Developing a set of consensus indicators to support maternity service quality improvement: using Core Outcome Set methodology including a Delphi process.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To develop a core metric set to monitor the quality of maternity care. DESIGN:Delphi process followed by a face-to-face consensus meeting. SETTING:English maternity units. POPULATION:Three representative expert panels: service designers, providers and users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Maternity care metrics judged important by participants. METHODS:Participants were asked to complete a two-phase Delphi process, scoring metrics from existing local maternity dashboards. A consensus meeting discussed the results and re-scored the metrics. RESULTS:In all, 125 distinct metrics across six domains were identified from existing dashboards. Following the consensus meeting, 14 metrics met the inclusion criteria for the final core set: smoking rate at booking; rate of birth without intervention; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 1 women; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 2 women; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 5 women; third- and fourth-degree tear rate among women delivering vaginally; rate of postpartum haemorrhage of ?1500 ml; rate of successful vaginal birth after a single previous caesarean section; smoking rate at delivery; proportion of babies born at term with an Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes; proportion of babies born at term admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit; proportion of babies readmitted to hospital at <30 days of age; breastfeeding initiation rate; and breastfeeding rate at 6-8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Core outcome set methodology can be used to incorporate the views of key stakeholders in developing a core metric set to monitor the quality of care in maternity units, thus enabling improvement. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:Achieving consensus on core metrics for monitoring the quality of maternity care.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In Catalonia caesarean rates have always been analysed as a single percentage. The objective is to estimate caesarean section rates using the Robson classification in publicly funded hospitals in Catalonia between 2013 and 2017, considering sociodemographic, institutional and obstetric characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cross-sectional population-based study in Catalonia including all women delivering within publicly funded hospitals between 2013-2017 (n = 210 020). The modified Robson classification distribution was estimated, the caesarean rate and the overall contribution, analysed for each year, and by confounders, through logistic regression models. RESULTS:CS rates decreased steadily between 2013 and 2017 in Catalonia within publicly funded hospitals from 24.3% to 22.8% (cOR 0.92, 95% CI; 0.89 to 0.95). Once adjusted for changes in sociodemographic, institutional and obstetric characteristics the observed decline was even more pronounced (aOR 0.87, 95% CI; 0.84 to 0.90). Within the different groups of Robson once adjusted for confounders, groups 1+2 (aOR 0.88, 95% CI; 0.83 to 0.93), 3+4 (aOR 0.83, 95% CI; 0.78 to 0.89) and 10 (aOR 0.78, 95% CI; 0.68 to 0.90) presented a reduction in caesarean section rates, whereas group 5 showed no significant decrease (aOR 0.95, 95% CI; 0.87 to 1.03%). CONCLUSIONS:The decrease in caesarean section rates in Catalonia is more pronounced when adjusted for known confounders, suggesting retrospective overutilization of caesarean section and percentages of (in)adequacy in the past. In any case, it remains above the recommended by experts. Further efforts should be made to achieve optimum rates, including improvement on obstetric data collection.
Project description:When medically indicated, caesarean section can prevent deaths and other serious complications in mothers and babies. Lack of access to caesarean section may result in increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. However, rising caesarean section rates globally suggest overuse in healthy women and babies, with consequent iatrogenic damage for women and babies, and adverse impacts on the sustainability of maternity care provision. To date, interventions to ensure that caesarean section is appropriately used have not reversed the upward trend in rates. Qualitative evidence has the potential to explain why and how interventions may or may not work in specific contexts. We aimed to establish stakeholders' views on the barriers and facilitators to non-clinical interventions targeted at organizations, facilities and systems, to reduce unnecessary caesarean section.We undertook a systematic qualitative evidence synthesis using a five-stage modified, meta-ethnography approach. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE and grey literature databases (Global Index Medicus, POPLINE, AJOL) using pre-defined terms. Inclusion criteria were qualitative and mixed-method studies, investigating any non-clinical intervention to reduce caesarean section, in any setting and language, published after 1984. Study quality was assessed prior to data extraction. Interpretive thematic synthesis was undertaken using a barriers and facilitators lens. Confidence in the resulting Summaries of Findings was assessed using GRADE-CERQual.8,219 studies were identified. 25 studies were included, from 17 countries, published between 1993-2016, encompassing the views of over 1,565 stakeholders. Nineteen Summary of Findings statements were derived. They mapped onto three distinct themes: Health system, organizational and structural factors (6 SoFs); Human and cultural factors (7 SoFs); and Mechanisms of effect to achieve change factors (6 SoFs). The synthesis showed how inter- and intra-system power differentials, and stakeholder commitment, exert strong mechanisms of effect on caesarean section rates, independent of the theoretical efficacy of specific interventions to reduce them.Non-clinical interventions to reduce caesarean section are strongly mediated by organisational power differentials and stakeholder commitment. Barriers may be greatest where implementation plans contradict system and cultural norms.PROSPERO: CRD42017059456.