Association of Perioperative Red Blood Cell Transfusions With Venous Thromboembolism in a North American Registry.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Increasing evidence supports the role of red blood cells (RBCs) in physiological hemostasis and pathologic thrombosis. Red blood cells are commonly transfused in the perioperative period; however, their association with postoperative thrombotic events remains unclear. Objective:To examine the association between perioperative RBC transfusions and postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 30 days of surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants:This analysis used prospectively collected registry data from the American College of Surgery National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, a validated registry of 525 teaching and nonteaching hospitals in North America. Participants included patients in the ACS-NSQIP registry who underwent a surgical procedure from January 1 through December 31, 2014. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2016, through March 15, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Risk-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The primary outcome was the development of postoperative VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) within 30 days of surgery that warranted therapeutic intervention; DVT and PE were also examined separately as secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed by surgical subtypes. Propensity score matching was performed for sensitivity analyses. Results:Of 750 937 patients (56.8% women; median age, 58 years; interquartile range, 44-69 years), 47 410 (6.3%) received at least 1 perioperative RBC transfusion. Postoperative VTE occurred in 6309 patients (0.8%) (DVT in 4336 [0.6%]; PE in 2514 [0.3%]; both DVT and PE in 541 [0.1%]). Perioperative RBC transfusion was associated with higher odds of VTE (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 2.0-2.3), DVT (aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 2.1-2.4), and PE (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.1), independent of various putative risk factors. A significant dose-response effect was observed with increased odds of VTE as the number of intraoperative and/or postoperative RBC transfusion events increased (aOR, 2.1 [95% CI, 2.0-2.3] for 1 event; 3.1 [95% CI, 1.7-5.7] for 2 events; and 4.5 [95% CI, 1.0-19.4] for ≥3 events vs no intraoperative or postoperative RBC transfusion; P < .001 for trend). In subgroup analyses, the association between any perioperative RBC transfusion and postoperative VTE remained statistically significant across all surgical subspecialties analyzed. The association between any perioperative RBC transfusion and the development of postoperative VTE also remained robust after 1:1 propensity score matching (47 142 matched pairs; matched OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1). Conclusions and Relevance:The results of this study suggest that perioperative RBC transfusions may be significantly associated with the development of new or progressive postoperative VTE, independent of several putative confounders. These findings, if validated, should reinforce the importance of rigorous perioperative management of blood transfusion practices.
Project description:Optimal prophylaxis for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains debated. The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative complications in patients receiving different VTE chemoprophylactic regimens. Using a nationwide healthcare database, 72,670 THA patients without a history of VTE were identified. Study cohorts received VTE prophylaxis within 30 days postoperatively. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess 30-day and 90-day postoperative complications (hematoma, hemorrhage, transfusion, pulmonary embolism (PE), VTE, prosthetic joint infection (PJI), and incision/drainage (I&D)). Of the 72,670 THA patients, 25,966 received single medication VTE prophylaxis; 551 (2.12%) aspirin, 6791 (26.15%) enoxaparin, 12,008 (46.25%) warfarin, 5403 (20.81%) rivaroxaban, 876 (3.37%) fondaparinux and 337 (1.30%) apixaban. 30-day complications included; aspirin: I&D; warfarin: I&D, hematoma, hemorrhage, transfusion, PJI, PE and DVT; apixaban: hematoma and hemorrhage. 90-day complications included; aspirin: I&D; warfarin: I&D, hematoma, hemorrhage, transfusion, PJI, PE and DVT. Warfarin was the only anticoagulant associated with a higher risk for DVT, and the highest risk for 30-day and 90-day complications. Aspirin had the highest risk for I&D. Despite three times increased 30-day risk for bleeding, apixaban was effective in preventing VTE during the high-risk 3-month-period. Enoxaparin had the lowest risk for PE and DVT while rivaroxaban had the lowest risk for PJI, hematoma, I&D, hemorrhage and transfusion.
