Association between walnut consumption and diabetes risk in NHANES.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dietary interventions and cohort studies relating tree nut consumption to blood glucose levels suggest a possible effect of walnuts. OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between walnut consumption and diabetes risk using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS:National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data on adults conducting 24-hour dietary recall was pooled across the years 1999 through 2014. Diabetes status or risk was based on self-report, medication use, fasting plasma glucose levels, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) levels. Individuals were characterized based on reported consumption of walnuts, mixed-nuts, or no nuts. RESULTS:After adjustment for covariates, walnut consumers showed lower risk for diabetes compared with non-nut consumers based on self-report (odds ratio of 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.72) as well as fasting blood glucose (relative risk ratio 0.32, CI 0.17-0.58) and HbA1c (relative risk ratio 0.51, CI 0.27-0.99). For each standard deviation of increase in walnut intake, prevalence of diabetes dropped 47%. The gender by walnut interaction suggests that the effect may be more potent among women than men (dose response P = .061). CONCLUSIONS:Both among individuals with known diabetes and those diagnosed based on elevated diabetes blood markers, the prevalence of individuals with diabetes was significantly lower among the walnut consumers. A possible gender-specific effect invites further attention.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (?5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (?1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.
Project description:Consumption of nuts has been associated with a range of favorable health outcomes. Evidence is now emerging to suggest that walnuts may also play an important role in supporting the consumption of a healthy dietary pattern. However, limited studies have explored how walnuts are eaten at different meal occasions. The aim of this study was to explore the food choices in relation to walnuts at meal occasions as reported by a sample of overweight and obese adult participants of weight loss clinical trials. Baseline usual food intake data were retrospectively pooled from four food-based clinical trials (n = 758). A nut-specific food composition database was applied to determine walnut consumption within the food intake data. The a priori algorithm of association rules was used to identify food choices associated with walnuts at different meal occasions using a nested hierarchical food group classification system. The proportion of participants who were consuming walnuts was 14.5% (n = 110). The median walnut intake was 5.14 (interquartile range, 1.10-11.45) g/d. A total of 128 food items containing walnuts were identified for walnut consumers. The proportion of participants who reported consuming unsalted raw walnut was 80.5% (n = 103). There were no identified patterns to food choices in relation to walnut at the breakfast, lunch, or dinner meal occasions. A total of 24 clusters of food choices related to walnuts were identified at others (meals). By applying a novel food composition database, the present study was able to map the precise combinations of foods associated with walnuts intakes at mealtimes using data mining. This study offers insights into the role of walnuts for the food choices of overweight adults and may support guidance and dietary behavior change strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nut consumption has been inversely associated with gastric cancer incidence in US-based studies, but not with oesophageal cancer. However, there is aetiologic heterogeneity, among oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases in low-risk vs. high-risk populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between nut consumption and risk of ESCC in a high-risk population. METHODS:The Golestan Cohort Study enroled 50,045 participants in Northeastern Iran, between 2004 and 2008. Intake of peanuts, walnuts and mixed nuts (including seeds) were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for subsequent ESCC adjusted for potential confounders. Non-consumers of nuts were used as the reference category and the consumers were categorised into tertiles. RESULTS:We accrued 280 incident ESCC cases during 337,983 person-years of follow up. Individuals in the highest tertiles of total nut consumption, and mixed nut consumption were significantly associated with lower risk of developing ESCC compared to non-consumers (HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.39-0.93, p-trend = 0.02, and HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.32-0.84, p trend = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:We found a statistically significant inverse association between total nut consumption and the risk of ESCC in this high-risk population.