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To analyse the current situation of caesarean section in Palestine using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS). DESIGN:A population-based birth cohort study. SETTING:Obstetrical departments in three governmental hospitals in Gaza. PARTICIPANTS:All women (18 908) who gave birth between 1 January 2016 and 30 April 2017. METHODS:The contributions of each group to the study population and to the overall rate of caesarean section were calculated, as well as the rate of caesarean section in each TGCS group. Differences in proportions between study hospitals were assessed by ?2 test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome was the contributions of each group to the overall caesarean section rate. RESULTS:The overall rate of caesarean section was 22.9% (4337 of 18 908), ranging from 20.6% in hospital 1 to 24.6% in hospital 3. The largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy who had undergone at least one caesarean section (group 5, 42.6%), women with multiple pregnancies (group 8, 11.6%) and those with single cephalic preterm labour (group 10, 8.1%). Statistically significant differences in caesarean section rates between the study hospitals were observed in group 1 (nulliparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy and spontaneous labour), group 4 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with induced labour or prelabour caesarean section), group 5 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with previous caesarean section) and in group 7 (multiparous with breech presentation). CONCLUSION:Women in groups 5, 8 and 10 were the largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate in the study hospitals. Efforts to reduce the differences in obstetrical care between hospitals need to be directed towards increasing the proportion of vaginal births after caesarean section and by reducing primary caesarean section in multiple pregnancies and preterm labour.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. METHODS: We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. RESULTS: The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical and effective actions targeting specific groups of women to improve maternal and perinatal care.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed at describing the use of a prospective database on hospital deliveries for analysing caesarean section (CS) practices according to the WHO manual for Robson classification, and for developing recommendations for improving the quality of care (QoC). DESIGN:Observational study. SETTING:University Obstetric Unit at De Soysa Hospital for Women, the largest maternity unit in Sri Lanka. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:For each childbirth, 150 variables were routinely collected in a standardised form and entered into a database. Data were routinely monitored for ensuring quality. Information on deliveries occurring from July 2015 to June 2017 were analysed according the WHO Robson classification manual. Findings were discussed internally to develop quality improvement recommendations. RESULTS:7504 women delivered in the hospital during the study period and at least one maternal or fetal pathological condition was reported in 2845 (37.9%). The CS rate was 30.0%, with 11.9% CS being performed prelabour. According to the Robson classification, Group 3 and Group 1 were the most represented groups (27.0% and 23.1% of population, respectively). The major contributors to the CS rate were group 5 (29.6%), group 1 (14.0%), group 2a (13.3%) and group 10 (11.5%). The most commonly reported indications for CS included abnormal cardiotocography/suspected fetal distress, past CS and failed progress of labour or failed induction. These suggested the need for further discussion on CS practices. Overall, 18 recommendations were agreed on. Besides updating protocols and hands-on training, activities agreed on included monitoring and supervision, criterion-based audits, risk management meetings and appropriate information for patients, and recommendations to further improve the quality of data. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides an example on how the WHO manual for Robson classification can be used in an action-oriented manner for developing recommendations for improving the QoC, and the quality of data collected.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To test whether steroids reduce respiratory distress in babies born by elective caesarean section at term. DESIGN: Multicentre pragmatic randomised trial. SETTING: 10 maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: 998 consenting women randomised at decision to deliver by elective caesarean section; 503 randomised to treatment group. INTERVENTIONS: The treatment group received two intramuscular doses of 12 mg betamethasone in the 48 hours before delivery. The control group received treatment as usual. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was admission to special care baby unit with respiratory distress. Secondary outcomes were severity of respiratory distress and level of care in response. RESULTS: Sex, birth weight, and gestation were not different between the two groups. Of the 35 babies admitted to special baby units with respiratory distress, 24 were in the control group and 11 in the intervention group (P = 0.02). The incidence of admission with respiratory distress was 0.051 in the control group and 0.024 in the treatment group (relative risk 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93). The incidence of transient tachypnoea of the newborn was 0.040 in the control group and 0.021 in the treatment group (0.54, 0.26 to 1.12). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 0.011 in the control group and 0.002 in the treatment group (0.21, 0.03 to 1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal betamethasone and delaying delivery until 39 weeks both reduce admissions to special care baby units with respiratory distress after elective caesarean section at term.