Project description:<label>Background</label>Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common vascular complication of non-cardiac surgery.<label>Methods</label>We evaluated national trends in perioperative in-hospital VTE incidence, management, and outcomes using a large database of hospital admissions from the United States. Patients aged ? 45 years undergoing major non-cardiac surgery from 2005 to 2013 were identified from the National Inpatient Sample. In-hospital perioperative VTE was defined as lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), and the incidence was evaluated over time. Multivariable regression models with demographics and comorbidities as covariates were generated to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR).<label>Results</label>Major non-cardiac surgery was performed in 9,431,442 hospitalizations that met inclusion criteria, and perioperative VTE occurred in 99,776 patients (1,057 per 100,000), corresponding to an annual incidence of ?53,000 after applying sample weights. Over time, perioperative VTE per 100,000 surgeries increased by 135 (95% CI 107 - 163), from 925 in 2005 to 1,060 in 2013 (p for trend <0.001; aOR [for 2013 versus 2005] 1.22, 95% CI 1.19 - 1.26), due to increases in non-fatal VTE rates (from 840 [per 100,000 surgeries] in 2005 to 987 in 2013; p for trend <0.001). Perioperative VTE occurred most frequently in patients undergoing thoracic (2.0%) and vascular surgery (1.8%). Mortality was higher in patients with VTE than those without VTE (aOR 3.12, 95% CI 3.05 - 3.20).<label>Conclusions</label>Perioperative VTE occurs in approximately 1% of patients ?45 years undergoing major non-cardiac surgery, with increasing incidence of non-fatal VTE over time.
Project description:There is widespread evidence that cancer confers an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This risk is thought to vary among different cancer types. The purpose of this study is to better define the incidence of thrombotic complications among patients undergoing surgical treatment for a spectrum of prevalent cancer diagnoses in contemporary practice.All patients undergoing one of 11 cancer surgical operations (breast resection, hysterectomy, prostatectomy, colectomy, gastrectomy, lung resection, hepatectomy, pancreatectomy, cystectomy, esophagectomy, and nephrectomy) were identified by Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2007-2009). The study endpoints were DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), and overall postoperative venous thromboembolic events (VTE) within 1 month of the index procedure. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to calculate adjusted odds ratios for each endpoint.Over the study interval, 43,808 of the selected cancer operations were performed. The incidence of DVT, PE, and total VTE within 1 month following surgery varied widely across a spectrum of cancer diagnoses, ranging from 0.19%, 0.12%, and 0.28% for breast resection to 6.1%, 2.4%, and 7.3%, respectively, for esophagectomy. Compared with breast cancer, the incidence of VTE ranged from a 1.31-fold increase in VTE associated with gastrectomy (95% confidence interval, 0.73-2.37; P = .4) to a 2.68-fold increase associated with hysterectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.43-5.01; P = .002). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that inpatient status, steroid use, advanced age (?60 years), morbid obesity (body mass index ?35), blood transfusion, reintubation, cardiac arrest, postoperative infectious complications, and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased risk of VTE.The incidence of VTE and thromboembolic complications associated with cancer surgery varies substantially. These findings suggest that both tumor type and resection magnitude may impact VTE risk. Accordingly, such data support diagnosis and procedural-specific guidelines for perioperative VTE prophylaxis and can be used to anticipate the risk of potentially preventable morbidity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is considered a potentially serious complication of knee arthroscopy and leads to conditions such as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is widely employed in knee arthroscopy to reduce perioperative thromboembolic complications. However, the efficacy and safety of LMWH in knee arthroscopy remains unclear. METHODS:Seven randomized controlled clinical trials on LMWH in knee arthroscopy were identified and included in this meta-analysis. The main outcomes of the effectiveness (prevention of DVT and PE) and complications (death, major bleeding, and minor bleeding) of LMWH in knee arthroscopic surgery were assessed using Review Manager 5.3 software. RESULTS:The meta-analysis indicated that LMWH prophylaxis comprised 79% of asymptomatic DVT. No association was found in symptomatic VTE (RR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-2.08; P = 0.80), symptomatic DVT (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.28-2.23; P = 0.66), symptomatic PE (RR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.37-4.97; P = 0.64) and major bleeding (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.12-3.95; P = 0.68) risk during LMWH prophylaxis were identified. Death was not reported in these studies. Moreover, there was a lower incidence of minor bleeding (RR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.83; P = 0.001) in the control group than in the LMWH group. CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, the group treated with LMWH after knee arthroscopy was no association in reducing the symptomatic VTE rate, symptomatic DVT rate or symptomatic PE rate. The symptomatic VTE rate was 0.5% (11/2,166) in the LMWH group versus 0.6% (10/1,713) in the control group. Although the limitations of this meta-analysis cannot be ignored, the results of our study show that LMWH after knee arthroscopy is ineffective. We recommend that LMWH should not be routinely provided for knee arthroscopy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03164746.
