Helicobacter pylori-binding nonacid glycosphingolipids in the human stomach.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori has a number of well-characterized carbohydrate-binding adhesins (BabA, SabA, and LabA) that promote adhesion to the gastric mucosa. In contrast, information on the glycoconjugates present in the human stomach remains unavailable. Here, we used MS and binding of carbohydrate-recognizing ligands to characterize the glycosphingolipids of three human stomachs from individuals with different blood group phenotypes (O(Rh-)P, A(Rh+)P, and A(Rh+)p), focusing on compounds recognized by H. pylori We observed a high degree of structural complexity, and the composition of glycosphingolipids differed among individuals with different blood groups. The type 2 chain was the dominating core chain of the complex glycosphingolipids in the human stomach, in contrast to the complex glycosphingolipids in the human small intestine, which have mainly a type 1 core. H. pylori did not bind to the O(Rh-)P stomach glycosphingolipids, whose major complex glycosphingolipids were neolactotetraosylceramide, the Lex, Lea, and H type 2 pentaosylceramides, and the Ley hexaosylceramide. Several H. pylori-binding compounds were present among the A(Rh+)P and A(Rh+)p stomach glycosphingolipids. Ligands for BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori were the Leb hexaosylceramide, the H type 1 pentaosylceramide, and the A type 1/ALeb heptaosylceramide. Additional H. pylori-binding glycosphingolipids recognized by BabA-deficient strains were lactosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, the x2 pentaosylceramide, and neolactohexaosylceramide. Our characterization of human gastric receptors required for H. pylori adhesion provides a basis for the development of specific compounds that inhibit the binding of this bacterium to the human gastric mucosa.
Project description:Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric mucosa is a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of H. pylori related diseases. In this study, we investigated the ganglioside composition of human stomach as the target for attachment mediated by H. pylori SabA (sialic acid binding adhesin). Acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from human stomach and separated into subfractions, which were characterized by mass spectrometry and by binding of antibodies, bacteria, and Solanum tuberosum lectin. H. pylori SabA binding gangliosides were characterized as Neu5Acα3-neolactohexaosylceramide and Neu5Acα3-neolactooctaosylceramide, while the other acid human stomach glycosphingolipids characterized (sulfatide and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1, Neu5Acα3-neolactotetraosylceramide, GD1a and GD1b) were not recognized by the bacteria. Defining H. pylori binding glycosphingolipids of the human gastric mucosa will be useful to specifically target this microbe-host interaction for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Chronic infection of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach mucosa with translocation of the bacterial cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) effector protein via the cag-Type IV secretion system (TFSS) into host epithelial cells are major risk factors for gastritis, gastric ulcers, and cancer. The blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA mediates the adherence of H. pylori to ABO/Lewis b (Le(b)) blood group antigens in the gastric pit region of the human stomach mucosa. Here, we show both in vitro and in vivo that BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori to Le(b) on the epithelial surface augments TFSS-dependent H. pylori pathogenicity by triggering the production of proinflammatory cytokines and precancer-related factors. We successfully generated Le(b)-positive cell lineages by transfecting Le(b)-negative cells with several glycosyltransferase genes. Using these established cell lines, we found increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (CCL5 and IL-8) as well as precancer-related factors (CDX2 and MUC2) after the infection of Le(b)-positive cells with WT H. pylori but not with babA or TFSS deletion mutants. This increased mRNA expression was abrogated when Le(b)-negative cells were infected with WT H. pylori. Thus, H. pylori can exploit BabA-Le(b) binding to trigger TFSS-dependent host cell signaling to induce the transcription of genes that enhance inflammation, development of intestinal metaplasia, and associated precancerous transformations.
Project description:Certain Helicobacter pylori strains adhere to the human gastric epithelium using the blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA). All BabA-expressing H. pylori strains bind to the blood group O determinants on type 1 core chains, i.e. to the Lewis b antigen (Fuc?2Gal?3(Fuc?4)GlcNAc; Le(b)) and the H type 1 determinant (Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc). Recently, BabA strains have been categorized into those recognizing only Le(b) and H type 1 determinants (designated specialist strains) and those that also bind to A and B type 1 determinants (designated generalist strains). Here, the structural requirements for carbohydrate recognition by generalist and specialist BabA were further explored by binding of these types of strains to a panel of different glycosphingolipids. Three glycosphingolipids recognized by both specialist and generalist BabA were isolated from the small intestine of a blood group O pig and characterized by mass spectrometry and proton NMR as H type 1 pentaglycosylceramide (Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer), Globo H hexaglycosylceramide (Fuc?2Gal?3GalNAc?3Gal?4Gal?4Glc?1Cer), and a mixture of three complex glycosphingolipids (Fuc?2Gal?4GlcNAc?6(Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc?3)Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer, Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc?6(Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc?3)Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer, and Fuc?2Gal?4(Fuc?3)GlcNAc?6(Fuc?2Gal?3GlcNAc?3)Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). In addition to the binding of both strains to the Globo H hexaglycosylceramide, i.e. a blood group O determinant on a type 4 core chain, the generalist strain bound to the Globo A heptaglycosylceramide (GalNAc?3(Fuc?2)Gal?3GalNAc?3Gal?4Gal?4Glc?1Cer), i.e. a blood group A determinant on a type 4 core chain. The binding of BabA to the two sets of isoreceptors is due to conformational similarities of the terminal disaccharides of H type 1 and Globo H and of the terminal trisaccharides of A type 1 and Globo A.
