Pilot Safety Evaluation of a Novel Strain of Bacteroides ovatus.
ABSTRACT: Bacteroides ovatus ELH-B2 is considered as a potential next-generation probiotic due to its preventive effects on lipopolysaccharides-associated inflammation and intestinal microbiota disorders in mice. To study safety issues associated with B. ovatus ELH-B2, we conducted comprehensive and systematic experiments, including in vitro genetic assessments of potential virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, and an in vivo acute toxicity study of both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mice via cyclophosphamide treatment. The results indicated that this novel strain is non-toxigenic, fragilysin is not expressed, and most of potential virulence genes are correlated with cellular structures such as capsular polysaccharide and polysaccharide utilizations. The antibiotic resistance features are unlikely be transferred to other intestinal microorganisms as no plasmids nor related genomic islands were identified. Side effects were not observed in mice. B. ovatus ELH-B2 also alleviated the damages caused by cyclophosphamide injection.
Project description:Yeast mannan (YM) is an indigestible water-soluble polysaccharide of the yeast cell wall, with a notable prebiotic effect on the intestinal microbiota. We previously reported that YM increased Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron abundance in in vitro rat faeces fermentation, concluding that its effects on human colonic microbiota should be investigated. In this study, we show the effects of YM on human colonic microbiota and its metabolites using an in vitro human faeces fermentation system. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that YM administration did not change the microbial diversity or composition. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that YM administration significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides ovatus and B. thetaiotaomicron. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the relative ratio (with or without YM administration) of B. thetaiotaomicron and B. ovatus (r?=?0.92), suggesting that these bacteria utilise YM in a coordinated manner. In addition, YM administration increased the production of acetate, propionate, and total short-chain fatty acids. These results demonstrate the potential of YM as a novel prebiotic that selectively increases B. thetaiotaomicron and B. ovatus and improves the intestinal environment. The findings also provide insights that might be useful for the development of novel functional foods.
Project description:A recently identified polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483 is transcriptionally up-regulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) ?-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 ?-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan-binding proteins, confirmed by ?-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides. BoMan26B had higher activity on galactomannan with a high degree of galactosyl substitution and was shown to be endo-acting generating a more diverse mixture of oligosaccharides, including mannobiose. Of the two ?-mannanases, only BoMan26B hydrolyzed galactoglucomannan. A crystal structure of BoMan26A revealed a similar structure to the exo-mannobiohydrolase CjMan26C from Cellvibrio japonicus, with a conserved glycone region (-1 and -2 subsites), including a conserved loop closing the active site beyond subsite -2. Analysis of cellular location by immunolabeling and fluorescence microscopy suggests that BoMan26B is surface-exposed and associated with the outer membrane, although BoMan26A and BoGal36A are likely periplasmic. In light of the cellular location and the biochemical properties of the two characterized ?-mannanases, we propose a scheme of sequential action by the glycoside hydrolases encoded by the ?-mannan PUL and involved in the ?-mannan utilization pathway in B. ovatus. The outer membrane-associated BoMan26B initially acts on the polysaccharide galactomannan, producing comparably large oligosaccharide fragments. Galactomanno-oligosaccharides are further processed in the periplasm, degalactosylated by BoGal36A, and subsequently hydrolyzed into mainly mannobiose by the ?-mannanase BoMan26A.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. RESULTS: UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. CONCLUSION: The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of Bacteroides ovatus V975 was determined. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,475,296 bp containing five rRNA operons, 68 tRNA genes, and 4,959 coding genes.
Project description:To understand the effect of woody forages on golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) intestinal bacteria diversity and exploit new aquafeed ingredients, the diets of Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), Broussonetia papyrifera (BP), Neolamarckia cadamba (NC) and Folium mori (FM) formulated with 70% of reference (Ref) diet and 30% of the four woody plants leaves were fed to golden pompano with initial body weight of 34.4 ± 0.5 g for 56 days, respectively. Bacteria diversity of golden pompano intestine and tank water (W) samples were analyzed using high-throughput illumina sequencing and the result indicated that the dominate phyla of golden pompano intestine were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria. Proteobacteria in BP was significantly higher than those in NC (P < 0.05). Firmicutes in NC were significantly higher than those in BP and FM (P < 0.05). At genera level, Lactobacillus in NC was significantly higher than those in BP, MOL and FM groups (P < 0.05). The PCoA and heat map analyses showed that the intestinal bacteria community of golden pompano fed with woody forages and Ref diet presented higher similarity and the bacteria community of golden pompano intestine were clearly distinguished from those of W. Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states showed that the intestinal bacteria dominant metabolism pathways of golden pompano fed with woody forages and Ref diet were biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism. Overall, the present study first successfully characterized the intestinal bacteria diversity of golden pompano.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic strains of Bacteroides fragilis produce an extracellular metalloprotease toxin (termed fragilysin) which is cytopathic to intestinal epithelial cells and induces fluid secretion and tissue damage in ligated intestinal loops. We report here that the fragilysin gene is contained within a small genetic element termed the fragilysin pathogenicity islet. The pathogenicity islet of B. fragilis VPI 13784 was defined as 6,033 bp in length and contained nearly perfect 12-bp direct repeats near its ends. Sequencing across the ends of the pathogenicity islet from two additional enterotoxigenic strains, along with PCR analysis of 20 additional enterotoxigenic strains, revealed that the islet is inserted at a specific site on the B. fragilis chromosome. The site of integration in three nontoxigenic strains contained a 17-bp GC-rich sequence which was not present in toxigenic strains and may represent a target sequence for chromosomal integration. In addition to the fragilysin gene, we identified an open reading frame encoding a predicted protein with a size and structural features similar to those of fragilysin. The deduced amino acid sequence was 28.5% identical and 56.3% similar to fragilysin and contained a nearly identical zinc-binding motif and methionine-turn region.
