Investigating the Perceptions of Primary Care Dietitians on the Potential for Information Technology in the Workplace: Qualitative Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Chronic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary health care setting is an effective avenue for the management and prevention of chronic diseases. Dietitians working in this setting assist with the management of modifiable risk factors of chronic diseases. However, health care professionals report challenges in providing care in this setting because of time and financial constraints. Information technology offers the potential to improve health care quality, safety, efficiency, and cost-efficiency, but there exists limited understanding of dietitians' application of technology in this setting. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of primary care dietitians about using information technology in their workplace. METHODS:We recruited 20 Australian primary care dietitians using purposive and snowball sampling for semistructured telephonic interviews. Interview questions aimed to gain an understanding of dietitians' perceptions about sharing patient outcomes through a national database and the benefits, disadvantages, feasibility, and barriers of using information technology. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed for emerging themes and subthemes. Finally, the technologies used by participants were collated by name and researched for their key attributes. RESULTS:The following 4 distinct themes emerged from the data: information technology improving the efficiency of practice tasks, experiencing barriers to using information technology in practice, information technology enhancing outcomes through education and monitoring, and information technology for sharing information with others. Participants identified several advantages and disadvantages of using technology and expressed willingness to share patient outcomes using a Web-based database. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that information technology is perceived to have benefits to dietitians and patients in primary health care. However, to achieve the optimal benefit, support is required to overcome barriers to integrate information technology into practice better. Further development of patient management systems and standardized Web-based data collection systems are needed to support better usage by dietitians.
Project description:Care of patients with diabetes often occurs in the context of other chronic illness. Competing disease priorities and competing patient-physician priorities present challenges in the provision of care for the complex patient. Guideline implementation interventions to date do not acknowledge these intricacies of clinical practice. As a result, patients and providers are left overwhelmed and paralyzed by the sheer volume of recommendations and tasks. An individualized approach to the patient with diabetes and multiple comorbid conditions using shared decision-making (SDM) and goal setting has been advocated as a patient-centred approach that may facilitate prioritization of treatment options. Furthermore, incorporating interprofessional integration into practice may overcome barriers to implementation. However, these strategies have not been taken up extensively in clinical practice.To systematically develop and test an interprofessional SDM and goal-setting toolkit for patients with diabetes and other chronic diseases, following the Knowledge to Action framework.1. Feasibility study: Individual interviews with primary care physicians, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and patients with diabetes will be conducted, exploring their experiences with shared decision-making and priority-setting, including facilitators and barriers, the relevance of a decision aid and toolkit for priority-setting, and how best to integrate it into practice.2. Toolkit development: Based on this data, an evidence-based multi-component SDM toolkit will be developed. The toolkit will be reviewed by content experts (primary care, endocrinology, geriatricians, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, patients) for accuracy and comprehensiveness.3. Heuristic evaluation: A human factors engineer will review the toolkit and identify, list and categorize usability issues by severity.4. Usability testing: This will be done using cognitive task analysis.5. Iterative refinement: Throughout the development process, the toolkit will be refined through several iterative cycles of feedback and redesign.Interprofessional shared decision-making regarding priority-setting with the use of a decision aid toolkit may help prioritize care of individuals with multiple comorbid conditions. Adhering to principles of user-centered design, we will develop and refine a toolkit to assess the feasibility of this approach.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To explore exercise professionals' perspectives on technology integration for balance and mobility assessment practices in retirement and long-term care.<h4>Setting</h4>A private residential care organization in Ontario, Canada, with 18 sites providing accommodation and services for older adults.<h4>Design</h4>A qualitative descriptive approach was used including semistructured focus group interviews. Open-ended questions explored perceptions of technology integration along with factors influencing its adoption. Analysis involved preliminary coding based on research questions, review and discussion of emerging themes, and final, resultant coding for each category.<h4>Participants</h4>Exercise professionals (kinesiologists and exercise therapists) (N=18).<h4>Interventions</h4>Not applicable.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Not applicable.<h4>Results</h4>All participants felt that technology could enhance their practice by supporting programming, communication, and/or information management. Potential barriers to technology integration related primarily to the need to accommodate the broad range of complex health conditions present among clients, which would impact (1) their ability to engage with the technology and (2) relevance of technology-derived outcomes. Specific concerns related to individuals with significant cognitive and/or functional impairment. Solutions to these barriers emphasized the need for flexible technology and appropriate normative data to maximize the potential for uptake.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The participating exercise professionals working in a retirement and long-term care setting saw technology as a potentially effective addition to current clinical practice. To increase the likelihood for clinical uptake, technology must be maximize flexibility in order to accommodate a wide range of physical and cognitive abilities and meet specific needs related to setting and job responsibilities. The findings emphasize the need for continuous dialogue between technology producers and end users for successful development and implementation.
