The Nucleolar Protein LYAR Facilitates Ribonucleoprotein Assembly of Influenza A Virus.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) is responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome in infected cells and depends on host factors for its functions. Identification of the host factors interacting with vRNP not only improves understanding of virus-host interactions but also provides insights into novel mechanisms of viral pathogenicity and the development of new antiviral strategies. Here, we have identified 80 host factors that copurified with vRNP using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry. LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, has been shown to be important for influenza A virus replication. During influenza A virus infection, LYAR expression is increased and partly translocates from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Furthermore, LYAR interacts with RNP subunits, resulting in enhancing viral RNP assembly, thereby facilitating viral RNA synthesis. Taken together, our studies identify a novel vRNP binding host partner important for influenza A virus replication and further reveal the mechanism of LYAR regulating influenza A viral RNA synthesis by facilitating viral RNP assembly.IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) must utilize the host cell machinery to replicate, but many of the mechanisms of IAV-host interaction remain poorly understood. Improved understanding of interactions between host factors and vRNP not only increases our basic knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenicity but also provides insights into possible novel antiviral targets that are necessary due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant IAV strains. Here, we have identified LYAR, a cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein, which interacts with viral RNP components and is important for efficient replication of IAVs and whose role in the IAV life cycle has never been reported. In addition, we further reveal the role of LYAR in viral RNA synthesis. Our results extend and improve current knowledge on the mechanisms of IAV transcription and replication.
Project description:The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) of the influenza A virus (IAV) is responsible for the viral RNA transcription and replication in the nucleus, and its functions rely on host factors. Previous studies have indicated that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (eEF1D) may associate with RNP subunits, but its roles in IAV replication are unclear. Herein, we showed that eEF1D was an inhibitor of IAV replication because knockout of eEF1D resulted in a significant increase in virus yield. eEF1D interacted with RNP subunits polymerase acidic protein (PA), polymerase basic 1 (PB1), polymerase basic 2 (PB2), and also with nucleoprotein (NP) in an RNA-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that eEF1D impeded the nuclear import of NP and PA-PB1 heterodimer of IAV, thereby suppressing the vRNP assembly, viral polymerase activity, and viral RNA synthesis. Together, our studies demonstrate eEF1D negatively regulating the IAV replication by inhibition of the nuclear import of RNP subunits, which not only uncovers a novel role of eEF1D in IAV replication but also provides new insights into the mechanisms of nuclear import of vRNP proteins.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Influenza A virus is the major cause of influenza, a respiratory disease in humans and animals. Different from most other RNA viruses, the transcription and replication of IAV occur in the cell nucleus. Therefore, the vRNPs must be imported into the nucleus for viral transcription and replication, which requires participation of host proteins. However, the mechanisms of the IAV-host interactions involved in nuclear import remain poorly understood. Here, we identified eEF1D as a novel inhibitor for the influenza virus life cycle. Importantly, eEF1D impaired the interaction between NP and importin α5 and the interaction between PB1 and RanBP5, which impeded the nuclear import of vRNP. Our studies not only reveal the molecular mechanisms of the nuclear import of IAV vRNP but also provide potential anti-influenza targets for antiviral development.
Project description:The role of microRNA (miRNA) in influenza A virus (IAV) host species specificity is not well understood as yet. Here, we show that a host miRNA, miR-1290, is induced through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway upon IAV infection and is associated with increased viral titers in human cells and ferret animal models. miR-1290 was observed to target and reduce expression of the host vimentin gene. Vimentin binds with the PB2 subunit of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein (vRNP), and knockdown of vimentin expression significantly increased vRNP nuclear retention and viral polymerase activity. Interestingly, miR-1290 was not detected in either chicken cells or mouse animal models, and the 3' UTR of the chicken vimentin gene contains no binding site for miR-1290. These findings point to a host species-specific mechanism by which IAV upregulates miR-1290 to disrupt vimentin expression and retain vRNP in the nucleus, thereby enhancing viral polymerase activity and viral replication.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) is a worldwide ongoing health threat causing diseases in both humans and animals. The interaction between IAV and host is a dynamic and evolving process that influences the pathogenicity and host specificity of the virus. TRIM14, a member of tripartite motif (TRIM) family, has been demonstrated to possess a strong capability of regulating type I interferon and NF-?B induction in host defense against viral infection. In this study, we found that TRIM14 could restrict the replication of IAV in a type I interferon and NF-?B independent manner. Mechanistically, different domains of TRIM14 could selectively interact with the viral nucleoprotein (NP), resulting in disparate influences on the RNP formation and viral replication. In particular, the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM14 exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on NP protein stability and IAV replication. On the contrary, the ?S2 domain could rather antagonize the function of PRYSPRY domain and promote the IAV RNP formation by stabilizing NP. At the biochemical level, TRIM14-NP interaction could induce the K48-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NP. Moreover, due to the rapid degradation of newly synthesized NP, TRIM14 could effectively block the translocation of NP from cytoplasm to nucleus thus further restrain the propagation of IAV in host cells. Taken together, our study has unraveled a previously unknown mechanism of TRIM14 mediated inhibition on RNP formation and influenza virus replication, and provides a new paradigm of complex and multifaceted host-pathogen interaction between ISG and viral protein.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is still a major global threat for humans, especially for the risk groups: young children and the elderly. The currently licensed antiviral drugs target viral factors and are prone to viral resistance. In recent years, a few endogenous small molecules from host, such as estradiol and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediator protection D1 (PD1), were demonstrated to be capable of inhibiting IAV infection. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), one of the main primary bile acids, is synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and classically functions in emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. Clinically, CDCA has been used in the treatment of patients with cholesterol gallstones for more than five decades. In this study, we showed that CDCA attenuated the replication of three subtypes of influenza A virus, including a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, in A549 and MDCK cell cultures with IC50 ranging from 5.5 to 11.5 ?M. Mechanistically, CDCA effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. In conclusion, as an endogenous physiological small molecule, CDCA can inhibit IAV replication in vitro, at least in part, by blocking vRNP nuclear export, and affords further studies for development as a potential antiviral agent against IAV infections.
