Antifibrotic Effect of Smad Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide in a CCl?-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis Animal Model.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic fibrosis is the wound-healing process of chronic hepatic disease that leads to the end-stage of hepatocellular carcinoma and demolition of hepatic structures. Epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been identified to phenotypic conversion of the epithelium to mesenchymal phenotype that occurred during fibrosis. Smad decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is a synthetic DNA fragment containing a complementary sequence of Smad transcription factor. Thus, this study evaluated the antifibrotic effects of Smad decoy ODN on carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. As shown in histological results, CCl? treatment triggered hepatic fibrosis and increased Smad expression. On the contrary, Smad decoy ODN administration suppressed fibrogenesis and EMT process. The expression of Smad signaling and EMT-associated protein was markedly decreased in Smad decoy ODN-treated mice compared with CCl?-injured mice. In conclusion, these data indicate the practicability of Smad decoy ODN administration for preventing hepatic fibrosis and EMT processes.
Project description:Liver fibrosis is characterized by changes in tissue architecture and extracellular matrix composition. Liver fibrosis affects not only hepatocytes but also the non-parenchymal cells such as hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are essential for maintaining an intact liver structure and function. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces liver fibrosis through activation of Smad signaling pathways. To improve a new therapeutic approach, synthetic TGF-?1/Smad oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was used to suppress both TGF-?1 expression and Smad transcription factor using a combination of antisense ODN and decoy ODN. The aims of this study are to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of TGF-?1/Smad ODN on simultaneous suppressions of both Smad transcription factor and TGF-?1 mRNA expression in the hepatic fibrosis model in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic TGF-?1/Smad ODN effectively inhibits Smad binding activity and TGF-?1 expression. TGF-?1/Smad ODN attenuated the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activation of HSCs in TGF-?1-induced AML12 and HSC-T6 cells. TGF-?1/Smad ODN prevented the fibrogenesis and deposition of collagen in CCl4-treated mouse model. Synthetic TGF-?1/Smad ODN demonstrates anti-fibrotic effects that are mediated by the suppression of fibrogenic protein and inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, synthetic TGF-?1/Smad ODN has substantial therapeutic feasibility for the treatment of liver fibrotic diseases.
Project description:Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 plays a crucial role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Melittin (MEL) is a major component of bee venom and is effective in rheumatoid arthritis, pain relief, cancer cell proliferation, fibrosis and immune modulating activity. In this study, we found that MEL inhibits hepatic EMT in vitro and in vivo, regulating the TGF?/Smad and TGF?/nonSmad signaling pathways. MEL significantly inhibited TGF-?1-induced expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin reduction and vimentin induction) in vitro. These results were confirmed in CCl?-induced liver in vivo. Treatment with MEL almost completely blocked the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, translocation of Smad4 and phosphorylation of JNK in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that MEL suppresses EMT by inhibiting the TGF?/Smad and TGF?/nonSmad-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that MEL possesses potent anti-fibrotic and anti-EMT properties, which may be responsible for its effects on liver diseases.
Project description:Jiaqi Ganxian Granule (JGG) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine, which has been long used in clinical practice for treating liver fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-hepatic fibrosis is still not clear. In this study, an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics strategy was used to profile the metabolic characteristic of serum obtained from a carbon tetrachloride (CCl?)-induced hepatic fibrosis model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with JGG treatment. Through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), it was shown that metabolic perturbations induced by CCl? were inhibited after treatment of JGG, for 17 different metabolites related to CCl?. Among these compounds, the change tendency of eight potential drug targets was restored after the intervention with JGG. The current study indicates that JGG has a significant anti-fibrosis effect on CCl?-induced liver fibrosis in rats, which might be by regulating the dysfunction of sphingolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, N-acylethanolamine biosynthesis, fat digestion and absorption, while glycerophospholipid metabolism played vital roles in the inhibitory effects of JGG on hepatic fibrosis according to Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MetPA). Our findings indicated that the metabolomics approach may provide a useful tool for exploring potential biomarkers involved in hepatic fibrosis and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the action of therapies used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Project description:Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-?B in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-?B signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN upregulated OPG expression through a TGF-?1-dependent pathway. By measuring the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regard to cell phenotype, cell viability, and osteogenic ability was confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle-induced inflammation by NF-?B decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs and may potentially further mitigate periprosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability.
Project description:Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease for which the fundamental treatment is to reduce the load of subgingival pathogenic bacteria by debridement. However, previous investigators attempted to implement a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as a suppressor of periodontitis progression. Although we recently reported the effectiveness of the ultrasound-microbubble method as a tool for transfecting the NF-?B decoy ODN into healthy rodent gingival tissue, this technique has not yet been applied to the pathological gingiva of periodontitis animal models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the technique in transfecting the NF-?B decoy ODN into rats with ligature-induced periodontitis. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in alveolar bone loss following treatment with the NF-?B decoy ODN in the experimental group. RT-PCR showed that NF-?B decoy ODN treatment resulted in significantly reduced expression of inflammatory cytokine transcripts within rat gingival tissues. Thus, we established a transcutaneous transfection model of NF-?B decoy ODN treatment of periodontal tissues using the ultrasound-microbubble technique. Our findings suggest that the NF-?B decoy ODN could be used as a significant suppressor of gingival inflammation and periodontal disease progression.
