limited focal spots and switchable topological charge (L ? = 0 and L ? = 2). Besides, we further implement broadband achromatic polarization beamsplitter with high polarization isolation (extinction ratio up to 21). The adoption of all-silicon configuration not only facilitates the integration with CMOS technology but also endows the polarization multiplexing meta-atoms with broad phase dispersion coverage, ensuring the large size and high performance of the metadevices. Compared with the state-of-the-art chromatic aberration-restricted polarization-controlled metadevices, our work represents a substantial advance and a step toward practical applications.
Project description:Planar structured interfaces, also known as metasurfaces, are continuously attracting interest owing to their ability to manipulate fundamental attributes of light, including angular momentum, phase, or polarization. However, chromatic aberration, limiting broadband operation, has remained a challenge for metasurfaces-based optical components and imagers. The limitation stems from the intrinsic dispersion of existing materials and design principles. Here we report and experimentally demonstrate polarization-independent fishnet-achromatic-metalenses with measured average efficiencies over 70% in the continuous band from the visible (640?nm) to the infrared (1200?nm). Results of the scalable platform are enabling for applications requiring broad bandwidth and high efficiency including energy harvesting, virtual reality and information processing devices, or medical imaging.
Project description:A key goal of metalens research is to achieve wavefront shaping of light using optical elements with thicknesses on the order of the wavelength. Here we demonstrate ultrathin highly efficient crystalline titanium dioxide metalenses at blue, green, and red wavelengths (<i>?</i>? = 453 nm, 532 nm, and 633 nm, respectively) based on symmetric slab waveguide theory. These metalenses are less than 488 nm-thick and capable of focusing incident light into very symmetric diffraction-limited spots with strehl ratio and efficiency as high as 0.96 and 83%, respectively. Further quantitative characterizations about metalenses' peak focusing intensities and focal spot sizes show good agreement with theoretical calculation. Besides, the metalenses suffer only about 10% chromatic deviation from the ideal spots in visible spectrum. In contrast with Pancharatnam?Berry phase mechanism, which limit their incident light at circular polarization, the proposed method enables metalenses polarization-insensitive to incident light.
Project description:Metalenses have emerged as a new optical element or system in recent years, showing superior performance and abundant applications. However, the phase distribution of a metalens has not been measured directly up to now, hindering further quantitative evaluation of its performance. We have developed an interferometric imaging phase measurement system to measure the phase distribution of a metalens by taking only one photo of the interference pattern. Based on the measured phase distribution, we analyse the negative chromatic aberration effect of monochromatic metalenses and propose a feature size of metalenses. Different sensitivities of the phase response to wavelength between the Pancharatnam-Berry phase-based metalens and propagation phase-reliant metalens are directly observed in the experiment. Furthermore, through phase distribution analysis, it is found that the distance between the measured metalens and the brightest spot of focusing will deviate from the focal length when the metalens has a low nominal numerical aperture, even though the metalens is ideal without any fabrication error. We also use the measured phase distribution to quantitatively characterise the imaging performance of the metalens. Our phase measurement system will help not only designers optimise the designs of metalenses but also fabricants distinguish defects to improve the fabrication process, which will pave the way for metalenses in industrial applications.
Project description:The growth of wide-bandgap materials on patterned substrates has revolutionized the means with which we can improve the light output power of gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Conventional patterned structure inspection usually relies on an expensive vacuum-system-required scanning electron microscope (SEM) or optical microscope (OM) with bulky objectives. On the other hand, ultra-thin metasurfaces have been widely used in widespread applications, especially for converging lenses. In this study, we propose newly developed, highly efficient hexagon-resonated elements (HREs) combined with gingerly selected subwavelength periods of the elements for the construction of polarization-insensitive metalenses of high performance. Also, the well-developed fabrication techniques have been employed to realize the high-aspect-ratio metalenses working at three distinct wavelengths of 405, 532, and 633 nm with respective diffraction-limited focusing efficiencies of 93%, 86%, and 92%. The 1951 United States Air Force (USAF) test chart has been chosen to characterize the imaging capability. All of the images formed by the 405-nm-designed metalens show exceptional clear line features, and the smallest resolvable features are lines with widths of 870 nm. To perform the inspection capacity for patterned substrates, for the proof of concept, a commercially available patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) for the growth of the GaN LEDs has been opted and carefully examined by the high-resolution SEM system. With the appropriately chosen metalenses at the desired wavelength, the summits of structures in the PSS can be clearly observed in the images. The PSS imaging qualities taken by the ultra-thin and light-weight metalenses with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.3 are comparable to those seen by an objective with the NA of 0.4. This work can pioneer semiconductor manufacturing to choose the polarization-insensitive GaN metalenses to inspect the patterned structures instead of using the SEM or the bulky and heavy conventional objectives.
