Changes in aortic reactivity associated with the loss of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in mice.
ABSTRACT: Slc29a1 encodes for equilibrative nucleoside transporter subtype 1 (ENT1), the primary mechanism of adenosine transfer across cell membranes. Previous studies showed that tissues isolated from Slc29a1-null mice are relatively resistant to injury caused by vascular ischemia-reperfusion. To determine if there are similar changes in the microvasculature, and investigate underlying mechanism, we examined aortas isolated from wildtype and Slc29a1-null mice. Aorta macrostructure and gene expression were examined histologically and by qPCR, respectively. Wire myography was used to assess the contractile properties of isolated thoracic aortic rings and their response to adenosine under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In vivo haemodynamic parameters were assessed using the tail-cuff method. Slc29a1-null mice had significantly (P<0.05) increased plasma adenosine (2.75-fold) and lower blood pressure (~15% ?) than wild-type mice. Aortas from Slc29a1-null mice were stiffer with a smaller circumference (11% ?), and had an enhanced contractile response to KCl and receptor-mediated stimuli. Blockade of ENT1 with nitrobenzylthioinosine significantly enhanced (by ~3.5-fold) the response of aorta from wild-type mice to phenylephrine, but had minimal effect on aortas from Slc29a1-null mice. Adenosine enhanced phenylephrine-mediated constriction in the wild-type tissue under both normoxic (11.7-fold) and hypoxic (3.6-fold) conditions, but had no effect on the Slc29a1-null aortic aorta. In conclusion, aortas from Slc29a1-null mice respond to hypoxic insult in a manner comparable to wild-type tissues that have been pharmacologically preconditioned with adenosine. These data also support a role for ENT1 in the regulation of the protective effects of adenosine on contractile function in elastic conduit arteries such as thoracic aorta.
Project description:The Augustine-negative alias At(a-) blood type, which seems to be restricted to people of African ancestry, was identified half a century ago but remains one of the last blood types with no known genetic basis. Here we report that a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in SLC29A1 (rs45458701) is responsible for the At(a-) blood type. The resulting p.Glu391Lys variation in the last extracellular loop of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; also called SLC29a1) is known not to alter its ability to transport nucleosides and nucleoside analog drugs. Furthermore, we identified 3 individuals of European ancestry who are homozygous for a null mutation in SLC29A1 (c.589+1G>C) and thus have the Augustine-null blood type. These individuals lacking ENT1 exhibit periarticular and ectopic mineralization, which confirms an important role for ENT1/SLC29A1 in human bone homeostasis as recently suggested by the skeletal phenotype of aging Slc29a1(-/-) mice. Our results establish Augustine as a new blood group system and place SLC29A1 as a new candidate gene for idiopathic disorders characterized with ectopic calcification/mineralization.
Project description:Adenosine is involved in several neurological and behavioral disorders including alcoholism. In cultured cell and animal studies, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1, slc29a1), which regulates adenosine levels, is known to regulate ethanol sensitivity and preference. Interestingly, in humans, the ENT1 (SLC29A1) gene contains a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (647 T/C; rs45573936) that might be involved in the functional change of ENT1.Our functional analysis showed that prolonged ethanol exposure increased adenosine uptake activity of mutant cells (ENT1-216Thr) compared to wild-type (ENT1-216Ile) transfected cells, which might result in reduced extracellular adenosine levels. We found that mice lacking ENT1 displayed increased propensity to ethanol withdrawal seizures compared to wild-type littermates. We further investigated a possible association of the 647C variant with alcoholism and the history of alcohol withdrawal seizures in subjects of European ancestry recruited from two independent sites. Analyses of the combined data set showed an association of the 647C variant and alcohol dependence with withdrawal seizures at the nominally significant level.Together with the functional data, our findings suggest a potential contribution of a genetic variant of ENT1 to the development of alcoholism with increased risk of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures in humans.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To evaluate the role of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation in C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta isolated from septic rats.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was used to induce sepsis in male rats. Vascular reactivity was conducted in rat aorta and resistance mesenteric artery (RMA). Measurement of survival rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma nitric oxide, specific protein expression, and localization were evaluated. Septic rats had a survival rate about 37% at 4 h after the surgery, and these rats presented hypotension compared to control-operated (Sham) rats. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in sepsis. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) induced anti-contractile effect in aortas. Plasma nitric oxide was increased in sepsis. Nitric oxide-synthase but not natriuretic peptide receptor-B expression was increased in septic rat aortas. C-type natriuretic peptide-anti-contractile effect was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C, protein kinase-C? mRNA, and basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ROS production were lower in septic rats. Phenylephrine and CNP enhanced ROS production. However, stimulated ROS production was low in sepsis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>CNP induced anti-contractile effect on Phenylephrine contraction in aortas from Sham and septic rats that was dependent on nitric oxide-synthase, ROS, and natriuretic peptide receptor-B activation.