Project description:Digital information technologies are increasingly used in the treatment of mental health disorders. Through this qualitative study, researchers illuminated perspectives, experiences, and practices among diverse stakeholders in the use of digital information technologies in the management of depression and alcohol use disorders in Colombia. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in five primary care institutions across Colombia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The use of technology in the treatment of mental health disorders can facilitate the evaluation and diagnosis, treatment, and promotion and prevention of mental health disorders, as well as multiple nonmental health applications in the primary care setting. Potential barriers to the use of technology in this setting include challenges of digital literacy, access to technology, confidentiality, and financing. This study can inform the implementation of digital information technologies in the care of depression and problematic alcohol use within health care systems in Colombia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An individualized approach using shared decision-making (SDM) and goal setting is a person-centred strategy that may facilitate prioritization of treatment options. SDM has not been adopted extensively in clinical practice. An interprofessional approach to SDM with tools to facilitate patient participation may overcome barriers to SDM use. The aim was to explore decision-making experiences of health professionals and people with diabetes (PwD), then develop an intervention to facilitate interprofessional shared decision-making (IP-SDM) and goal-setting. METHODS:This was a multi-phased study. 1) Feasibility: Using a descriptive qualitative study, individual interviews with primary care physicians, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and PwD were conducted. The interviews explored their experiences with SDM and priority-setting, including facilitators and barriers, relevance of a decision aid for priority-setting, and integration of SDM and a decision aid into practice. 2) Development: An evidence-based SDM toolkit was developed, consisting of an online decision aid, MyDiabetesPlan, and implementation tools. MyDiabetesPlan was reviewed by content experts for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Usability assessment was done with 3) heuristic evaluation and 4) user testing, followed by 5) refinement. RESULTS:Seven PwD and 10 clinicians participated in the interviews. From interviews with PwD, we identified that: (1) approaches to decision-making were diverse and dynamic; (2) a trusting relationship with the clinician and dialog were critical precursors to SDM; and, (3) goal-setting was a dynamic process. From clinicians, we found: (1) complementary (holistic and disease specific) approaches to the complex patient were used; (2) patient-provider agendas for goal-setting were often conflicting; (3) a flexible approach to decision-making was needed; and, (4) conflict could be resolved through SDM. Following usability assessment, we redesigned MyDiabetesPlan to consist of data collection and recommendation stages. Findings were used to finalize a multi-component toolkit and implementation strategy, consisting of MyDiabetesPlan, instructional card and videos, and orientation meetings with participating patients and clinicians. CONCLUSIONS:A decision aid can provide information, facilitate clinician-patient dialog and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Implementation of the decision aid can fit into a model of team care that respects and exemplifies professional identity, and can facilitate intra-team communication. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02379078. Date of Registration: 11 February 2015.
Project description:Advancements in technology are enabling patients to participate in their health care through self-monitoring and self-management of diet, exercise and chronic disease. Technologies allowing patients to participate in hospital care are still emerging but show promise. Our team is developing a program by which hospitalised patients can participate in their nutrition care. This study explores hospital staffs' perceptions of using this technology to engage patients in their care.This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with hospital staff providing routine nutrition care to patients (i.e. dietitians, nutrition assistants, nurses, doctors and foodservice staff) from five wards at a tertiary metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. The hospital currently uses an electronic foodservice system (EFS) for patient meal ordering, accessed through personal screens at the bedside. Participants were shown the EFS program on an iPad and asked about their perceptions of the program, with questions from a semi-structured interview guide. Staff were interviewed individually or in small focus groups. Interviews lasted 15-30 min and were audio recorded and later transcribed. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.Nineteen staff participated in interviews. Overall, they expressed positive views of the EFS program and wanted it to be implemented in practice. Their responses formed three themes, each with a number of subthemes: 1) Enacting patient participation in practice; 2) Optimising nutrition care; and 3) Considerations for implementing an EFS program in practice. Staff thought the program would improve various aspects of nutrition care and enable patient participation in care. Whilst they raised some concerns, they focused on overcoming barriers and facilitating implementation if the program were to be adopted into practice.Staff found an EFS program designed to engage patients in their nutrition care acceptable, as they saw benefits to using it for both patients and staff. Staff recognised characteristics of the program itself, as well as allocation of roles and responsibilities in operationalising it, were pivotal for successful implementation in practice. Their perspectives will inform program and intervention design, and implementation and evaluation strategies.
