A Simple Method for On-Gel Detection of Myrosinase Activity.
ABSTRACT: Myrosinase is an enzyme present in many functional foods and spices, particularly in Cruciferous vegetables. It hydrolyses glucosinolates which thereafter rearrange into bioactive volatile constituents (isothiocyanates, nitriles). We aimed to develop a simple reversible method for on-gel detection of myrosinase. Reagent composition and application parameters for native PAGE and SDS-PAGE gels were optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied to detect myrosinase (or sulfatase) on-gel: the detection solution contains methyl red which gives intensive red bands where the HSO?- is enzymatically released from the glucosinolates. Subsequently, myrosinase was successfully distinguished from sulfatase by incubating gel bands in a derivatization solution and examination by LC-ESI-MS: myrosinase produced allyl isothiocyanate (detected in conjugate form) while desulfo-sinigrin was released by sulfatase, as expected. After separation of 80 µg protein of crude extracts of Cruciferous vegetables, intensive color develops within 10 min. On-gel detection was found to be linear between 0.031?0.25 U (pure Sinapis alba myrosinase, R² = 0.997). The method was successfully applied to detection of myrosinase isoenzymes from horseradish, Cruciferous vegetables and endophytic fungi of horseradish as well. The method was shown to be very simple, rapid and efficient. It enables detection and partial characterization of glucosinolate decomposing enzymes without protein purification.
Project description:An inverse correlation between vegetable consumption and the incidence of cancer has long been described. This protective effect is stronger when cruciferous vegetables are specifically consumed. The beneficial properties of vegetables are attributed to their bioactive components like fiber, antioxidants vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Cruciferous vegetables contain all these molecules; however, what makes them different are their sulfurous components, called glucosinolates, responsible for their special smell and taste. Glucosinolates are inactive biologically in the organism but are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase released as a result of chewing, leading to the formation of active derivatives such as isothiocyanates and indoles. A considerable number of in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that isothiocyanates and indoles elicit chemopreventive potency through multiple mechanisms that include modulation of phases I and II detoxification pathway enzymes, regulation of cell cycle arrest, and control of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant activity, anti-angiogenic effects, and epigenetic regulation. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) are key and central regulators in all these processes with a main role in oxidative stress and inflammation control. It has been described that isothiocyanates and indoles regulate their activity directly and indirectly. Today, the metabolic syndrome (central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension) is responsible for a majority of deaths worldwide. All components of metabolic syndrome are characterized by chronic inflammation with deregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/EKR/JNK, Nrf2, and NF-?B signaling pathways. The effects of GLSs derivatives controlling these pathways have been widely described in relation to cancer. Changes in food consumption patterns observed in the last decades to higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, with elevation in simple sugar and saturated fat contents and lower consumption of vegetables and fruits have been directly correlated with metabolic syndrome prevalence. In this review, it is summarized the knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which cruciferous glucosinolate derivatives (isothiocyanates and indoles) directly and indirectly regulate these pathways. However, the review places a special focus on the knowledge of the effects of glucosinolates derivatives in metabolic syndrome, since this has not been reviewed before.
Project description:Horseradish hairy root cultures are suitable plant tissue organs to study the glucosinolate-myrosinase-isothiocyanate system and also to produce the biologically active isothiocyanates and horseradish peroxidase, widely used in molecular biology. Fifty hairy root clones were isolated after Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection of surface sterilized Armoracia rusticana petioles and leaf blades, from which 21 were viable after antibiotic treatment. Biomass properties (e.g. dry weight %, daily growth index), glucosinolate content (analyzed by liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS)), isothiocyanate and nitrile content (analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)), myrosinase (on-gel detection) and horseradish peroxidase enzyme patterns (on-gel detection and spectrophotometry), and morphological features were examined with multi-variable statistical analysis. In addition to the several positive and negative correlations, the most outstanding phenomenon was many parameters of the hairy root clones showed dependence on the organ of origin. Among others, the daily growth index, sinigrin, glucobrassicin, 3-phenylpropionitrile, indole-3-acetonitrile and horseradish peroxidase values showed significantly higher levels in horseradish hairy root cultures initiated from leaf blades.