Project description:Disruptions in circadian rhythms are risk factors for excessive alcohol drinking. The ethanol-sensitive adenosine equilibrative nucleoside transporter type 1 (ENT1, slc29a1) regulates ethanol-related behaviors, sleep, and entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the mechanism underlying the increased ethanol consumption in ENT1 knockout (KO) mice in constant light (LL) and whether there are sex differences in ethanol consumption in ENT1 mice are less studied. Here, we investigated the effects of loss of ENT1, LL, and sex on ethanol drinking using two-bottle choice. In addition, we monitored the locomotor activity rhythms. We found that LL increased ethanol drinking and reduced accumbal ENT1 expression and adenosine levels in male but not female mice, compared with control mice. Interestingly, only LL-exposed male, not female, ENT1 KO mice exhibited higher ethanol drinking and a longer circadian period with a higher amplitude compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, viral-mediated rescue of ENT1 expression in the NAc of ENT1 KO mice reduced ethanol drinking, demonstrating a possible causal link between ENT1 expression and ethanol drinking in males. Together, our findings indicate that deficiency of ENT1 expression contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in a sex-dependent manner.
Project description:Transporters are important therapeutic but yet understudied targets due to lack of available assays. Here we describe a novel label-free, whole-cell method for the functional assessment of Solute Carrier (SLC) inhibitors. As many SLC substrates are also ligands for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), transporter inhibition may affect GPCR signalling due to a change in extracellular concentration of the substrate/ligand, which can be monitored by an impedance-based label-free assay. For this study, a prototypical SLC/GPCR pair was selected, i.e. the equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (SLC29A1/ENT1) and an adenosine receptor (AR), for which adenosine is the substrate/ligand. ENT1 inhibition with three reference compounds was monitored sensitively via AR activation on human osteosarcoma cells. Firstly, the inhibitor addition resulted in an increased apparent potency of adenosine. Secondly, all inhibitors concentration-dependently increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, resulting in an indirect quantitative assessment of their potencies. Additionally, AR activation was abolished by AR antagonists, confirming that the monitored impedance was AR-mediated. In summary, we developed a novel assay as an in vitro model system that reliably assessed the potency of SLC29A1 inhibitors via AR signalling. As such, the method may be applied broadly as it has the potential to study a multitude of SLCs via concomitant GPCR signalling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adenosine signaling has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Previously, we found that astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) are downregulated in the striatum of mice lacking type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1).<h4>Methods</h4>To further investigate the gene expression profile in the striatum, we preformed Illumina Mouse Whole Genome BeadChip microarray analysis of the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ENT1 null mice. Gene expression was validated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Using transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, we examined EGFP expression in an ENT1 null background.<h4>Results</h4>Glial fibrillary acidic protein was identified as a top candidate gene that was reduced in ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, EGFP expression was significantly reduced in GFAP-EGFP transgenic mice in an ENT1 null background in both the CPu and NAc. Finally, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of ENT1 in cultured astrocytes also reduced GFAP mRNA levels.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENT1 regulates GFAP expression and possibly astrocyte function.