Project description:Background:Compromised nutritional intake due to eating disorder related behaviors, such as binge eating and purging, can lead to multi-system medical complications, including an irreversible impact on oral health. However, dental anxiety, fear or embarrassment may hinder individuals with an eating disorder from seeking assistance for their oral health concerns. As key health professionals in eating disorder treatment, dietitians are well positioned to provide basic dental screening, however, their capacity to perform this role in practice has not been established. The aim of this review was to identify current evidence on the role of dietitians in promoting oral health among individuals with eating disorders. Methods:A comprehensive search of eight electronic databases and the grey literature was conducted to address the following three focus areas: 1) guidelines and recommendations on the role of dietitians in oral health 2) knowledge, attitudes and practices of dietitians regarding oral health promotion and; 3) current models of oral health care and resources for dietitians. Results:Twelve articles were included. The review indicated that current national and international position statements encourage dietitians to conduct basic oral health screening and promote oral health in high risk populations, such as those with an eating disorder. However, no evidence was found to indicate dietitians performed oral health screening or education in populations with an eating disorder. In other population settings, dietitians were found to play a role in oral health promotion, however, were noted to have mixed knowledge on oral health risk factors, prevention and treatment and generally were not providing referrals. Some oral health promotion resources existed for dietitians working in pediatric, HIV and geriatric clinical areas however no resources were identified for dietitians working in eating disorder settings. Conclusion:Despite current evidence showing that dietitians can play a role in oral health care, no models of care exist where dietitians promote oral health among individuals with an eating disorder. There are also no training resources and screening tools for dietitians in this area. Further research is required to develop this model of care and assess its feasibility and acceptability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The National Health Service (NHS) Long-Term Plan has set out a vision of enabling patients to access digital interactions with health care professionals within 5 years, including by video link. OBJECTIVE:This review aimed to examine the extent and nature of the use of patient-facing teleconsultations within a health care setting in the United Kingdom and what outcome measures have been assessed. METHODS:We conducted a systematic scoping review of teleconsultation studies following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched up to the end of December 2018 for publications that reported on the use of patient-facing teleconsultations in a UK health care setting. RESULTS:The search retrieved 3132 publications, of which 101 were included for a full review. Overall, the studies were heterogeneous in design, in the specialty assessed, and reported outcome measures. The technology used for teleconsultations changed over time with earlier studies employing bespoke, often expensive, solutions. Two-thirds of the studies, conducted between 1995 and 2005, used this method. Later studies transitioned to Web-based commercial solutions such as Skype. There were five outcome measures that were assessed: (1) technical feasibility, (2) user satisfaction, (3) clinical effectiveness, (4) cost, (5) logistical and operational considerations. Due to the changing nature of technology over time, there were differing technical issues across the studies. Generally, teleconsultations were acceptable to patients, but this was less consistent among health care professionals. However, among both groups, face-to-face consultations were still seen as the gold standard. A wide range of clinical scenarios found teleconsultations to be clinically useful but potentially limited to more straightforward clinical interactions. Due to the wide array of study types and changes in technology over time, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the cost involved. However, cost savings for health care providers have been demonstrated by the goal-directed implementation of teleconsultations. The integration of technology into routine practice represents a complex problem with barriers identified in funding and hospital reimbursement, information technologies infrastructure, and integration into clinicians' workflow. CONCLUSIONS:Teleconsultations appear to be safe and effective in the correct clinical situations. Where offered, it is likely that patients will be keen to engage, although teleconsultations should only be offered as an option to support traditional care models rather than replace them outright. Health care staff should be encouraged and supported in using teleconsultations to diversify their practice. Health care organizations need to consider developing a digital technology strategy and implementation groups to assist health care staff to integrate digitally enabled care into routine practice. The introduction of new technologies should be assessed after a set period with service evaluations, including feedback from key stakeholders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Technological support may be crucial in optimizing healthcare professional practice and improving patient outcomes. A focus on electronic health records has left other technological supports relatively neglected. Additionally, there has been no comparison between different types of technology-based interventions, and the importance of delivery setting on the implementation of technology-based interventions to change professional practice. Consequently, there