Project description:Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites abundant in Brassica vegetables that are substrates for the enzyme myrosinase, a thioglucoside hydrolase. Enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolates forms several organic products, including isothiocyanates (ITCs) that have been explored for their beneficial effects in humans. Myrosinase has been shown to be tolerant of non-natural glucosinolates, such as 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, and can facilitate their conversion to non-natural ITCs, some of which are leads for drug development. An HPLC-based method capable of analyzing this transformation for non-natural systems has been described. This current study describes (1) the Michaelis-Menten characterization of 2,2-diphenyethyl glucosinolate and (2) a parallel evaluation of this analogue and the natural analogue glucotropaeolin to evaluate effects of pH and temperature on rates of hydrolysis and product(s) formed. Methods described in this study provide the ability to simultaneously and independently analyze the kinetics of multiple reaction components. An unintended outcome of this work was the development of a modified Lambert W(x) which includes a parameter to account for the thermal denaturation of enzyme. The results of this study demonstrate that the action of Sinapis alba myrosinase on natural and non-natural glucosinolates is consistent under the explored range of experimental conditions and in relation to previous accounts.
Project description:Myrosinase, which is present in cruciferous plant species, plays an important role in the hydrolysis of glycosides such as glucosinolates and is involved in plant defense. Brassicaceae myrosinases are diverse although they share common ancestry, and structural knowledge about myrosinases from cabbage (Brassica oleracea) was needed. To address this, we constructed a three-dimensional model structure of myrosinase based on Sinapis alba structures using Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement server (I-TASSER) webserver, and refined model coordinates were evaluated with ProQ and Verify3D. The resulting model was predicted with ?/? fold, ten conserved N-glycosylation sites, and three disulfide bridges. In addition, this model shared features with the known Sinapis alba myrosinase structure. To obtain a better understanding of myrosinase-sinigrin interaction, the refined model was docked using Autodock Vina with crucial key amino acids. The key nucleophile residues GLN207 and GLU427 were found to interact with sinigrin to form a hydrogen bond. Further, 20-ns molecular dynamics simulation was performed to examine myrosinase-sinigrin complex stability, revealing that residue GLU207 maintained its hydrogen bond stability throughout the entire simulation and structural orientation was similar to that of the docked state. This conceptual model should be useful for understanding the structural features of myrosinase and their binding orientation with sinigrin.
Project description:In the human gut, commensal bacteria metabolize food components that typically serve as energy sources. These components have the potential to influence gut bacterial community composition. Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage, contain distinctive compounds that can be utilized by gut bacteria. For example, glucosinolates can be hydrolyzed by certain bacteria, and dietary fibers can be fermented by a range of species. We hypothesized that cruciferous vegetable consumption would alter growth of certain bacteria, thereby altering bacterial community composition. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Fecal samples were collected from 17 participants at the end of 2 14-d intake periods: a low-phytochemical, low-fiber basal diet (i.e. refined grains without fruits or vegetables) and a high ("double") cruciferous vegetable diet [basal diet + 14 g cruciferous vegetables/(kg body weightd)]. Fecal bacterial composition was analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) method using the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and nucleotide sequencing. Using blocked multi-response permutation procedures analysis, we found that overall bacterial community composition differed between the 2 consumption periods (delta = 0.603; P = 0.011). The bacterial community response to cruciferous vegetables was individual-specific, as revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis. Specific tRFLP fragments that characterized each of the diets were identified using indicator species analysis. Putative species corresponding to these fragments were identified through gene sequencing as Eubacterium hallii, Phascolarctobacterium faecium, Burkholderiales spp., Alistipes putredinis, and Eggerthella spp. In conclusion, human gut bacterial community composition was altered by cruciferous vegetable consumption, which could ultimately influence gut metabolism of bioactive food components and host exposure to these compounds.