Project description:To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China.Observational study.China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS).6?838?582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ?1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016.Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time.Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time.China is the only country that has succeeded in reverting the rising trends in caesarean sections. China's success is remarkable given that the changes in obstetric risk associated with the relaxation of the one child policy would have led to an increase in the need for caesarean sections. China's experience suggests that change is possible when strategies are comprehensive and deal with the system level factors that underpin overuse as well as the various incentives at work during a clinical encounter.
Project description:Even though the caesarean section is an essential component of comprehensive obstetric and newborn care for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, there is a lack of data regarding caesarean section rates, its determinants and health outcomes among tribal communities in India.The aim of this study is to estimate and compare rates, determinants, indications and outcomes of caesarean section. The article provides an assessment on how the inequitable utilization can be addressed in a community-based hospital in tribal areas of Gujarat, India.Prospectively collected data of deliveries (N = 19923) from April 2010 to March 2016 in Kasturba Maternity Hospital was used. The odds ratio of caesarean section was estimated for tribal and non-tribal women. Decomposition analysis was done to decompose the differences in the caesarean section rates between tribal and non-tribal women.The caesarean section rate was significantly lower among tribal compared to the non-tribal women (9.4% vs 15.6%, p-value < 0.01) respectively. The 60% of the differences in the rates of caesarean section between tribal and non-tribal women were unexplained. Within the explained variation, the previous caesarean accounted for 96% (p-value < 0.01) of the variation. Age of the mother, parity, previous caesarean and distance from the hospital were some of the important determinants of caesarean section rates. The most common indications of caesarean section were foetal distress (31.2%), previous caesarean section (23.9%), breech (16%) and prolonged labour (11.2%). There was no difference in case fatality rate (1.3% vs 1.4%, p-value = 0.90) and incidence of birth asphyxia (0.3% vs 0.6%, p-value = 0.26) comparing the tribal and non-tribal women.Similar to the prior evidences, we found higher caesarean rates among non-tribal compare to tribal women. However, the adverse outcomes were similar between tribal and non-tribal women for caesarean section deliveries.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the caesarean section (CS) rates using Robson's 10-Group Classification System among women who gave birth at Hawassa University Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study design to determine CS rate using Robson's 10-Group Classification System. SETTING:Hawassa University Referral Hospital in south Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:4004 women who gave birth in Hawassa University Referral Hospital from June 2018 to June 2019. RESULTS:The 4004 women gave birth to 4165 babies. The overall CS rate was 32.8% (95% CI: 31.4%-34.3%). The major contributors to the overall CS rates were: Robson group 1 (nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy at term in spontaneous labour) 22.9%; group 5 (multiparous women with at least one previous CS) 21.4% and group 3 (multiparous women without previous CS, with singleton pregnancy in spontaneous labour) 17.3%. The most commonly reported indications for CS were 'fetal compromise' (35.3%) followed by previous CS (20.3%) and obstructed labour (10.7%). CONCLUSION:A high proportion of women giving birth at this hospital were given a CS, and many of them were in a low-risk group. Few had trial of labour. More active use of partogram, improving fetal heartbeat-monitoring system, implementing midwife-led care, involving a companion during labour and auditing the appropriateness of CS indications may help to reduce the CS rate.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To explore the circumstances and factors that explain the association between private health insurance cover and a high rate of caesarean sections in Chile. DESIGN:Qualitative analysis of audiotaped in-depth interviews with obstetricians and pregnant women; quantitative analysis of data from face to face semistructured interview survey conducted postnatally (with women who had given birth in the previous 24-72 hours), and of a review of medical notes at a public hospital, a university hospital, and a private clinic. SETTING:Santiago, Chile. PARTICIPANTS:Qualitative arm: 22 obstetricians, 21 pregnant women; quantitative arm: 540 postnatal women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Rates of caesarean section in different types of institutions; consultants' views on private practice; work patterns in private practice; women's reasons for choosing private care; women's preferences on method of delivery. RESULTS:Private health insurance cover requires the primary maternity care provider to be an obstetrician. In the postnatal survey, women with private obstetricians showed consistently higher rates of caesarean section (range 57-83%) than those cared for by midwives or doctors on duty in public or university hospitals (range 27-28%). Only a minority of women receiving private care reported that they had wanted this method of delivery (range 6-32%). With the diversification in the healthcare market, most obstetricians now have demanding peripatetic work schedules. Private maternity patients are a lucrative source of income. The obstetrician is committed to attend these private births in person, and the "programming" (or scheduling) of births is a common time management strategy. The rate of elective caesarean sections was 30-68% in women with private obstetricians and 12-14% in women not attended by private obstetricians. CONCLUSIONS:Policies on healthcare financing can influence maternity care management and outcomes in unforeseen ways. The prevailing business ethos in health care encourages such pragmatism among those doctors who do not have a moral objection to non-medical caesarean section.