Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Re-establish Cell Integrity Checkpoints and Apoptosis Competence in Irradiated HaCat Cells via Novel Redox-Independent Activity.
ABSTRACT: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are potent radical scavengers protecting cells from oxidative insults, including ionizing radiation. Here we show that CNPs prevent X-ray-induced oxidative imbalance reducing DNA breaks on HaCat keratinocytes, nearly abating mutagenesis. At the same time, and in spite of the reduced damage, CNPs strengthen radiation-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis outcome, dropping colony formation; notably, CNPs do not possess any intrinsic toxicity toward non-irradiated HaCat, indicating that they act on damaged cells. Thus CNPs, while exerting their antioxidant action, also reinforce the stringency of damage-induced cell integrity checkpoints, promoting elimination of the "tolerant" cells, being in fact radio-sensitizers. These two contrasting pathways are mediated by different activities of CNPs: indeed Sm-doped CNPs, which lack the Ce3+/Ce4+ redox switch and the correlated antioxidant action, fail to decrease radiation-induced superoxide formation, as expected, but surprisingly maintain the radio-sensitizing ability and the dramatic decrease of mutagenesis. The latter is thus attributable to elimination of damaged cells rather than decreased oxidative damage. This highlights a novel redox-independent activity of CNPs, allowing selectively eliminating heavily damaged cells through non-toxic mechanisms, rather reactivating endogenous anticancer pathways in transformed cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The skin provides a predominant barrier against chemical, physical and microbial incursion. The intemperate exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation can cause excessive cellular oxidative stress, leading to skin damage, proteins damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is sufficient evidences supporting the proposal that mitochondria is highly implicated in skin photo-damage. METHODS:In the present study, a polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus was further purified to be an ?-glucan, which was further investigated its beneficial influence on UVA-induced photo-damage in HaCaT cells. RESULTS:Our results showed that the purified Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AP) can protect HaCaT cells from UVA-induced photo-damage through reducing UVA-induced intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby altering ATP content. It was found that the UVA induced damage in HaCaT cells could be effectively restored by co-treatment with AP. CONCLUSIONS:AP exhibited promising potential for advanced application as multifunctional skin care products and drugs.
Project description:Oxidative stress due to excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis rhizome ethanol extract (SBRE) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line. Our results revealed that treatment with SBRE prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure significantly increased viability of HaCaT cells. SBRE also effectively attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation and inhibited the H2O2-induced phosphorylation levels of the histone γH2AX, as well as the number of apoptotic bodies and Annexin V-positive cells. In addition, SBRE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS generation and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential loss by H2O2. Moreover, H2O2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3 and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase, a typical substrate protein of activated caspase-3, as well as DNA fragmentation; however, these events were almost totally reversed by pretreatment with SBRE. Furthermore, SBRE increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is a potent antioxidant enzyme, associated with the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). According to our data, SBRE is able to protect HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis through blocking cellular damage related to oxidative stress through a mechanism that would affect ROS elimination and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.
Project description:Sunscreen formulations containing UVB filters, such as Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to limit the exposure of human skin to UV-radiations. Unfortunately, these UVB protective agents have failed in controlling the skin cancer incidence. We recently demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) could serve as novel protective agents against UVB-radiations. Here our goal was to perform comparative analysis of direct and indirect UVB-protection efficacy of ZnO-, TiO2- and Ag-NPs. Sun-protection-factor calculated based on their UVB-reflective/absorption abilities was the highest for TiO2-NPs followed by Ag- and ZnO-NPs. This was further confirmed by studying indirect protection of UVB radiation-induced death of HaCaT cells. However, only Ag-NPs were active in protecting HaCaT cells against direct UVB-induced DNA-damage by repairing bulky-DNA lesions through nucleotide-excision-repair mechanism. Moreover, Ag-NPs were also effective in protecting HaCaT cells from UVB-induced oxidative DNA damage by enhancing SOD/CAT/GPx activity. In contrast, ZnO- and TiO2-NPs not only failed in providing any direct protection from DNA-damage, but rather enhanced oxidative DNA-damage by increasing ROS production. Together, these findings raise concerns about safety of ZnO- and TiO2-NPs and establish superior protective efficacy of Ag-NPs.
