Photoacoustic imaging for monitoring periodontal health: A first human study.
ABSTRACT: The gold-standard periodontal probe is an aging tool that can detect periodontitis and monitor gingival health but is highly error-prone, does not fully characterize the periodontal pocket, and causes pain. Photoacoustic imaging is a noninvasive technique that can address these limitations. Here, a range of ultrasound frequencies between 16-40?MHz were used to image the periodontium and a contrast medium based on cuttlefish ink was used to label the pockets. A 40?MHz ultrasound frequency could spatially resolve the periodontal anatomy, including tooth, gum, gingival margin, and gingival thickness of tooth numbers 7-10 and 22-27. The photoacoustic-ultrasound measurements were more precise (0.01?mm) than those taken with physical probes by a dental hygienist. Furthermore, the full geometry of the pockets could be visualized with relative standard deviations of 10% (n?=?5). This study shows the potential for non-invasive monitoring of periodontal health with photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging in the dental clinic.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationship between periodontal treatment needs by elderly Brazilians and contextual as well as individual variables. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the need for clinical periodontal treatment, based on National Oral Health Survey (SB Brasil 2010) data on the presence of dental calculus, shallow (3-5 mm) and deep (? 6 mm) periodontal pockets, and gingival bleeding in elderly people (n = 7,619). The contextual variables included the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), income inequality (Gini Index) and coverage of the municipal population by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams.<0} The individual variables were sex, income, education level and self-reported skin color. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) between periodontal treatment needs and the contextual as well as individual variables. RESULTS:Gingival bleeding was found in 20.7% of the elderly analyzed (n = 1,577), dental calculus in 34% (n = 2,590), shallow periodontal pockets in 15.6% (n = 1,189), and deep periodontal pockets in 4.2% (n = 320). Individual factors were correlated with all the outcomes assessed. Sex was a protective factor in regard to gingival bleeding (OR = 0.87; CI95% 0.76-1.00), dental calculus (OR = 0.86; CI95% 0.75-0.99), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.69; CI95% 0.60-0.80) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.58; CI95% 0.45-0.74). It was found that fewer women needed treatment. Elderly people who self-reported having nonwhite skin had higher chances of needing periodontal treatment. Skin color was a risk factor for gingival bleeding (OR = 1.32; CI95% 1.14-1.53), dental calculus (OR = 1.32; CI95%1.14-1.54) and shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 1.27; CI95% 1.09-1.49). Education level was associated with the presence of dental calculus (OR = 0.77; CI95% 0.66-0.89), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.86; CI95% 0.73-1.00) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.74; CI95% 0.57-0.97), thus acting as a risk factor for undereducated elderly people. There was a correlation between population coverage by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams and the presence of gingival bleeding (OR = 0.67; CI95% 0.52-0.88), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.76; CI95% 0.58-0.98) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.62; CI95% 0.44-0.89), making these teams act as a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed evidence of the sociocontextual as well as individual sociodemographic characteristics influencing periodontal treatment needed by elderly Brazilians, based on the clinical features of periodontal disease. The results suggest the existence of inequality related to periodontal treatment needs among elderly Brazilians, especially in regard to sex and ethnicity, in addition to a potentially positive impact from the expansion of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams.
Project description:Objectives:The objective of this study was to investigate the association of tooth brushing frequency and bacterial communities of gingival crevicular fluid in patients subjected to preoperative dental examination prior to operative treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods:Gingival crevicular fluid samples were taken from their deepest gingival pocket from a series of hospitalized neurosurgical patients undergoing preoperative dental screening (n = 60). The patients were asked whether they brushed their teeth two times a day, once a day, or less than every day. Total bacterial DNA was isolated and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplificated. Sequencing was performed with Illumina's 16S metagenomic sequencing library preparation protocol and data were analyzed with QIIME (1.9.1) and R statistical software (3.3.2). Results:Bacterial diversity (Chao1 index) in the crevicular fluid reduced along with reported tooth brushing frequency (p = 0.0002; R2 = 34%; p (adjusted with age and sex) = 0.09; R2 = 11%) showing that patients who reported brushing their teeth twice a day had the lowest bacterial diversity. According to the differential abundant analysis between the tooth brushing groups, tooth brushing associated with two phyla of fusobacteria [p = 0.0001; p = 0.0007], and one bacteroidetes (p = 0.004) by reducing their amounts. Conclusions:Tooth brushing may reduce the gingival bacterial diversity and the abundance of periodontal bacteria maintaining oral health and preventing periodontitis, and thus it is highly recommended for neurosurgical patients.