Project description:A unique feature of influenza A virus (IAV) life cycle is replication of the viral genome in the host cell nucleus. The nuclear import of IAV genome is an indispensable step in establishing virus infection. IAV nucleoprotein (NP) is known to mediate the nuclear import of viral genome via its nuclear localization signals. Here, we demonstrate that cellular heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40/DnaJB1) facilitates the nuclear import of incoming IAV viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and is important for efficient IAV replication. Hsp40 was found to interact with NP component of IAV RNPs during early stages of infection. This interaction is mediated by the J domain of Hsp40 and N-terminal region of NP. Drug or RNAi mediated inhibition of Hsp40 resulted in reduced nuclear import of IAV RNPs, diminished viral polymerase function and attenuates overall viral replication. Hsp40 was also found to be required for efficient association between NP and importin alpha, which is crucial for IAV RNP nuclear translocation. These studies demonstrate an important role for cellular chaperone Hsp40/DnaJB1 in influenza A virus life cycle by assisting nuclear trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins.
Project description:The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) of influenza A virus is formed by virion RNA (vRNA), viral polymerase complex, and nucleoprotein (NP). The NP plays an important role in facilitating the replication and stabilization of viral RNA. To explore host factors that may be involved in the regulation of viral replication through interactions with NP, we conducted an immunoprecipitation experiment followed by mass spectrometry to identify NP-associated cellular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that NP can interact and colocalize with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 in mammalian cells and that the interaction may occur via direct binding to the glycine-rich domain (GRD) of hnRNP A2/B1. In addition, two residues in the tail loop of NP, F412 and R422, are required for the interaction of hnRNP A2/B1. Because the knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 expression reduces viral RNP activity, hnRNP A2/B1 may act as a positive regulator in viral RNA synthesis of influenza A virus. More importantly, the findings in this research demonstrate that host proteins can regulate the replication of influenza A virus by interacting with NP.
Project description:The innate immune response is vital for host defense and must be tightly controlled, but the mechanisms responsible for its negative regulation are not fully understood. The cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein LYAR was found to promote replication of multiple viruses in our previous study. Here, we report that LYAR acts as a negative regulator of innate immune responses. We found that LYAR expression is induced by beta interferon (IFN-?) during virus infection. Further studies showed that LYAR interacts with phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) to impede the DNA binding capacity of IRF3, thereby suppressing the transcription of IFN-? and downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition, LYAR inhibits nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, our study reveals the mechanism of LYAR in modulating IFN-?-mediated innate immune responses by targeting phosphorylated IRF3, which not only helps us to better understand the mechanisms of LYAR-regulated virus replication but also uncovers a novel role of LYAR in host innate immunity.IMPORTANCE Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays a critical role in the antiviral innate immune responses that protect the host against virus infection. The negative regulators of IFN-I are important not only for fine-tuning the antiviral responses to pathogens but also for preventing excessive inflammation. Identification of negative regulators and study of their modulation in innate immune responses will lead to new strategies for the control of both viral and inflammatory diseases. Here, we report for the first time that the cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein LYAR behaves as a repressor of host innate immune responses. We demonstrate that LYAR negatively regulates IFN-?-mediated immune responses by inhibiting the DNA binding ability of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Our study reveals a common mechanism of LYAR in promoting different virus replication events and improves our knowledge of host negative regulation of innate immune responses.