Project description:Symbiotic bacteria inhabiting the distal human gut have evolved under intense pressure to utilize complex carbohydrates, predominantly plant cell wall glycans abundant in our diets. These substrates are recalcitrant to depolymerization by digestive enzymes encoded in the human genome, but are efficiently targeted by some of the ~103-104 bacterial species that inhabit this niche. These species augment our comparatively narrow carbohydrate digestive capacity by unlocking otherwise unusable sugars and fermenting them into host-absorbable forms, such as short-chain fatty acids. We used phenotype profiling, whole-genome transcriptional analysis and molecular genetic approaches to investigate complex glycan utilization by two fully sequenced and closely related human gut symbionts: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides ovatus. Together these species target all of the common glycosidic linkages found in the plant cell wall, as well as host polysaccharides, but each species exhibits a unique ‘glycan niche’: in vitro B. thetaiotaomicron targets plant cell wall pectins in addition to linkages contained in host N- and O-glycans; B. ovatus uniquely targets hemicellulosic polysaccharides along with several pectins, but is deficient in host glycan utilization. Bacteroides ovatus bacteria were grown either in vitro on defined complex glycan sources, or in vivo in the intestinal tract of gnotobiotic mice fed variable diets. Increased in vitro gene expression was used to indicate the genes required for metabolism of complex glycans and compared to in vivo transcriptional activity to determine expression in the mouse gut.
Project description:Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis is the most frequent disease-causing anaerobe in the intestinal tract of humans and livestock and its specific virulence factor is fragilysin, also known as B. fragilis toxin. This is a 21-kDa zinc-dependent metallopeptidase existing in three closely related isoforms that hydrolyze E-cadherin and contribute to secretory diarrhea, and possibly to inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Here we studied the function and zymogenic structure of fragilysin-3 and found that its activity is repressed by a ?170-residue prodomain, which is the largest hitherto structurally characterized for a metallopeptidase. This prodomain plays a role in both the latency and folding stability of the catalytic domain and it has no significant sequence similarity to any known protein. The prodomain adopts a novel fold and inhibits the protease domain via an aspartate-switch mechanism. The catalytic fragilysin-3 moiety is active against several protein substrates and its structure reveals a new family prototype within the metzincin clan of metallopeptidases. It shows high structural similarity despite negligible sequence identity to adamalysins/ADAMs, which have only been described in eukaryotes. Because no similar protein has been found outside enterotoxigenic B. fragilis, our findings support that fragilysins derived from a mammalian adamalysin/ADAM xenolog that was co-opted by B. fragilis through a rare case of horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic cell to a bacterial cell. Subsequently, this co-opted peptidase was provided with a unique chaperone and latency maintainer in the time course of evolution to render a robust and dedicated toxin to compromise the intestinal epithelium of mammalian hosts.
Project description:The human gut microbiota, which underpins nutrition and systemic health, is compositionally sensitive to the availability of complex carbohydrates in the diet. The Bacteroidetes comprise a dominant phylum in the human gut microbiota whose members thrive on dietary and endogenous glycans by employing a diversity of highly specific, multi-gene polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL), which encode a variety of carbohydrases, transporters, and sensor/regulators. PULs invariably also encode surface glycan-binding proteins (SGBPs) that play a central role in saccharide capture at the outer membrane. Here, we present combined biophysical, structural, and in vivo characterization of the two SGBPs encoded by the Bacteroides ovatus mixed-linkage ?-glucan utilization locus (MLGUL), thereby elucidating their key roles in the metabolism of this ubiquitous dietary cereal polysaccharide. In particular, molecular insight gained through several crystallographic complexes of SGBP-A and SGBP-B with oligosaccharides reveals that unique shape complementarity of binding platforms underpins specificity for the kinked MLG backbone vis-à-vis linear ?-glucans. Reverse-genetic analysis revealed that both the presence and binding ability of the SusD homolog BoSGBPMLG-A are essential for growth on MLG, whereas the divergent, multi-domain BoSGBPMLG-B is dispensable but may assist in oligosaccharide scavenging from the environment. The synthesis of these data illuminates the critical role SGBPs play in concert with other MLGUL components, reveals new structure-function relationships among SGBPs, and provides fundamental knowledge to inform future (meta)genomic, biochemical, and microbiological analyses of the human gut microbiota.