Project description:The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether poor oral health predicted 8-year cognitive function change in predominantly late middle adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.Participants included a subset of ARIC participants aged 52-75 years at 1996-1998 from two study sites: Forsyth County NC and Jackson MS. All subjects completed cognitive function assessments both in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006, and the same subjects received a dental examination at the initial visit. Cognitive assessment consisted of delayed word recall (DWR), digit symbol substitution (DSS), and word fluency (WF) tests. In the analysis, cognitive function for 911 dentally screened participants was evaluated, and 558 of 785 dentate participants received comprehensive oral examinations, including periodontal probing. Measures of oral health included dental status, number of teeth, and periodontal disease classified by the biofilm-gingival interface (BGI) index. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) method was used to analyze repeated measures of cognitive scores with adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors.Of 911 study participants, 13.8% were edentulous. About 13% of dentally examined participants had periodontal pockets (? 4 mm) with severe bleeding. At the follow-up visit, DWR and WF scores were lower in edentulous compared to dentate people, whereas other oral health measures were not associated with cognitive function. Mean values declined over time for all three cognitive measures, although poor oral health conditions were not associated with greater degree of decline in cognitive function.In these late middle-aged adults, complete tooth loss was significantly associated with lower cognitive performance. However, neither edentulism, number of teeth, nor periodontal disease predicted greater subsequent cognitive decline.
Project description:AIM:To examine oral biomarkers that have been associated with periodontal disease progression in HIV-infected adults in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected youth. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This was a cross-sectional, multicentre substudy of youth participating in the Oral Health Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort study. Gingival crevicular fluid repository samples from participants with and without periodontal disease (using Gingival Index [GI] and Bleeding on Probing [BOP] parameters on dental examination) were tested for concentration levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Associations were assessed using Wilcoxon test and Spearman correlation. RESULTS:For perinatal HIV youth (n = 129), the markers consistently elevated (p < .05) in sites with GI ?2 and in sites with BOP were interleukin-1?, 6 and 13, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and metalloproteinase-9. Serum tumour necrosis factor-? and soluble CD14 were positively correlated with a summary count of elevated cytokines. No associations were seen among HIV-uninfected subjects (n = 71). CONCLUSIONS:The association of oral biomarkers of inflammation with clinical indicators of periodontal inflammation and systemic immune activation suggests that perinatal HIV-infected youth may be at higher risk for developing significant periodontal disease, associated with tooth loss and HIV progression. More frequent dental care of this group is needed to prevent potential periodontal progression.
Project description:Information on the socio-behavioral distribution of periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnancy emanating from sub Saharan Africa is sparse. This study examined periodontal status and tooth loss in pregnant Ugandan women and assessed the relationship with socio-demographics factors, parity, dental care and oral hygiene.Mothers were participants of a multicentre cluster-randomized behavioral intervention study (PROMISE-EBF Safety and Efficacy of Exclusive Breast feeding Promotion in the Era of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa). In Uganda, these were pregnant women resident in Mbale district, recruited into the PROMISE EBF study between January 2006 and June 2008. A total of 886 women were eligible to participate of whom information became available for 877 (participation rate 98.9%, mean age 25.6) women who participated in the recruitment interview and 713 (mean age 25.5) women who got a clinical oral examination. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN).The prevalence of tooth loss was 35.7%, 0.6% presented with pockets shallow pockets (4-5 mm), whereas 3.3% and 63.4% displayed bleeding and calculus, respectively. A total of 32.7% were without any sign of periodontal disease. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that older women, women from larger households and those presenting with microbial plaque were respectively, 3.4, 1.4 and 2.5 times more likely to have CPI score >0. Rural (OR = 0.9), nulliparous (OR = 0.4) and women who never visited a dentist (OR = 0.04) were less likely, whereas women from larger households (OR = 1.5) were more likely to have lost at least one tooth.The results revealed moderate prevalence of bleeding and tooth loss, high prevalence of calculus, low frequency of pockets 4-5 mm. Disparity in pregnant women's oral health related to parity suggests that education of maternity care providers concerning oral health in pregnancy is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397150.
Project description:Periodontal diseases manifest by the formation of deep pockets between the gingiva and teeth where multispecies bacterial biofilms flourish, causing inflammation and bone loss. Epithelial cell receptor ?v?6 integrin that regulates inflammation by activating the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-?1, is highly expressed in healthy junctional epithelium that connects the gingiva to the tooth enamel. However, its expression is attenuated in human periodontal disease. Moreover, Itgb6 -/- mice display increased periodontal inflammation compared to wild-type mice. We hypothesized that bacterial biofilms present in the periodontal pockets suppress ?v?6 integrin levels in periodontal disease and that this change aggravates inflammation. To this end, we generated three-week-old multi-species oral biofilms in vitro and treated cultured gingival epithelial cells (GECs) with their extracts. The biofilm extracts caused suppression of ?6 integrin expression and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1? and -6. Furthermore, GECs with ?6 integrin siRNA knockdown showed increased interleukin-1? expression, indicating that ?v?6 integrin-deficiency is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine responsiveness. FSL-1, a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide, also suppressed ?6 integrin expression in GECs. Therefore, biofilm components, including lipopeptides, may downregulate ?v?6 integrin expression in the pocket epithelium and thus promote epithelial cell-driven pro-inflammatory response in periodontal disease.
