Recurrent rheumatoid pleural effusions complicated by Mycobacterium heckeshornense infection.
ABSTRACT: A 41-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presented with worsening dyspnea and deconditioning. He had recently been treated with adalimumab for rheumatoid pleural effusions but developed non-tuberculous mycobacterial pleurisy due to Mycobacterium heckeshornense. Despite therapy with appropriate anti-mycobacterial agents, he ultimately required video assisted thoracoscopy for decortication. While Mycobacterium heckeshornense has been reported to cause infection in multiple sites including the lung, this is the first case to our knowledge of infection confined to the pleural space. Rheumatoid pleural effusions can be complex and difficult to treat, especially when complicated by mycobacterial infection.
Project description:<i>Mycobacterium heckeshornense</i> is a slow-growing mycobacterial species for which pathogenic features are unclear. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an <i>M. heckeshornense</i> type strain. This sequence will provide essential information for future taxonomic and comparative genome studies of these mycobacteria.
Project description:Mycobacterium heckeshornense is a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium first characterized in 2000. It is reported to cause lung disease and tenosynovitis. We report a case of isolated massive axillary lymphadenopathy in an elderly woman, where histology showed necrotizing granulomata and M. heckeshornense was isolated as the causative organism.
Project description:Mycobacterium heckeshornense is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We performed simultaneous 16S rRNA sequence analysis of a mycobacterium culture and a histopathology specimen to determine the relevance of M. heckeshornense infection in an immunocompetent patient initially presenting with pneumothorax.
Project description:We report here the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium heckeshornense strain RLE isolated from a sputum sample from a patient with shortness of breath. This is the first draft genome sequence of M. heckeshornense.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>IFN-? is presently the only soluble immunological marker used to help diagnose latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection. However, IFN-? is not available to distinguish latent from active TB infection. Moreover, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, such as tuberculous pleurisy, cannot be properly diagnosed by IFN-? release assay. As a result, other disease- or infection-related immunological biomarkers that would be more effective need to be screened and identified.<h4>Methodology</h4>A panel of 41 soluble immunological molecules (17 cytokines and 24 chemokines) was tested using Luminex liquid array-based multiplexed immunoassays. Samples, including plasma and pleural effusions, from healthy donors (HD, n?=?12) or patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, n?=?20), pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, n?=?12), tuberculous pleurisy (TP, n?=?15) or lung cancer (LC, n?=?15) were collected and screened for soluble markers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) were also isolated to investigate antigen-specific immune factors.<h4>Principal findings</h4>For the 41 examined factors, our results indicated that three patterns were closely associated with infection and disease. (1) Significantly elevated plasma levels of IL-2, IP-10, CXCL11 and CXCL12 were present in both patients with tuberculosis and in a sub-group participant with latent tuberculosis infection who showed a higher level of IFN-? producing cells by ELISPOT assay compared with other latently infected individuals. (2) IL-6 and IL-9 were only significantly increased in plasma from active TB patients, and the two factors were consistently highly secreted after M.tb antigen stimulation. (3) When patients developed tuberculous pleurisy, CCL1, CCL21 and IL-6 were specifically increased in the pleural effusions. In particular, these three factors were consistently highly secreted by pleural fluid mononuclear cells following M.tb-specific antigen stimulation. In conclusion, our data imply that the specific secretion of soluble immunological factors, in addition to IFN-?, may be used to evaluate M.tb infection and tuberculosis disease.
Project description:Pleural tuberculosis (TB) is a form of extra-pulmonary TB observed in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) has been observed in animal models of TB and in human patients but their role remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the role of transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) in the accumulation and function of MDSC in the pleural cavity during an acute mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced pleurisy was resolved in mice expressing tmTNF, but lethal in the absence of tumor necrosis factor. Pleural infection induced MDSC accumulation in the pleural cavity and functional MDSC required tmTNF to suppress T cells as did pleural wild-type MDSC. Interaction of MDSC expressing tmTNF with CD4 T cells bearing TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), but not TNFR1, was required for MDSC suppressive activity on CD4 T cells. Expression of tmTNF attenuated Th1?cell-mediated inflammatory responses generated by the acute pleural mycobacterial infection in association with effective MDSC expressing tmTNF and interacting with CD4 T cells expressing TNFR2. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the crucial role played by the tmTNF/TNFR2 pathway in MDSC suppressive activity required during acute pleural infection to attenuate excessive inflammation generated by the infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND Traditional diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) cannot be reliably applied to tuberculous pleurisy. Therefore, this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity and safety of ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy versus thoracoscopic pleural biopsy in patients suspected of tuberculous pleurisy following inconclusive thoracentesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 196 adult patients with acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-negative exudative pleural effusions clinically suspected of tuberculous pleurisy were recruited. Enrollees were randomized into 2 cohorts: ultrasound-guided cutting-needle pleural biopsy (n=96) or thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (n=96). The overall diagnostic yields, diagnostic sensitivities for tuberculous pleurisy, and post-procedural complications for both cohorts were statistically compared. RESULTS Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed an overall diagnostic yield of 83%, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar overall diagnostic yield of 86% (?²=1.88, df=1, p=0.17). There were 127 patients conclusively diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy, resulting in a tuberculous pleurisy prevalence of 65% in this patient population (66% in the ultrasound cohort vs. 63% in the thoracoscopy cohort; p>0.05). Ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy displayed a sensitivity of 82% in detecting tuberculous pleurisy, while thorascopic pleural biopsy displayed a similar sensitivity of 90% (?²=1.05, df=1, p=0.30). The sensitivities of these 2 modalities did not significantly differ based on the degree of pleural thickening (p>0.05). Post-procedural complications were minor. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound-guided and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy both display strong (>80%) but statistically similar overall diagnostic yields for diagnosing pleural effusions following inconclusive thoracentesis. Both modalities also display strong (>80%) but statistically similar sensitivities in detecting tuberculous pleurisy.