Project description:In response to ultraviolet B damage, keratinocytes undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells, thereby preventing tumorigenic transformation. Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, produces complex pharmacological actions; it has been shown to be chemopreventive in non-melamona skin cancer in mice through increasing apoptosis. Here we have investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the pro-apoptotic effect of caffeine on UVB-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. Pretreatment with caffeine increased UVB-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells. Caffeine blocked UVB-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. In addition, similar to the effect of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, caffeine also inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and up-regulation of COX-2, two critical oncogenic pathways in skin tumorigenesis. However, phosphorylation of EGFR or ERK was unaffected. Inhibiting ATR pathways by siRNA targeting ATR had little effect on UVB-induced apoptosis or AKT activation, indicating that the inhibitory effect of caffeine on apoptosis and the AKT pathway does not require the ATR pathway. Inhibiting AKT by caffeine blocked UVB-induced COX-2 up-regulation. Expression of constitutively active AKT that was not inhibited by caffeine was found to protect cells from caffeine-promoted apoptosis post-UVB irradiation, indicating that AKT is an essential inhibitory target for caffeine to promote apoptosis. Caffeine specifically sensitized cells with unrepaired DNA damage to UVB-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that in HaCaT keratinocytes, inhibiting the AKT/COX-2 pathways through an ATR-independent pathway is a critical molecular mechanism by which caffeine promotes UVB-induced apoptosis of unrepaired keratinocytes for elimination.
Project description:Niacinamide (NIA) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used in the treatment of skin diseases. Moreover, NIA displays antioxidant effects and helps repair damaged DNA. Recent studies showed that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing disruption of DNA, lipids, and proteins; mitochondrial depolarization, and apoptosis of skin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the protective effects of NIA on PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in human HaCaT keratinocytes. We found that NIA could inhibit the ROS generation induced by PM2.5, as well blocked the PM2.5-induced oxidation of molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Furthermore, NIA alleviated PM2.5-induced accumulation of cellular Ca2+, which caused cell membrane depolarization and apoptosis, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Collectively, the findings show that NIA can protect keratinocytes from PM2.5-induced oxidative stress and cell damage.
Project description:Apoptosis is typically considered an anti-oncogenic process since caspase activation can promote the elimination of genetically unstable or damaged cells. We report that a central effector of apoptosis, caspase-3, facilitates rather than suppresses chemical- and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis. We found that a significant fraction of mammalian cells treated with ionizing radiation can survive despite caspase-3 activation. Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase-3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. In addition, chemically induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase-3. Furthermore, attenuation of EndoG activity significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying EndoG as a downstream effector of caspase-3 in this pathway. Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase-3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage.
Project description:Extracts of the cherry blossom plant have been reported to exert various biological effects on human cells. However, no previous investigations have examined the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of these extracts on ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin aging. This study explores the underlying mechanisms of the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of cherry blossom extract (CBE) in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. HaCaT cells were treated with CBE at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% for 24 h and then irradiated with UVB (40 mJ/cm2). CBE effectively and dose-dependently decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, while increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with 1 and 2% CBE attenuated UVB-induced DNA damage by reducing the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine. Furthermore, CBE also prevented UVB-induced apoptosis and significantly downregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X, cytochrome-c, and caspase-3 expression, while upregulating Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that CBE protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and suggest that CBE could be a potent antioxidant against skin aging.
Project description:Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates as well as protein which forces cells to rely on lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration rather than glycolysis for energy metabolism. Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) are believed to exist in a state of chronic oxidative stress mediated by mitochondrial metabolism. The current study tests the hypothesis that ketogenic diets enhance radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by enhancing oxidative stress.Mice bearing NCI-H292 and A549 lung cancer xenografts were fed a ketogenic diet (KetoCal 4:1 fats: proteins+carbohydrates) and treated with either conventionally fractionated (1.8-2 Gy) or hypofractionated (6 Gy) radiation as well as conventionally fractionated radiation combined with carboplatin. Mice weights and tumor size were monitored. Tumors were assessed for immunoreactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-(4HNE)-modified proteins as a marker of oxidative stress as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ?H2AX as indices of proliferation and DNA damage, respectively.The ketogenic diets combined with radiation resulted in slower tumor growth in both NCI-H292 and A549 xenografts (P < 0.05), relative to radiation alone. The ketogenic diet also slowed tumor growth when combined with carboplatin and radiation, relative to control. Tumors from animals fed a ketogenic diet in combination with radiation showed increases in oxidative damage mediated by lipid peroxidation as determined by 4HNE-modified proteins as well as decreased proliferation as assessed by decreased immunoreactive PCNA.These results show that a ketogenic diet enhances radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by a mechanism that may involve increased oxidative stress.
