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The widespread use of topical antimicrobials enriches for resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Carriage rates of Staphylococcus aureus on affected skin in atopic dermatitis (AD) are approximately 70%. Increasing disease severity during flares and overall disease severity correlate with increased burden of S. aureus. Treatment in AD therefore often targets S. aureus with topical and systemic antimicrobials. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether antimicrobial sensitivities and genetic determinants of resistance differed in S. aureus isolates from the skin of children with AD and healthy child nasal carriers. METHODS:In this case-control study, we compared S. aureus isolates from children with AD (n = 50) attending a hospital dermatology department against nasal carriage isolates from children without skin disease (n = 49) attending a hospital emergency department for noninfective conditions. Using whole genome sequencing we generated a phylogenetic framework for the isolates based on variation in the core genome, then compared antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes between disease groups. RESULTS:Staphylococcus aureus from cases and controls had on average similar numbers of phenotypic resistances per isolate. Case isolates differed in their resistance patterns, with fusidic acid resistance (FusR ) being significantly more frequent in AD (P = 0·009). The genetic basis of FusR also differentiated the populations, with chromosomal mutations in fusA predominating in AD (P = 0·049). Analysis revealed that FusR evolved multiple times and via multiple mechanism in the population. Carriage of plasmid-derived qac genes, which have been associated with reduced susceptibility to antiseptics, was eight times more frequent in AD (P = 0·016). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that strong selective pressure drives the emergence and maintenance of specific resistances in AD.

SUBMITTER: Harkins CP 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6221151 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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