Project description:Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, including liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally and play important roles in various kinds of diseases; however, miRNA-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and its acting mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, we performed an miRNA microarray in the fibrotic livers of Mus musculus treated with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl₄) and analyzed the biological functions engaged by the target genes of differentially-expressed miRNAs through gene ontology (GO) and in-depth pathway enrichment analysis. Herein, we found that four miRNAs were upregulated and four miRNAs were downregulated more than two-fold in CCl₄-treated livers compared to a control liver. Eight miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 4079 genes. GO analysis revealed that those target genes were located in various cellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and cell surface, and they were involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA bindings, which influence the signal transductions and gene transcription. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the 72 subspecialized signaling pathways were associated with CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis and were mostly classified into metabolic function-related pathways. These results suggest that CCl₄ induces liver fibrosis by disrupting the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, we presented several miRNAs and their biological processes that might be important in the progression of liver fibrosis; these findings help increase the understanding of liver fibrogenesis and provide novel ideas for further studies of the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis.
Project description:Background:Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have attracted intensive interest as an effective gene delivery system for its high biocompatibility, stability and low cytotoxicity. In our previous study, we successfully prepared SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes and made a primary study on its antitumor behavior in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. However, there is little information available so far about the effect of SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes on ovarian cancer in vivo, either little information about the pharmacological toxicology in vivo. Material and Methods:We applied nanotechnology to improve the gene delivery system and synthesize SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes. Xenograft mouse models were established to assess the antitumor effects of SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN on the tumor growth of ovarian cancer in vivo. To analyze the mechanisms of SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN, we investigated apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor tissues of nude mice and investigated the effects and toxicology of SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes on the vital organs of nude mice. Results:The results showed that SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes markedly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes could induce cell apoptosis through downregulating Bcl-2, survivin and pro caspase 3, but upregulating Bax and cleaved caspase 3. These complexes could also regulate autophagy through upregulating LC3A-II, LC3B-II and beclin-1, but downregulating p-Akt and p-mTOR. Moreover, these complexes could inhibit cancer cell invasion through reversing EMT. Besides, SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes showed no obvious toxicity on vital organs and hematological parameters of nude mice. Conclusion:The molecular mechanisms that SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN complexes inhibit tumor growth involved activating the apoptotic cascade, regulating autophagy, and reversing EMT program; and these complexes showed no obvious toxicity on nude mice. Our study indicated that the nanocomplexes SLN-STAT3 decoy ODN might be a promising therapeutic approach for ovarian cancer treatment.
Project description:Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment to prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). To develop a novel therapeutic approach, we modified decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) against nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and ets, to a ribbon-shaped circular structure without chemical modification, to increase its resistance to endonuclease for systemic administration. Intraperitoneal administration of ribbon-type decoy ODNs (R-ODNs) was performed in an elastase-induced rat AAA model. Fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled R-ODNs could be detected in macrophages migrating into the aneurysm wall, and NF?B and ets activity were simultaneously inhibited by chimeric R-ODN. Treatment with chimeric R-ODN significantly inhibited aortic dilatation, whereas conventional phosphorothioate decoy ODN failed to prevent aneurysm formation. Significant preservation of elastic fibers was observed with chimeric R-ODN, accompanied by a reduction of secretion of several proteases from macrophages. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12, but not MMP-2, was suppressed in the aneurysm wall by chimeric R-ODN, whereas recruitment of macrophages was not inhibited. Treatment with chimeric R-ODN also inhibited the secretion of cathepsin B and K from macrophages. Overall, the present study demonstrated that systemic administration of chimeric R-ODNs prevented aneurysm formation in a rat model. Further modification of the decoy strategy would provide a means of less invasive molecular therapy for human AAA.
Project description:Total joint replacement (TJR) is very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate, mainly because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to periprosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, owing to compensatory up-regulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. It is hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-?B could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, NF-?B activity in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, was suppressed via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-?B binding element. It was found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including TNF-?, MCP1, MIP1? and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-?B ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis.
Project description:Sepsis is a major clinical challenge with unacceptably high mortality. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors is known to activate critical mediators of cytokine responses, and, among this family, STAT3 is implicated to be a key transcription factor in both immunity and inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether in vivo introduction of synthetic double-stranded STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can provide benefits for reducing organ injury and mortality in mice with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis. We found that STAT3 was rapidly activated in major end-organ tissues following CLP, which was accompanied by activation of the upstream kinase JAK2. Transfection of STAT3 decoy ODNs downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine overproduction in CLP mice. Moreover, STAT3 decoy ODN transfection significantly reduced the increases in tissue mRNAs and proteins of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and strongly suppressed the excessive elevation in serum HMGB1 levels in CLP mice. Finally, STAT3 decoy ODN administration minimized the development of sepsis-driven major end-organ injury and led to a significant survival advantage in mice after CLP. Our results suggest a critical role of STAT3 in the sepsis pathophysiology and the potential usefulness of STAT3 decoy ODNs for sepsis gene therapy.