Project description:Metasurfaces in the ultraviolet spectrum have stirred up prevalent research interest due to the increasing demand for ultra-compact and wearable UV optical systems. The limitations of conventional plasmonic metasurfaces operating in transmission mode can be overcome by using a suitable dielectric material. A metalens holds promising wavefront engineering for various applications. Metalenses have developed a breakthrough technology in the advancement of integrated and miniaturized optical devices. However, metalenses utilizing the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase or resonance tuning methodology are restricted to polarization dependence and for various applications, polarization-insensitive metalenses are highly desirable. We propose the design of a high-efficiency dielectric polarization-insensitive UV metalens utilizing cylindrical nanopillars with strong focusing ability, providing full phase delay in a broadband range of Ultraviolet light (270-380 nm). The designed metalens comprises Silicon nitride cylindrical nanopillars with spatially varying radii and offers outstanding polarization-insensitive operation in the broadband UV spectrum. It will significantly promote and boost the integration and miniaturization of the UV photonic devices by overcoming the use of Plasmonics structures that are vulnerable to the absorption and ohmic losses of the metals. The focusing efficiency of the designed metalens is as high as 40%.
Project description:Over the past years, broadband achromatic metalenses have been intensively studied due to their great potential for applications in consumer and industry products. Even though significant progress has been made, the efficiency of technologically relevant silicon metalenses is limited by the intrinsic material loss above the bandgap. In turn, the recently proposed achromatic metalens utilizing transparent, high-index materials such as titanium dioxide has been restricted by the small thickness and showed relatively low focusing efficiency at longer wavelengths. Consequently, metalens-based optical imaging in the biological transparency window has so far been severely limited. Herein, we experimentally demonstrate a polarization-insensitive, broadband titanium dioxide achromatic metalens for applications in the near-infrared biological imaging. A large-scale fabrication technology has been developed to produce titanium dioxide nanopillars with record-high aspect ratios featuring pillar heights of 1.5 µm and ~90° vertical sidewalls. The demonstrated metalens exhibits dramatically increased group delay range, and the spectral range of achromatism is substantially extended to the wavelength range of 650-1000 nm with an average efficiency of 77.1%-88.5% and a numerical aperture of 0.24-0.1. This research paves a solid step towards practical applications of flat photonics.
Project description:Metasurfaces offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of light propagation, optical intensity, phase and polarization. Plasmonic metasurface based quarter-wave plates have been recently studied to realize the conversion between linear polarization and circular polarization. However, it is still quite challenging to directly measure the birefringent phase retardation introduced by metasurface wave plates with a reliable technique. Here, we report a high-performance broadband metasurface quarter-wave plate made of anisotropic T-shaped plasmonic antennas in near-infrared wavelength range, where the achromatic nearly 90° transmitted phase retardation through the metasurface is precisely characterized with an optical vortex based interferometric approach. Based on the measured transmission amplitude and phase of two orthogonal linear polarization components, nearly unit degree of linear polarization is extracted from the Stokes parameters, indicating excellent broadband polarization conversion between linearly and circularly polarized light through the metasurface. Our results will be an important step forward in the advancement of integrated metasurface devices for polarization conversion and beam manipulation, structured light control, as well as new spectroscopic and interferometric techniques for metasurface characterization.
Project description:Metalenses as miniature flat lenses exhibit a substantial potential in replacing traditional optical component. Although the metalenses have been intensively explored, their functions are limited by poor active ability, narrow operating band and small depth of field (DOF). Here, we show a dielectric metalens consisting of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanofins array with ultrahigh aspect ratio to realize active multiband varifocal function. Regulating the orbital angular momentum (OAM) by the phase assignment covering the 2π range, its focal lengths can be switched from 5 mm to 35 mm. This active optical multiplexing uses the physical properties of OAM channels to selectively address and decode the vortex beams. The multiband capability and large DOFs with conversion efficiency of 49% for this metalens are validated for both 532 nm and 633 nm, and the incidence wavelength can further change the focal lengths. This non-mechanical tunable metalens demonstrates the possibility of active varifocal metalenses.