Identification of Anti-Melanogenesis Constituents from Morus alba L. Leaves.
ABSTRACT: The individual parts of Morus alba L. including root bark, branches, leaves, and fruits are used as a cosmetic ingredient in many Asian countries. This study identified several anti-melanogenesis constituents in a 70% ethanol extract of M. alba leaves. The ethyl acetate fraction of the initial ethanol extract decreased the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Twelve compounds were isolated from this fraction and their structures were identified based on spectroscopic spectra. Then, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenesis effects of the isolated compounds in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 8 significantly inhibited not only melanin production but also intracellular tyrosinase activity in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone (?-MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These same compounds also inhibited melanogenesis-related protein expression such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Compound 3 modulated the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 signaling pathways in ?-MSH-activated B16-F10 melanoma cells, which resulted in the anti-melanogenesis effects. These results suggest that compound 3, isolated from M. alba leaves, could be used to inhibit melanin production via the regulation of melanogenesis-related protein expression.
Project description:Dendropanax morbiferus H. Lév has been reported to have some pharmacologic activities and also interested in functional cosmetics. We found that the water extract of D. morbiferus leaves significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus reduced melanogenesis-related protein levels, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TRP-1, and TRP-2, without any cytotoxicity. Two active ingredients of D. morbiferus, (10E)-9,16-dihydroxyoctadeca-10,17-dien-12,14-diynoate (DMW-1) and (10E)-(-)-10,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,9,16-triol (DMW-2) were identified by testing the anti-melanogenic effects and then by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. DMW-1 and DMW-2 significantly inhibited melanogenesis by the suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive binding protein (CREB) and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. DMW-1 showed a better inhibitory effect than DMW-2 in ?-MSH-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus and its active component DMW-1 inhibited melanogenesis through the downregulation of cAMP, p-PKA/CREB, p-p38, MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase. These results indicate that D. morbiferus and DMW-1 may be useful ingredients for cosmetics and therapeutic agents for skin hyperpigmentation disorders.
Project description:Excessive production of melanin implicates hyperpigmentation disorders. Flavokawain A (FLA) and flavokawain B (FLB) have been reported with anti-melanogenic activity, but their melanogenic inhibition and toxicity effects on the vertebrate model of zebrafish are still unknown. In the present study, cytotoxic as well as melanogenic effects of FLA and FLB on cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity were evaluated in ?-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Master regulator of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) and the other downstream melanogenic-related genes were verified via quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Toxicity assessment and melanogenesis inhibition on zebrafish model was further observed. FLA and FLB significantly reduced the specific cellular melanin content by 4.3-fold and 9.6-fold decrement, respectively in ?-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Concomitantly, FLA significantly reduced the specific cellular tyrosinase activity by 7-fold whilst FLB by 9-fold. The decrement of melanin production and tyrosinase activity were correlated with the mRNA suppression of Mitf which in turn down-regulate Tyr, Trp-1 and Trp-2. FLA and FLB exhibited non-toxic effects on the zebrafish model at 25 and 6.25 µM, respectively. Further experiments on the zebrafish model demonstrated successful phenotype-based depigmenting activity of FLA and FLB under induced melanogenesis. To sum up, our findings provide an important first key step for both of the chalcone derivatives to be further studied and developed as potent depigmenting agents.
Project description:To evaluate possibility as a skin whitening agent of Sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor), its antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effect on 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced melanogenesis in B16/F10 melanoma cells were investigated. The result of total phenolic contents (TPC) indicated that 60% ethanol extract of S. bicolor (ESB) has the highest contents than other ethanol extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect. These results showed ESB has significant antioxidant activities. Inhibitory effect against tyrosinase was also assessed using L-tyrosine (IC50 value = 89.25 ?g/mL) and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrates. In addition, ESB treatment effectively inhibited melanin production in IBMX-induced B16/F10 melanoma cells. To confirm the mechanism on anti-melanogenic effect of ESB, we examined melanogenesis-related proteins. ESB downregulated melanogenesis by decreasing expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1. Finally, 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), 1,3-O-dicaffeoylglycerol and tricin as the main compounds of ESB were analyzed using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility separation-quadrupole time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS2). These findings suggest that ESB may have physiological potential to be used skin whitening material.
Project description:The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA. In addition, OEA may suppress melanogenesis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-independent pathway. Moreover, OEA activated ERK, Akt, p38 pathways and inhibits CREB pathway in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 partly blocked OEA-inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity and partly abrogated the OEA-suppressed expression of melanogenic proteins. Furthermore, OEA presented remarkable inhibition on the body pigmentation in the zebrafish model system. Our findings demonstrated that OEA is an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation through activation of ERK, Akt and p38 pathways, inhibition of the CREB pathway, and subsequent down-regulation of MITF, TRP-1 and tyrosinase production.
Project description:The synthesis of melanin pigments, or melanogenesis, is regulated by the balance of a variety of signal transduction pathways. Among these pathways, p38 MAPK signaling was found to be involved in stress-induced melanogenesis and to be activated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and ultraviolet irradiation. Previous studies have shown that alpha-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis can be inhibited by blocking p38 MAPK activity with SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole compound. Consistent with this, we observed that pyridinyl imidazoles (SB203580 and SB202190) inhibited both basal and alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, SB202474, which has no ability to inhibit p38 MAPK activity and is usually used as a negative control compound in p38 MAPK studies, also suppressed melanin synthesis induction. Furthermore, the independence of the p38 kinase pathway from the repression of melanogenesis by pyridinyl imidazole compounds was also confirmed by small interfering RNA experiments. Interfering with p38 MAPK expression surprisingly stimulated melanogenesis and tyrosinase family protein expression. Although the molecular mechanism(s) by which p38 promotes the degradation of melanogenic enzymes remain to be determined, the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was demonstrated by co-treatment with the proteasome-specific inhibitor MG132 and the relative decrease in the ubiquitination of tyrosinase in cells transfected with p38-specific small interfering RNA.