Project description:Brain and other nervous system cancers are the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. Genome instability, cell cycle deregulation, epigenetic mechanisms, cytoarchitecture disassembly, redox homeostasis as well as apoptosis are involved in carcinogenesis. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is inversely related with the risk of developing cancer. Several studies report that cruciferous vegetables exhibited antiproliferative effects due to the multi-pharmacological functions of their secondary metabolites such as isothiocyanate sulforaphane deriving from the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates. We treated human astrocytoma 1321N1 cells for 24 h with different concentrations (0.5, 1.25 and 2.5% v/v) of sulforaphane plus active myrosinase (Rapha Myr®) aqueous extract (10 mg/mL). Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, PARP-1 and ?H2AX expression were examined to evaluate genotoxic effects of the treatment. Cell cycle progression, p53 and p21 expression, apoptosis, cytoskeleton morphology and cell migration were also investigated. In addition, global DNA methylation, DNMT1 mRNA levels and nuclear/mitochondrial sirtuins were studied as epigenetic biomarkers. Rapha Myr® exhibited low antioxidant capability and exerted antiproliferative and genotoxic effects on 1321N1 cells by blocking the cell cycle, disarranging cytoskeleton structure and focal adhesions, decreasing the integrin ?5 expression, renewing anoikis and modulating some important epigenetic pathways independently of the cellular p53 status. In addition, Rapha Myr® suppresses the expression of the oncogenic p53 mutant protein. These findings promote Rapha Myr® as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for integrated cancer therapy of human astrocytoma.
Project description:Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are one of several hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, plant secondary metabolites that are substrates for the thioglucohydrolase myrosinase. Recent pursuits toward the development of synthetic non-natural ITCs have consequently led to an exploration of generating these compounds from non-natural glucosinolate precursors. Evaluation of the myrosinase-dependent conversion of select non-natural glucosinolates to non-natural ITCs cannot be accomplished using established ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic methods. To overcome this limitation, an alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based analytical approach was developed where initial reaction velocities were generated from nonlinear reaction progress curves. Validation of this HPLC method was accomplished through parallel evaluation of three glucosinolates with UV-Vis methodology. The results of this study demonstrate that kinetic data are consistent between both analytical methods and that the tested glucosinolates respond similarly to both Michaelis-Menten and specific activity analyses. Consequently, this work resulted in the complete kinetic characterization of three glucosinolates with Sinapis alba myrosinase, with results that were consistent with previous reports.
Project description:Importance:Glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals abundant in cruciferous vegetables, may have cardioprotective properties. However, no prospective study has evaluated the association of intake of glucosinolates with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective:The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the intake of glucosinolates and incident CHD in US men and women. Design:Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting:Health professionals in the USA. Participants:We followed 74,241 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2012), 94,163 women in the NHSII (1991-2013), and 42,170 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012), who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Exposure:Glucosinolate intake was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires at baseline and updated every 2-4 years during follow-up. Main outcome measures:Incident cases of CHD were confirmed by medical record review. Results:During 4,824,001 person-years of follow-up, 8,010 cases of CHD were identified in the three cohorts. After adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors of CHD, weak but significantly positive associations were observed for glucosinolates with CHD risk when comparing the top with bottom quintiles (hazard ratio [HR]:1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.17; Ptrend<0.001). Higher intakes of three major subtypes of glucosinolates were consistently associated with a higher CHD risk, although the association for indolylglucosinolate did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding cruciferous vegetable intake, participants who consumed one or more servings per week of Brussels sprouts (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.26; P<0.001) and cabbage (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.17; P=0.009) had a significantly higher CHD risk than those who consumed these cruciferous vegetables less than once per month. Conclusion and relevance:In these three prospective cohort studies, dietary glucosinolate intake was associated with a slightly higher risk of CHD in US adults. These results warrant replications in further studies including biomarker-based studies. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate mechanistic pathways that may underlie these associations.
Project description:Cruciferous vegetables are rich sources of glucosinolates which are the biogenic precursor molecules of isothiocyanates (ITCs). The relationship between the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and chemoprotection has been widely documented in epidemiological studies. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) occurs as its glucosinolate precursor gluconasturtiin in the cruciferous vegetable watercress (Nasturtium officinale). PEITC has multiple biological effects, including activation of cytoprotective pathways, such as those mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and can cause changes in the epigenome. However, at high concentrations, PEITC leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species and cytoskeletal changes, resulting in cytotoxicity. Underlying these activities is the sulfhydryl reactivity of PEITC with cysteine residues in its protein targets. This chemical reactivity highlights the critical importance of the dose of PEITC for achieving on-target selectivity, which should be carefully considered in the design of future clinical trials.
Project description:The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and ?-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other ?-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect ?-glucosidases.