Project description:Mucins isolated from the stomach of Rhesus monkey are oligomeric glycoproteins with a similar mass, density, glycoform profile and tissue localization as human MUC5AC and MUC6. Antibodies raised against the human mucins recognize those from monkey, which thus appear to be orthologous to those from human beings. Rhesus monkey muc5ac and muc6 are produced by the gastric-surface epithelium and glands respectively, and occur as three distinct glycoforms. The mucins are substituted with the histo blood-group antigens B, Le(a) (Lewis a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), H-type-2, the Tn-antigen, the T-antigen, the sialyl-Le(x) and sialyl-Le(a) structures, and the expression of these determinants varies between individuals. At neutral pH, Helicobacter pylori strains expressing BabA (blood-group antigen-binding adhesin) bind Rhesus monkey gastric mucins via the Le(b) or H-type-1 structures, apparently on muc5ac, as well as on a smaller putative mucin, and binding is inhibited by Le(b) or H-type-1 conjugates. A SabA (sialic acid-binding adhesin)-positive H. pylori mutant binds to sialyl-Le(x)-positive mucins to a smaller extent compared with the BabA-positive strains. At acidic pH, the microbe binds to mucins substituted by sialylated structures such as sialyl-Le(x) and sialylated type-2 core, and this binding is inhibited by DNA and dextran sulphate. Thus mucin- H. pylori binding occurs via at least three different mechanisms: (1) BabA-dependent binding to Le(b) and related structures, (2) SabA-dependent binding to sialyl-Le(x) and (3) binding through a charge-mediated mechanism to sialylated structures at low pH values.
Project description:The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a thick and complex layer of mucus that protects the mucosal epithelium from biochemical and mechanical aggressions. This mucus barrier confers protection against pathogens but also serves as a binding site that supports a sheltered niche of microbial adherence. The carcinogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori colonize the stomach through binding to host glycans present in the glycocalyx of epithelial cells and extracellular mucus. The secreted MUC5AC mucin is the main component of the gastric mucus layer, and BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori to MUC5AC confers increased risk for overt disease. In this study we unraveled the O-glycosylation profile of Muc5ac from glycoengineered mice models lacking the FUT2 enzyme and therefore mimicking a non-secretor human phenotype. Our results demonstrated that the FUT2 determines the O-glycosylation pattern of Muc5ac, with Fut2 knock-out leading to a marked decrease in ?1,2-fucosylated structures and increased expression of the terminal type 1 glycan structure Lewis-a. Importantly, for the first time, we structurally validated the expression of Lewis-a in murine gastric mucosa. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of mucin FUT2-mediated fucosylation impairs gastric mucosal binding of H. pylori BabA adhesin, which is a recognized feature of pathogenicity.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease and/or gastric cancer. Adhesion of bacteria to the stomach mucosa is an important contributor to the vigour of infection and resulting virulence. H. pylori adheres primarily via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens and the binding of SabA adhesins to sialyl-Lewis x/a (sLex/a) antigens. Similar to most Gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori continuously buds off vesicles and vesicles derived from pathogenic bacteria often include virulence-associated factors. Here we biochemically characterized highly purified H. pylori vesicles. Major protein and phospholipid components associated with the vesicles were identified with mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of virulence factors present was confirmed by immunoblots. Additional functional and biochemical analysis focused on the vesicle BabA and SabA adhesins and their respective interactions to human gastric epithelium. Vesicles exhibit heterogeneity in their protein composition, which were specifically studied in respect to the BabA adhesin. We also demonstrate that the oncoprotein, CagA, is associated with the surface of H. pylori vesicles. Thus, we have explored mechanisms for intimate H. pylori vesicle-host interactions and found that the vesicles carry effector-promoting properties that are important to disease development.