Project description:In recent years, it has been reported that non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs, act as melanogenesis-regulating molecules in melanocytes. We found that the expression levels of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p were decreased significantly by ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) stimulation in mouse melanocyte B16-4A5 cells, as demonstrated by a miRNA array. Overexpression of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p in B16-4A5 cells suppressed melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity. Moreover, both miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p showed direct targeting of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor using a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, topical transfection of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p to three-dimensional reconstructed human skin tissue inhibited ?-MSH-stimulated melanin biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings indicate that downregulation of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p during the ?-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis process acts as an important intrinsic signal. This result is expected to lead to the development of miRNA-based whitening therapeutics.
Project description:In therapeutic interventions associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, tyrosinase is regarded as a target enzyme as it catalyzes the rate-limiting steps in mammalian melanogenesis. Since many known agents have been proven to be toxic, there has been increasing impetus to identify alternative tyrosinase inhibitors, especially from natural sources. In this study, we investigated 900 extracts from Greek plants for potential tyrosinase inhibitive properties. Among the five most potent extracts, the methanol extract of Morus alba wood (MAM) demonstrated a significant reduction in intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the acquisition of twelve compounds: oxyresveratrol (1), kuwanon C (2), mulberroside A (3), resorcinol (4), dihydrooxyresveratol (5), trans-dihydromorin (6), 2,4,3'-trihydroxydihydrostilbene (7), kuwanon H (8), 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (9), morusin (10), moracin M (11) and kuwanon G (12). Among these, 2,4,3'-trihydroxydihydrostilbene (7) is isolated for the first time from Morus alba and constitutes a novel potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 0.8 ± 0.15). We report here for the first time dihydrooxyresveratrol (5) as a potent natural tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 0.3 ± 0.05). Computational docking analysis indicated the binding modes of six tyrosinase inhibitors with the aminoacids of the active centre of tyrosinase. Finally, we found both MAM extract and compounds 1, 6 and 7 to significantly suppress in vivo melanogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Project description:Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. seeds have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of leukoderma in Xinjiang, China, for more than 300 years. The promoting activities of its volatile oil (AVO) in melanogenesis and its chemical composition were investigated in this paper. The bioactivities of AVO were examined by melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity assay in B16 cells. Using GC-QTOF-MS technology, each compound of AVO contains a single separated peak in GC and the retention indices of every GC peak were calculated by the retention times of C7~C30 n-alkanes that were injected at the same chromatographic conditions. Then each individual peak was identified by comparing its mass spectrum with the MS library (NIST 14). As a result, AVO increased the melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 10-30?g·mL-1. The 64 compounds were identified in AVO which occupied 95.15% of total peak area in GC. They mainly contained caryophyllene (23.73%), sabinene (18.15%), ?-thujene (6.57%), thymol (5.29%), 4-epi-?-acoradiene (4.98%), limonene (4.92%), anethole (3.44%), etc. According to the results the AVO can promote melanogenesis and upregulate tyrosinase activity in B16 cells.
Project description:Several wild bitter melon (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) cultivars were developed in Taiwan. However, little information is available regarding biological function of WBM leaf. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the nutrient content, antioxidant, cell protection and anti-melanogenic properties of wild bitter melon leaf.Methanolic leaf extracts were prepared from a variety and two cultivars of WBM. All extracts exerted potent nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities. Furthermore, all extracts effectively reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and prevent cell death in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. The cell protective effect of leaf extract was also investigated by the prevention of HaCaT cells from sodium nitroprusside or menadione-induced toxicity, and significant cyto-protective activities were observed for all of them. Additionally, all extracts significantly suppressed tyrosinase activity and melanin levels in B16-F10 melanocytes.WBM leaf extract showed significant antioxidant, cyto-protective and anti-melanogenic activities. These findings suggested that WBM leaves may be beneficial for preventing the photo-oxidative damage and melanogenesis of skin.
Project description:Background:Panax ginseng is a marvelous herbal remedy for all ailments of body. That may be why it is called Panax, which means "cure for all". Melanin is a pigment that gives color to our skin; however, increased melanin production can lead to tumor formation. Human exposure to ultraviolet B radiation has increased extensively owing to the increased sunlight due to global warming. Consequently, a phenomenon called photoaging has been observed for all skin colors and types. As a result of this phenomenon, a set of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases, which serve as degradation enzymes for extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen, is increased, causing depletion of collagen and resulting in early wrinkle formation. Methods:Therefore, in our study, we used the murine melanoma cell line B16/F10 to study the inhibition of melanogenesis by Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) extract in vitro and HRM-2 hairless mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet B to examine the efficacy of KRG in vivo. We prepared a 3% red ginseng extract cream and evaluated its effects on human skin. Results:Our results demonstrated that KRG induced potent suppression of tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16/F10 cells; moreover, it reduced the transcription and translation of components involved in the melanin production pathway. In the in vivo experiments, KRG potently suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, reduced wrinkle formation, and inhibited collagen degradation. On human skin, ginseng cream increased skin resilience and skin moisture and enhanced skin tone. Conclusion:Therefore, we conclude that KRG is an excellent skin whitening and antiaging product.