Project description:The influenza A viruses genome comprises eight single-stranded RNA segments of negative polarity. Each one is included in a ribonucleoprotein particle (vRNP) containing the polymerase complex and a number of nucleoprotein (NP) monomers. Viral RNA replication proceeds by formation of a complementary RNP of positive polarity (cRNP) that serves as intermediate to generate many progeny vRNPs. Transcription initiation takes place by a cap-snatching mechanism whereby the polymerase steals a cellular capped oligonucleotide and uses it as primer to copy the vRNP template. Transcription termination occurs prematurely at the polyadenylation signal, which the polymerase copies repeatedly to generate a 3'-terminal polyA. Here we studied the mechanisms of the viral RNA replication and transcription. We used efficient systems for recombinant RNP transcription/replication in vivo and well-defined polymerase mutants deficient in either RNA replication or transcription to address the roles of the polymerase complex present in the template RNP and newly synthesised polymerase complexes during replication and transcription. The results of trans-complementation experiments showed that soluble polymerase complexes can synthesise progeny RNA in trans and become incorporated into progeny vRNPs, but only transcription in cis could be detected. These results are compatible with a new model for virus RNA replication, whereby a template RNP would be replicated in trans by a soluble polymerase complex and a polymerase complex distinct from the replicative enzyme would direct the encapsidation of progeny vRNA. In contrast, transcription of the vRNP would occur in cis and the resident polymerase complex would be responsible for mRNA synthesis and polyadenylation.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Influenza A virus (IAV) depends on cellular factors to complete its replication cycle; thus, investigation of the factors utilized by IAV may facilitate antiviral drug development. To this end, a cellular transcriptional repressor, DR1, was identified from a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. Knockdown (KD) of DR1 resulted in reductions of viral RNA and protein production, demonstrating that DR1 acts as a positive host factor in IAV replication. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis showed that there was a strong induction of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression after prolonged DR1 KD. We found that beta interferon (IFN-?) was induced by DR1 KD, thereby activating the JAK-STAT pathway to turn on ISG expression, which led to a strong inhibition of IAV replication. This result suggests that DR1 in normal cells suppresses IFN induction, probably to prevent undesired cytokine production, but that this suppression may create a milieu that favors IAV replication once cells are infected. Furthermore, biochemical assays of viral RNA replication showed that DR1 KD suppressed viral RNA replication. We also showed that DR1 associated with all three subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex, indicating that DR1 may interact with individual components of the viral RdRp complex to enhance viral RNA replication. Thus, DR1 may be considered a novel host susceptibility gene for IAV replication via a dual mechanism, not only suppressing the host defense to indirectly favor IAV replication but also directly facilitating viral RNA replication.<h4>Importance</h4>Investigations of virus-host interactions involved in influenza A virus (IAV) replication are important for understanding viral pathogenesis and host defenses, which may manipulate influenza virus infection or prevent the emergence of drug resistance caused by a high error rate during viral RNA replication. For this purpose, a cellular transcriptional repressor, DR1, was identified from a genome-wide RNAi screen as a positive regulator in IAV replication. In the current studies, we showed that DR1 suppressed the gene expression of a large set of host innate immunity genes, which indirectly facilitated IAV replication in the event of IAV infection. Besides this scenario, DR1 also directly enhanced the viral RdRp activity, likely through associating with individual components of the viral RdRp complex. Thus, DR1 represents a novel host susceptibility gene for IAV replication via multiple functions, not only suppressing the host defense but also enhancing viral RNA replication. DR1 may be a potential target for drug development against influenza virus infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in the replication and transcription of the viral genome. Therefore, examining host factors that interact with NP may shed light on the mechanism of host restriction barriers and the tissue tropism of influenza A virus. Here, Cyclophilin E (CypE), a member of the peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, was found to bind to NP and inhibit viral replication and transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, CypE was found to interact with NP but not with the other components of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (VRNP): PB1, PB2, and PA. Mutagenesis data revealed that the CypE domain comprised of residues 137-186 is responsible for its binding to NP. Functional analysis results indicated that CypE is a negative regulator in the influenza virus life cycle. Furthermore, knock-down of CypE resulted in increased levels of three types of viral RNA, suggesting that CypE negatively affects viral replication and transcription. Moreover, up-regulation of CypE inhibited the activity of influenza viral polymerase. We determined that the molecular mechanism by which CypE negatively regulates influenza virus replication and transcription is by interfering with NP self-association and the NP-PB1 and NP-PB2 interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CypE is a host restriction factor that inhibits the functions of NP, as well as viral replication and transcription, by impairing the formation of the vRNP. The data presented here will help us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of host restriction barriers, host adaptation, and tissue tropism of influenza A virus.