Project description:Periodontitis is one of the most common infectious diseases globally that, if untreated, leads to destruction of the tooth supporting tissues and finally results in tooth loss. Evidence shows that standard procedures as mechanical root cleaning could be supported by further treatment options such as locally applied substances. Due to gingival crevicular fluid flow, substances are commonly washed out off the periodontal pockets. The evaluation of administration techniques and the development of local drug releasing devices is thus an important aspect in periodontal research. This study describes the development and examination of a new alginate based, biodegradable and easily applicable drug delivery system for chlorhexidine (CHX). Different micro beads were produced and loaded with CHX and the release profiles were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The in vitro-demonstrated release of CHX from alginate based beads shows comparable releasing characteristics as clinically approved systems. Yet many characteristics of this new delivery system show to be favourable for periodontal therapy. Easy application by injection, low production costs and multifunctional adaptions to patient related specifics may improve the usage in routine care.
Project description:Dental bacterial DNA and bacterial-driven inflammation markers have previously been detected in intracranial aneurysm tissue samples. This study aimed (i) to assess the possible presence of dental infectious foci, (ii) and the possible association between typical odontogenic bacteria and clinical dental findings in patients undergoing pre-operative dental examination before surgical treatment of saccular intracranial aneurysm. Ninety patients with an intracranial aneurysm were recruited to the study, and the patients' teeth were routinely investigated. Clinical data and bacterial samples from the gingival pockets were collected from a subpopulation of 60 patients. Five typical dental pathogens and total bacteria amounts were measured from gingival samples using real-time quantitative PCR.The amounts of total bacterial and Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA were significantly higher in the patients with ??6 mm gingival pockets than patients without them (p?<?0.01 and p?<?0.01, respectively). A total of 43% of patients with an aneurysm had gingival pockets of 6 mm or deeper. Dental infectious foci are fairly common in the Finnish population, with the prevalence of severe periodontitis being around 20%. The frequency of chronic dental infections, especially periodontitis seems to be higher in patients with intracranial aneurysm.
Project description:Periodontitis is a public health issue, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unclear: genetics of patients cannot explain the dispersed or isolated localisation of gingival pockets, while bacteria-based models are insufficient to distinguish gingivitis and periodontitis. The possible role of parasites in the establishment of periodontitis has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this project was to study a potential link between colonisation of gingival crevices by the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis and periodontitis. In eight different dental clinics in France, samples were taken in periodontal pockets (72) or healthy sites (33), and submitted to microscopic observation and molecular identification by PCR with a new set of primers designed to specifically detect E. gingivalis. This blind sample analysis showed the strong sensitivity of PCR compared with clinical diagnosis (58/72 = 81%), and microscopy (51/65 = 78%). The results of this work show that the parasites detected by microscopy mainly - if not exclusively - belong to the species E. gingivalis and that the presence of the parasite is correlated with periodontitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Counts of missing teeth or measures of incident tooth loss are gaining attention as a simple way to measure dental status in large population studies. We explore the meaning of these metrics and how missing teeth might influence other measures of dental status. METHODS:An observational study was performed in 2 contrasting adult populations. In total, 62 522 adult participants were available with clinically assessed caries and periodontal indices from the Swedish arm of the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints Study (GLIDE) and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in the Republic of Korea. Longitudinal measures of tooth loss were available for 28 244 participants in GLIDE with median follow-up of 10.6 years. RESULTS:In longitudinal analysis, hazard for tooth loss was associated with baseline dental status (previous tooth loss, periodontal status and caries status) and socio-demographic variables (age, smoking status and highest educational level). Analysis of cross-sectional data suggested that indices of caries exposure were not independent of periodontal status. The strength and direction of association varied between groups, even for measures specifically intended to avoid measuring tooth loss. Individuals with impaired periodontal health (community periodontal index [CPI] 3 or higher in any sextant) had higher standardized decayed and filled surfaces (DFS; number of DFS divided by total number of tooth surfaces) in GLIDE (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.05 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.07], but lower standardized DFS in KNHANES (IRR: 0.95 [0.92, 0.98]) than individuals with better periodontal health (CPI <3 in all sextants). CONCLUSIONS:Incident tooth loss is a complex measure of dental disease, with multiple determinants. The relative importance of dental caries and periodontal disease as drivers of tooth loss differs between age groups. Measures of dental caries exposure are associated with periodontal status in the studied populations, and these associations can be population-specific. Consideration of the study-specific properties of these metrics may be required for valid inference in large population studies.