Project description:Developmental-regulatory networks often include large gene families encoding mechanistically-related proteins like G-protein-coupled receptors, zinc finger transcription factors and solute carrier (SLC) transporters. In principle, a common mechanism may confer expression of multiple members integral to a developmental process, or diverse mechanisms may be deployed. Using genetic complementation and enhancer-mutant systems, we analyzed the 456 member SLC family that establishes the small molecule constitution of cells. This analysis identified SLC gene cohorts regulated by GATA1 and/or GATA2 during erythroid differentiation. As >50 SLC genes shared GATA factor regulation, a common mechanism established multiple members of this family. These genes included Slc29a1 encoding an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (Slc29a1/ENT1) that utilizes adenosine as a preferred substrate. Slc29a1 promoted erythroblast survival and differentiation ex vivo. Targeted ablation of murine Slc29a1 in erythroblasts attenuated erythropoiesis and erythrocyte regeneration in response to acute anemia. Our results reveal a GATA factor-regulated SLC ensemble, with a nucleoside transporter component that promotes erythropoiesis and prevents anemia, and establish a mechanistic link between GATA factor and adenosine mechanisms. We propose that integration of the GATA factor-adenosine circuit with other components of the GATA factor-regulated SLC ensemble establishes the small molecule repertoire required for progenitor cells to efficiently generate erythrocytes.
Project description:Adenosine signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. Among its diverse functions in the brain, adenosine regulates glutamate release and has an essential role in ethanol sensitivity and preference. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling in neuroglial interaction remain elusive. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter, type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1), drink more ethanol compared with wild-type mice and have elevated striatal glutamate levels. In addition, ENT1 inhibition or knockdown reduces glutamate transporter expression in cultured astrocytes. Here, we examined how adenosine signaling in astrocytes contributes to ethanol drinking. Inhibition or deletion of ENT1 reduced the expression of type 2 excitatory amino-acid transporter (EAAT2) and the astrocyte-specific water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4). EAAT2 and AQP4 colocalization was also reduced in the striatum of ENT1 null mice. Ceftriaxone, an antibiotic compound known to increase EAAT2 expression and function, elevated not only EAAT2 but also AQP4 expression in the striatum. Furthermore, ceftriaxone reduced ethanol drinking, suggesting that ENT1-mediated downregulation of EAAT2 and AQP4 expression contributes to excessive ethanol consumption in our mouse model. Overall, our findings indicate that adenosine signaling regulates EAAT2 and astrocytic AQP4 expressions, which control ethanol drinking in mice.
Project description:Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1) allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS ascending aortas showed a greater number of elastic fiber breaks than the wild-types, and males exhibited more breaks than females. These results show regional and sex differences in Fbn1C1039G/+ mice thoracic aorta contractility and aortic media injuries. The presence of more pronounced aortic alterations in male mice provides experimental evidence to support that male MFS patients are at increased risk of suffering aortic complications.
Project description:This study was designed to determine whether the 24-h rhythms of clock gene expression and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile responses are altered in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Control and db/db mice were euthanized at 6-h intervals throughout the day. The aorta, mesenteric arteries, heart, kidney, and brain were isolated. Clock and target gene mRNA levels were determined by either real-time PCR or in situ hybridization. Isometric contractions were measured in isolated aortic helical strips, and pressor responses to an intravenous injection of vasoconstrictors were determined in vivo using radiotelemetry. We found that the 24-h mRNA rhythms of the following genes were suppressed in db/db mice compared with control mice: the clock genes period homolog 1/2 (Per1/2) and cryptochrome 1/2 (Cry1/2) and their target genes D site albumin promoter-binding protein (Dbp) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (Pparg) in the aorta and mesenteric arteries; Dbp in the heart; Per1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Rev-erba), and Dbp in the kidney; and Per1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The 24-h contractile variations in response to phenylephrine (?(1)-agonist), ANG II, and high K(+) were significantly altered in the aortas from db/db mice compared with control mice. The diurnal variations of the in vivo pressor responses to phenylephrine and ANG II were lost in db/db mice. Moreover, the 24-h mRNA rhythms of the contraction-related proteins Rho kinase 1/2, PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitory protein of 17 kDa, calponin-3, tropomyosin-1/2, and smooth muscle protein 22-? were suppressed in db/db mice compared with control mice. Together, our data demonstrated that the 24-h rhythms of clock gene mRNA, mRNA levels of several contraction-related proteins, and VSM contraction were disrupted in db/db mice, which may contribute to the disruption of their blood pressure circadian rhythm.