Project description:Tuberculous pleurisy is one of the most common types of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, but its diagnosis remains difficult. In this study, we report for the first time on the detection of cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA in pleural effusion and an evaluation of a newly developed molecular assay for the detection of cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA. A total of 78 patients with pleural effusion, 60 patients with tuberculous pleurisy, and 18 patients with alternative diseases were included in this study. Mycobacterial culture, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, the adenosine deaminase assay, the T-SPOT.TB assay, and the cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay were performed on all the pleural effusion samples. The cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay and adenosine deaminase assay showed significantly higher sensitivities of 75.0% and 68.3%, respectively, than mycobacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which had sensitivities of 26.7% and 20.0%, respectively (<i>P</i> < 0.01). All four of these tests showed good specificities: 88.9% for the adenosine deaminase assay and 100% for the remaining three assays. The T-SPOT.TB assay with pleural effusion showed the highest sensitivity of 95.0% but the lowest specificity of 38.9%. The cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay detected as few as 1.25 copies of IS<i>6110</i> per ml of pleural effusion and showed good accordance of the results between repeated tests (<i>r</i> = 0.978, <i>P</i> = 2.84 × 10<sup>-10</sup>). These data suggest that the cell-free <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> DNA assay is a rapid and accurate molecular test which provides direct evidence of <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> etiology.
Project description:Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture and compromised function. Tuberculous pleurisy, asbestos injury, and rheumatoid pleurisy are main causes of pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a key role in pleural fibrosis. However, detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Serine/arginine-rich protein SRSF6 belongs to a family of highly conserved RNA-binding splicing-factor proteins. Based on its known functions, SRSF6 should be expected to play a role in fibrotic diseases. However, the role of SRSF6 in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, SRSF6 protein was found to be increased in cells of tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPE) from patients, and decellularized TBPE, bleomycin, and TGF-β1 were confirmed to increase SRSF6 levels in PMCs. In vitro, SRSF6 mediated PMC proliferation and synthesis of the main fibrotic protein COL1A2. In vivo, SRSF6 inhibition prevented mouse experimental pleural fibrosis. Finally, activated SMAD2/3, increased SOX4, and depressed miRNA-506-3p were associated with SRSF6 upregulation in PMCs. These observations support a model in which SRSF6 induces pleural fibrosis through a cluster pathway, including SRSF6/WNT5A and SRSF6/SMAD1/5/9 signaling. In conclusion, we propose inhibition of the splicing factor SRSF6 as a strategy for treatment of pleural fibrosis.
Project description:A pathogenic scotochromogenic Mycobacterium xenopi-like organism was isolated from the lung of an immunocompetent young woman. This pathogen caused severe bilateral cavitary lung disease, making two surgical interventions necessary after years of chronic disease. This case prompted us to characterize this mycobacterium by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate contained chemotaxonomic markers which were typical for the genus Mycobacterium, i.e., the meso isomer of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose as diagnostic whole-cell sugars, MK-9(H(2)) as the principal isoprenoid quinone, a mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates, ketomycolates, and wax ester mycolates, unbranched saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plus a significant amount of tuberculostearic acid, and small amounts of a C(20:0) secondary alcohol. On the basis of its unique 16S rRNA and 16S-23S spacer gene sequences, we propose that the isolate should be assigned to a new species, Mycobacterium heckeshornense. This novel species is phylogenetically closely related to M. xenopi. The type strain of M. heckeshornense is strain S369 (DSM 44428(T)). The GenBank accession number of the 16S rRNA gene of M. heckeshornense is AF174290.