Project description:Heterogeneity among Helicobacter pylori strains in gastric epithelial adherence is postulated to contribute to pathogen fitness in the physiologically diverse human population. H. pylori adherence to ABO and Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens in the human stomach is mediated by the blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA. Approximately 70% of Swedish and U.S. H. pylori clinical isolates exhibit Leb binding, but here we show that the babA gene is present in each of 10 Leb-nonbinding strains. Fluorescence microscopy identified occasional bacterial cells with a Leb-binding phenotype in populations of Leb-nonbinding strains. Thus, nonbinding seemed to be a metastable phenotype. To model metastable transition into the virulence-associated Leb-binding mode, Leb-binding clones were isolated from nonadherent strains by panning with Leb-magnetic beads and characterized. Strain 17875 has two babA genes, babA1 (silent) and babA2 (expressed). We found that a babA2-cam derivative of strain 17875 regained Leb binding by recombination of the formerly silent babA1 gene into the expressed and partially homologous babB locus. The chimeric BabB/A adhesin binds Leb with an affinity similar to that of wild-type BabA adhesin, but its expression level was lower and was subject to phase variation through slipped-strand mispairing. Equivalent results were obtained with strain NCTC11638. We propose that adhesin metastability and heterogeneity contributes to bacterial fitness and results in some clones having potential for periodic activation and deactivation of virulence appropriate for intensity of the host response to infection.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer worldwide. To achieve colonization of the stomach, this Gram-negative bacterium adheres to Lewis(b) (Le(b)) antigens in the gastric mucosa using its outer membrane protein BabA. Structural information for BabA has been elusive, and thus, its molecular mechanism for recognizing Le(b) antigens remains unknown. We present the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of BabA, from H. pylori strain J99, in the absence and presence of Le(b) at 2.0- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. BabA is a predominantly ?-helical molecule with a markedly kinked tertiary structure containing a single, shallow Le(b) binding site at its tip within a ?-strand motif. No conformational change occurs in BabA upon binding of Le(b), which is characterized by low affinity under acidic [K D (dissociation constant) of ~227 ?M] and neutral (K D of ~252 ?M) conditions. Binding is mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds between Le(b) Fuc1, GlcNAc3, Fuc4, and Gal5 residues and a total of eight BabA amino acids (C189, G191, N194, N206, D233, S234, S244, and T246) through both carbonyl backbone and side-chain interactions. The structural model was validated through the generation of two BabA variants containing N206A and combined D233A/S244A substitutions, which result in a reduction and complete loss of binding affinity to Le(b), respectively. Knowledge of the molecular basis of Le(b) recognition by BabA provides a platform for the development of therapeutics targeted at inhibiting H. pylori adherence to the gastric mucosa.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori undergoes rapid microevolution during chronic infection, but very little is known about how this affects host interaction factors. The best-studied adhesin of H. pylori is BabA, which mediates binding to the blood group antigen Lewis b [Le(b)]. To study the dynamics of Le(b) adherence during human infection, we analyzed paired H. pylori isolates obtained sequentially from chronically infected individuals. A complete loss or significant reduction of Le(b) binding was observed in strains from 5 out of 23 individuals, indicating that the Le(b) binding phenotype is quite stable during chronic human infection. Sequence comparisons of babA identified differences due to mutation and/or recombination in 12 out of 16 strain pairs analyzed. Most amino acid changes were found in the putative N-terminal extracellular adhesion domain. One strain pair that had changed from a Le(b) binding to a nonbinding phenotype was used to study the role of distinct sequence changes in Le(b) binding. By transformations of the nonbinding strain with a babA gene amplified from the binding strain, H. pylori strains with mosaic babA genes were generated. Recombinants were enriched for a gain of Le(b) binding by biopanning or for BabA expression on the bacterial surface by pulldown assay. With this approach, we identified several amino acid residues affecting the strength of Le(b) binding. Additionally, the data showed that the C terminus of BabA, which is predicted to encode an outer membrane β-barrel domain, plays an essential role in the biogenesis of this protein.Helicobacter pylori causes a chronic infection of the human stomach that can lead to ulcers and cancer. The bacterium can bind to gastric epithelial cells with specialized outer membrane proteins. The best-studied protein is the BabA adhesin which binds to the Lewis b blood group antigen. Since H. pylori is a bacterium with very high genetic variability, we asked whether babA evolves during chronic infection and how mutations or recombination in babA affect binding. We found that BabA-mediated adherence was stable in most individuals but observed a complete loss of binding or reduced binding in 22% of individuals. One strain pair in which binding was lost was used to generate babA sequences that were mosaics of a functional allele and a nonfunctional allele, and the mosaic sequences were used to identify amino acids critically involved in binding of BabA to Lewis b.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection can result in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori reside within the gastric mucus layer, mainly composed of mucins carrying an array of glycan structures that can serve as bacterial adhesion epitopes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the binding ability, adhesion modes, and growth of H. pylori strains from pediatric patients with NUD and PUD to gastric mucins. Our results showed an increased adhesion capacity of pediatric PUD H. pylori strains to human and rhesus monkey gastric mucins compared to the NUD strains both at neutral and acidic pH, regardless if the mucins were positive for Lewis b (Leb), Sialyl-Lewis x (SLex) or LacdiNAc. In addition to babA positive strains being more common among PUD associated strains, H. pylori babA positive strains bound more avidly to gastric mucins than NUD babA positive strains at acidic pH. Binding to Leb was higher among babA positive PUD H. pylori strains compared to NUD strains at neutral, but not acidic, pH. PUD derived babA-knockout mutants had attenuated binding to mucins and Leb at acidic and neutral pH, and to SLex and DNA at acidic pH. The results highlight the role of BabA-mediated adherence of pediatric ulcerogenic H. pylori strains, and points to a role for BabA in adhesion to charged structures at acidic pH, separate from its specific blood group binding activity.