is a need to synthesise and examine intervention characteristics using a methodology suited to identifying important features of effective interventions, and the barriers and facilitators to implementation. Three aims were addressed: to identify interventions with a technological component that are successful at changing professional practice, to determine if and how such interventions are theory-based, and to examine barriers and facilitators to successful implementation. METHODS:A literature review informed by realist review methods was conducted involving a systematic search of studies reporting either: (1) behavior change interventions that included technology to support professional practice change; or (2) barriers and facilitators to implementation of technological interventions. Extracted data was quantitative and qualitative, and included setting, target professionals, and use of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs). The primary outcome was a change in professional practice. A thematic analysis was conducted on studies reporting barriers and facilitators of implementation. RESULTS:Sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria; 48 (27 randomized controlled trials) reported behavior change interventions and 21 reported practicalities of implementation. The most successful technological intervention was decision support providing healthcare professionals with knowledge and/or person-specific information to assist with patient management. Successful technologies were more likely to operationalise BCTs, particularly "instruction on how to perform the behavior". Facilitators of implementation included aligning studies with organisational initiatives, ensuring senior peer endorsement, and integration into clinical workload. Barriers included organisational challenges, and design, content and technical issues of technology-based interventions. CONCLUSIONS:Technological interventions must focus on providing decision support for clinical practice using recognized behavior change techniques. Interventions must consider organizational context, clinical workload, and have clearly defined benefits for improving practice and patient outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is increasing recognition that health care professionals often fail to provide meaningful obesity care in routine clinical practice. There is scant information on how to support practice change. The objective of the 5AsT trial was to assess whether a co-created educational intervention would increase the quantity of obesity visits conducted by family practice nurses. METHODS:We conducted a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed-methods evaluation in a primary care network in Alberta, Canada. The intervention, based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and 5As of Obesity Management, included 12 2-hour interactive educational sessions from November 2013 to April 2014. Twenty-four teams of nurses, mental health workers and dietitians were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or regular training. The primary outcome measure was the rate ratio of nurse visits for adult obesity care to total clinical visits. Qualitative thematic analysis was previously used to identify barriers and facilitators to intervention uptake. In this study, mixed-methods analysis assessed the impact of these factors on individual nurses' outcomes. RESULTS:There was no significant increase in visits over the 6-month intervention (rate ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.03) nor the 9-month post-intervention period (rate ratio 1.38, 95% CI 0.87-2.19). However, provider confidence, views of obesity management, role identity and team and patient relationships were found to affect individual nurses' uptake of the intervention. INTERPRETATION:Although the intervention did not demonstrate a significant increase in nurse visits for obesity care, this study provides insights into health care practitioners' challenges in changing their approach to obesity management. To improve provider capacity to change effectively within their teams, interventions need to foster not only provider knowledge but also confidence. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01967797.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In this study, the authors sought to explore the receptivity, preparedness, and rates of adoption of integrated medical-dental models of care (MOCs) in the practice setting among primary care providers (PCPs) treating patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS:The authors conducted an anonymous statewide survey targeting PCPs across a range of Wisconsin-based practice settings to evaluate knowledgeability, attitude, practice behaviors, and perceived barriers to oral health screening in a medical setting. Qualitative analytical approaches included thematic analyses applied to evaluate the status of and barriers to integrated medical-dental MOC adoption. RESULTS:The integrated medical-dental MOC adoption rate was 34%. Top perceived barriers to integrated medical-dental MOC adoption included insurance coverage (71%) and care access (70%). A total of 39% indicated competency for educating patients about the association between DM and periodontitis. Although 72% of PCPs indicated optimal periodicity for oral health assessment as frequent, 39% reported frequently conducting such assessments. CONCLUSIONS:Although PCPs indicate receptivity to integrated medical-dental MOCs, PCPs identify suboptimal education, lack of adequate training in oral-systemic disease assessment, and barriers to oral health care access as barriers to integrated medical-dental MOC adoption. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:Integrated medical-dental MOC adoption in care delivery to patients with DM remains below average. Interdisciplinary efforts and education are needed to address identified barriers to care integration.