Project description:AIMS:To assess the effects of walnuts on cardiometabolic outcomes in obese people and to explore the underlying mechanisms using novel methods including metabolomic, lipidomic, glycomic and microbiome analysis, integrated with lipid particle fractionation, appetite-regulating hormones and haemodynamic measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 10 obese individuals were enrolled in this cross-over, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants had two 5-day inpatient stays, during which they consumed a smoothie containing 48?g walnuts or a macronutrient-matched placebo smoothie without nuts, with a 1-month washout period between the two visits. RESULTS:Walnut consumption improved aspects of the lipid profile; it reduced fasting small and dense LDL particles (P?<?0.02) and increased postprandial large HDL particles (P?<?0.01). Lipoprotein insulin resistance score, glucose and the insulin area under the curve (AUC) decreased significantly after walnut consumption (P?<?0.01, P?<?0.02 and P?<?0.04, respectively). Consuming walnuts significantly increased 10 N-glycans, with eight of them carrying a fucose core. Lipidomic analysis showed a robust reduction in harmful ceramides, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins, which have been shown to mediate effects on cardiometabolic risk. The peptide YY AUC significantly increased after walnut consumption (P?<?0.03). No major significant changes in haemodynamic or metabolomic analysis or in microbiome host health-promoting bacteria such as Faecalibacterium were found. CONCLUSIONS:These data provide a more comprehensive mechanistic perspective of the effect of dietary walnut consumption on cardiometabolic variables. Lipidomic and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed an early but significant reduction in ceramides and other atherogenic lipids with walnut consumption, which may explain the longer-term benefits of walnuts or other nuts on insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk and mortality.
Project description:Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased consumption of highly processed foods, and reduced consumption of whole grains and nuts. It has been proposed, mainly on the basis of observational studies, that nuts may provide superior satiation, may lead to reduced calorie consumption, and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes; but evidence from randomized, interventional studies is lacking. A total of 20 men and women with the metabolic syndrome participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of walnut consumption. Subjects had two 4-day admissions to the clinical research center where they were fed an isocaloric diet. In addition, they consumed shakes for breakfast containing either walnuts or placebo (shakes were standardized for calories, carbohydrate, and fat content). Appetite, insulin resistance, and metabolic parameters were measured. We found an increased level of satiety (overall P value = 0.0079) and sense of fullness (P = 0.05) in prelunch questionnaires following the walnut breakfast as compared to the placebo breakfast, with the walnut effect achieving significance on day 3 and 4 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). We did not find any change in resting energy expenditure, hormones known to mediate satiety, or insulin resistance when comparing the walnut vs. placebo diet. Walnut consumption over 4 days increased satiety by day 3. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the physiologic role of walnuts, the duration of time needed for these effects to occur, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Project description:Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.
Project description:Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates (n = 62), fat (n = 65), or both (n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. CONTROL:-8.5 ± 37.2 vs. -1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (-10.3 ± 35.5 vs. -1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ? 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-7.4 ± 32.4 vs. -1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (-5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (-6.7 ± 22.4 vs. -0.5 ± 37.7; p ? 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Several previous studies have investigated whether regular walnut consumption positively changes heart-health-related parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of daily walnut intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS) status and other metabolic parameters among subjects with MetS. SUBJECTS/METHODS:This study was a two-arm, randomized, controlled crossover study with 16 weeks of each intervention (45 g of walnuts or iso-caloric white bread) with a 6 week washout period between interventions. Korean adults with MetS (n = 119) were randomly assigned to one of two sequences; 84 subjects completed the trial. At each clinic visit (at 0, 16, 22, and 38 weeks), MetS components, metabolic parameters including lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein B, as well as anthropometric and bioimpedance data were obtained. RESULTS:Daily walnut consumption for 16 weeks improved MetS status, resulting in 28.6%-52.8% reversion rates for individual MetS components and 51.2% of participants with MetS at baseline reverted to a normal status after the walnut intervention. Significant improvements after walnut intake, compared to control intervention, in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.028), fasting glucose (P = 0.013), HbA1c (P = 0.021), and adiponectin (P = 0.019) were observed after adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, and sequence using a linear mixed model. CONCLUSION:A dietary supplement of 45 g of walnuts for 16 weeks favorably changed MetS status by increasing the concentration of HDL-C and decreasing fasting glucose level. Furthermore, consuming walnuts on a daily basis changed HbA1c and circulating adiponectin levels among the subjects with MetS. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03267901.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:In line with current advice, we assessed the effect of replacing carbohydrate consumption with mixed nut consumption, as a source of unsaturated fat, on cardiovascular risk factors and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The data presented here are from a paper that was retracted at the authors' request ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-rt02 ) owing to lack of adjustment for repeated measures in the same individual. Our aim, therefore, was to fix the error and add new complementary data of interest, including information on clotting factors and LDL particle size. METHODS:A total of 117 men and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes who were taking oral glucose-lowering agents and with HbA1c between 47.5 and 63.9 mmol/mol (6.5-8.0%) were randomised after stratification by sex and baseline HbA1c in a parallel design to one of three diets for 3 months: (1) 'full-dose nut diet' (n?=?40): a diet with 2.0 MJ (477 kcal) per 8.4 MJ (2000 kcal) energy provided as mixed nuts (75 g/day); (2) 'full-dose muffin diet' (n?=?39): a diet with 1.97 MJ (471 kcal) per 8.4 MJ (2000 kcal) energy provided as three whole-wheat muffins (188 g/day), with a similar protein content to the nuts, and the same carbohydrate-derived energy content as the monounsaturated fatty acid-derived energy content in the nuts; or (3) 'half-dose nut diet' (n?=?38): a diet with 1.98 MJ (474 kcal) per 8.4 MJ (2000 kcal) energy provided as half portions of both the nuts and muffins. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The study was carried out in a hospital clinical research centre and concluded in 2008. Only the statistician, study physicians and analytical technicians could be blinded to the group assessment. RESULTS:A total of 108 participants had post-intervention data available for analysis (full-dose nut group, n?=?40; full-dose muffin group, n?=?35; half-dose nut group, n?=?33). Compared with the full-dose muffin diet, the full-dose nut diet provided 9.2% (95% CI 7.1, 11.3) greater total energy intake from monounsaturated fat. The full-dose nut diet (median intake, 75 g/day) also reduced HbA1c compared with the full-dose muffin diet by -2.0 mmol/mol (95% CI -3.8, -0.3 mmol/mol) (-0.19% [95% CI -0.35%, -0.02%]), (p?=?0.026). Estimated cholesterol levels in LDL particles with a diameter <255 ångström [LDL-c<255Å]) and apolipoprotein B were also significantly decreased after the full-dose nut diet compared with the full-dose muffin diet. According to the dose response, the full-dose nut diet is predicted to reduce HbA1c (-2.0 mmol/mol [-0.18%]; p?=?0.044), cholesterol (-0.25 mmol/l; p?=?0.022), LDL-cholesterol (-0.23 mmol/l; p?=?0.019), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.26 mmol/l; p?=?0.020), apolipoprotein B (-0.06 g/l, p?=?0.013) and LDL-c<255Å (-0.42 mmol/l; p?<?0.001). No serious study-related adverse events occurred, but one participant on the half-dose nut diet was hospitalised for atrial fibrillation after shovelling snow. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Nut intake as a replacement for carbohydrate consumption improves glycaemic control and lipid risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00410722 FUNDING: The study was funded by the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation, the Peanut Institute, Loblaw Companies and the Canada Research Chairs Program of the Government of Canada.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Consumption of nuts improves cardio-metabolic risk factors in clinical trials and relates to lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prospective observational studies. However, there has not been an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to test if nuts supplementation actually reduces incident CVD. In order to establish the feasibility of such a trial, the current study aimed to assess the acceptability and adherence to long-term nut supplementation amongst individuals at high CVD risk in China.<h4>Methods</h4>This protocol described a 6-month trial performed in Ningxia Province in China among participants with a history of CVD or older age (female ?65?years, male ?60?years) with multiple CVD risk factors. Participants were randomized to control (received non-edible gift), low dose walnut (30?g/d), or high dose walnut (60?g/d) groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. Walnuts were provided at no cost to participants and could be consumed according to personal preferences. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 2?weeks, 3?months and 6?months. The primary outcome was fasting plasma alpha linolenic acid (ALA) levels used as an indicator of walnut consumption. Secondary outcomes included self-reported walnut intake from the 24?h dietary recalls. The target sample size of 210 provided 90% statistical power with two-sided alpha of 0.05 to detect a mean difference of 0.12% (as percent of total fatty acid) in plasma ALA between randomized groups.<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred and ten participants were recruited and randomized during October 2019. Mean age of participants was 65?years (SD?=?7.3), 47% were females, and 94% had a history of CVD at baseline. Across the three study groups, participants had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.<h4>Discussion</h4>This trial will quantify acceptability and adherence to long-term walnut supplementation in a Chinese population at high risk of CVD. The findings will support the design of a future large trial to test the effect of walnut supplementation for CVD prevention.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT04037943 Protocol version: v3.0 August 14 2019.