Project description:Introduction:Lack of effective pharmacological treatment makes valvular calcification a significant clinical problem in patients with valvular disease and bioprosthetic/mechanical valve replacement therapies. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in valve tissue have been identified as a prominent hallmark and driving factor for valvular calcification. However, the therapeutic value of ROS-modulating agents for valvular calcification remains elusive. We hypothesized that ROS-modulating shape-specific cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) will inhibit oxidative stress-induced valvular calcification. CNPs are a class of self-regenerative ROS-modulating agents, which can switch between Ce3+ and Ce4+ in response to oxidative microen-vironment. In this work, we developed oxidative stress-induced valve calcification model using two patient-derived stenotic valve interstitial cells (hVICs) and investigated the therapeutic effect of shape-specific CNPs to inhibit hVIC calcification. Methods:Human valvular interstitial cells (hVICs) were obtained from a normal healthy donor and two patients with calcified aortic valves. hVICs were characterized for their phenotypic (mesenchymal, myofibroblast and osteoblast) marker expression by qRT-PCR and antioxidant enzymes activity before and after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Four shape-specific CNPs (sphere, short rod, long rod, and cube) were synthesized via hydrothermal or ultra-sonication method and characterized for their biocompatibility in hVICs by alamarBlue® assay, and ROS scavenging ability by DCFH-DA assay. H2O2 and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were co-administrated to induce hVIC calcification in vitro as demonstrated by Alizarin Red S staining and calcium quantification. The effect of CNPs on inhibiting H2O2-induced hVIC calcification was evaluated. Results:hVICs isolated from calcified valves exhibited elevated osteoblast marker expression and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities compared to the normal hVICs. Due to the impaired antioxidant enzyme activities, acute H2O2-induced oxidative stress resulted in higher ROS levels and osteoblast marker expression in both diseased hVICs when compared to the normal hVICs. Shape-specific CNPs exhibited shape-dependent abiotic ROS scavenging ability, and excellent cytocompatibility. Rod and sphere CNPs scavenged H2O2-induced oxidative stress in hVICs in a shape- and dose-dependent manner by lowering intracellular ROS levels and osteoblast marker expression. Further, CNPs also enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in hVICs to combat oxidative stress. Cube CNPs were not effective ROS scavengers. The addition of H2O2 in the Pi-induced calcification model further increased calcium deposition in vitro in a time-dependent manner. Co-administration of rod CNPs with Pi and H2O2 mitigated calcification in the diseased hVICs. Conclusions:We demonstrated that hVICs derived from calcified valves exhibited impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms and were more susceptible to oxidative stress than normal hVICs. CNPs scavenged H2O2-induced oxidative stress in hVICs in a shape-dependent manner. The intrinsic ROS scavenging ability of CNPs and their ability to induce cellular antioxidant enzyme activities may confer protection from oxidative stress-exacerbated calcification. CNPs represent promising antioxidant therapy for treating valvular calcification and deserve further investigation.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation from the sun is an established etiological cause of skin cancer, which afflicts more than a million lives each year in the United States alone. Here, we tested the chemopreventive efficacy of silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) against UVB-irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). AgNPs were synthesized by reduction-chemistry and characterized for their physicochemical properties. AgNPs were well tolerated by HaCaT cells and their pretreatment protected them from UVB-irradiation-induced apoptosis along with significant reduction in cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimer formation. Moreover, AgNPs pre-treatment led to G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. AgNPs were efficiently internalized in UVB-irradiated cells and localized into cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Furthermore, we observed an altered expression of various genes involved in cell-cycle, apoptosis and nucleotide-excision repair in HaCaT cells treated with AgNPs prior to UVB-irradiation. Together, these findings provide support for potential utility of AgNPs as novel chemopreventive agents against UVB-irradiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR:Excessive exposure to the sun is known to increase the risk of skin cancer due to DNA damage. In this work, the authors tested the use of silver nanoparticles as protective agents against ultraviolet radiation. The positive results may open a door for the use of silver nanoparticle as novel agents in the future.