Project description:Background:Globally, sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common haemoglobinopathy. Considered a public health problem, it leads to vessel occlusion, blood stasis and chronic activation of the coagulation system responsible for vaso-occlussive crises and venous thromboembolism (VTE) which may be fatal. Although contemporary observational studies suggest a relationship between SCD or sickle trait (SCT) and VTE, there is lack of a summary or meta-analysis data on this possible correlation. Hence, we propose to summarize the available evidence on the association between SCD, SCT and VTE including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods:We searched PubMed and Scopus to identify all cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies reporting on the association between SCD or SCT and VTE, DVT or PE in adults or children from inception to April 25, 2017. For measuring association between SCD or SCT and VTE, DVT, or PE, a meta-analysis using the random-effects method was performed to pool weighted odds ratios (OR) of risk estimates. Results:From 313 records initially identified from bibliographic databases, 10 studies were eligible and therefore included the meta-analysis. SCD patients had significantly higher risk for VTE (pooled OR 4.4, 95%CI 2.6-7.5, p?<?0.001), DVT (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, p?<?0.001) and PE (pooled OR 3.7, 95% CI 3.6-3.8, p?<?0.001) as compared to non SCD-adults. A higher risk of VTE (OR 33.2, 95% CI 9.7-113.4, p?<?0.001) and DVT (OR 30.7, 95% CI 1.6-578.2, p =?0.02) was found in pregnant or postpartum women with SCD as compared to their counterparts without SCD. Compared to adults with SCT, the risk of VTE was higher in adults with SCD (pooled OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.8-5.3, p?<?0.001), and specifically in SCD pregnant or postpartum women (OR 20.3, 95% CI 4.1-102, p?=?0.0003). The risk of PE was also higher in adults with SCD (OR 3.1, 95% CCI 1.7-5.9, p?=?0.0004) as compared to those with SCT. The risk of VTE was higher in individuals with SCT compared to controls (pooled OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2, p?<?0.0001), but not in pregnant or postpartum women (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9, p?=?0.863). Compared to controls, SCT was associated with a higher risk of PE (pooled OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8, p?=?0.012) but not of DVT (pooled OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7, p?=?0.157). Conclusion:Individuals with SCD, especially pregnant or postpartum women, might have a higher risk of VTE compared to the general population. SCT might also increases the risk of VTE. However, currently available data are not sufficient to allow a definite conclusion. Further larger studies are needed to provide a definitive conclusion on the association between SCD, SCT and VTE.
Project description:The study hypothesis was that a target-specific anticoagulant would allow successful home treatment of selected patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosed in two urban emergency departments (EDs).A protocol was established for treating low-risk DVT or PE patients with rivaroxaban and clinic, follow-up at both 2 to 5 weeks, and 3 to 6 months. Patients were determined to be low-risk by using a modified version of the Hestia criteria, supplemented by additional criteria for patients with active cancer. Acceptable outcome rates were defined as venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence ? 2.1% or bleeding ? 9.4% during treatment. VTE recurrence required positive imaging of any VTE. The International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis definition of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was used.From March 2013 through April 2014, a total of 106 patients were treated. Seventy-one (68%) had DVT, 30 (28%) had PE, and five (3%) had both, representing 51% of all DVTs and 27% of all PEs diagnosed in both EDs during the period of study. The 106 patients have been followed for a mean (±SD) of 389 (±111) days (range = 213 to 594 days). No patient had VTE recurrence, and no patient had a major or clinically relevant bleeding event while on therapy (none of the 106, 0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0% to 3.4%). However, three patients 2.8% (95% CI = 1% to 8%) had recurrent DVT after cessation of therapy.Patients diagnosed with VTE and immediately discharged from the ED while treated with rivaroxaban had a low rate of VTE recurrence and bleeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ulinastatin is a type of glycoprotein and a nonspecific wide-spectrum protease inhibitor like antifibrinolytic agent aprotinin. Whether Ulinastatin has similar beneficial effects on blood conservation in cardiac surgical patients as aprotinin remains undetermined. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of Ulinastatin on perioperative bleeding and transfusion in patients who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched to identify all clinical trials comparing Ulinastatin with placebo/blank on postoperative bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Primary outcomes included perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, postoperative re-exploration for bleeding. Secondary outcomes include perioperative hemoglobin level, platelet counts and functions, coagulation tests, inflammatory cytokines level, and so on. For continuous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidential interval (CI). For dichotomous data, treatment effects were calculated as odds ratio and 95% CI. Statistical significance was defined as P?<?.05. RESULTS:Our search yielded 21 studies including 1310 patients, and 617 patients were allocated into Ulinastatin group and 693 into Control (placebo/blank) group. There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative re-exploration for bleeding incidence, intraoperative red blood cell transfusion units, postoperative fresh frozen plasma transfusion volumes and platelet concentrates transfusion units between the 2 groups (all P?>?.05). Ulinastatin reduces postoperative bleeding (WMD = -0.73, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.28, P?=?.001) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (WMD?=?-0.70, 95% CI: -1.26 to -0.14, P?=?.01), inhibits hyperfibrinolysis as manifested by lower level of postoperative D-dimer (WMD?=?-0.87, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.39, P?=?.0003). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis has found some evidence showing that Ulinastatin reduces postoperative bleeding and RBC transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, these findings should be interpreted rigorously. Further well-conducted trials are required to assess the blood-saving effects and mechanisms of Ulinastatin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is considerable debate regarding the ideal agent for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after TKA. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have yet to provide a clear answer and often omit one or more of the commonly used agents such as aspirin, warfarin, enoxaparin, and factor Xa inhibitors. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:Using a large database analysis, we asked: (1) What are the differences in VTE incidence in primary TKA after administration of aspirin, warfarin, enoxaparin, or factor Xa inhibitors? (2) What are the differences in bleeding risk among these four agents? (3) How has use of these agents changed with time? METHODS:We queried a combined Humana and Medicare database between 2007 and Quarter 1 of 2016, and identified all primary TKAs performed using ICD-9 and Current Procedural Terminology codes. All patients who had any form of antiplatelet or anticoagulation prescribed within 1 year before TKA were excluded from our study cohort. We then identified patients who had either aspirin, warfarin, enoxaparin, or factor Xa inhibitors prescribed within 2 weeks of primary TKA. Each cohort was matched by age and sex. Elixhauser comorbidities and Charlson Comorbidity Index for each group were calculated. We identified 1016 patients with aspirin, and age- and sex-matched 6096 patients with enoxaparin, 6096 patients with warfarin, and 5080 patients with factor Xa inhibitors. Using ICD-9 codes, with the understanding that patients at greater risk may have had more-attentive surveillance, the incidence of postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), bleeding-related complications (bleeding requiring surgical intervention, hemorrhage, hematoma, hemarthrosis), postoperative anemia, and transfusion were identified at 2 weeks, 30 days, 6 weeks, and 90 days postoperatively. A four-way chi-squared test was used to determine statistical significance. Utilization was calculated using compound annual growth rate. RESULTS:There was a difference in the incidence of DVT at 90 days (p < 0.01). Factor Xa inhibitors (2.9%) had the lowest incidence of DVT followed by aspirin (3.0%) and enoxaparin (3.5%), and warfarin (4.8%). There was a difference in the incidence of PE at 90 days (p < 0.01). Factor Xa inhibitors (0.9%) had the lowest incidence of PE followed by enoxaparin (1.1%), aspirin (1.2%), and warfarin (1.6%). There was a difference in the incidence of postoperative anemia at 90 days (p < 0.01). Aspirin (19%) had the lowest incidence of postoperative anemia followed by warfarin (22%), enoxaparin (23%), and factor Xa inhibitors (23%). There was a difference in the incidence of a blood transfusion at 90 days (p < 0.01). Aspirin (7%) had the lowest incidence of a blood transfusion followed by factor Xa inhibitors (9%), warfarin (12%), and enoxaparin (13%). There were no differences in bleeding-related complications (p = 0.81) between the groups. Aspirin use increased at a compound annual growth rate of 30%, enoxaparin at 3%, and factor Xa inhibitors at 43%, while warfarin use decreased at a compound annual growth rate of -3%. CONCLUSIONS:Factor Xa inhibitors had the highest growth in utilization during our study period, followed by aspirin, when compared with enoxaparin and warfarin. When selected for the right patient, factor Xa inhibitors provided improved VTE prophylaxis compared with enoxaparin and warfarin, with a lower rate of blood transfusion. Aspirin provided comparable VTE prophylaxis compared with factor Xa inhibitors with improved VTE prophylaxis compared with enoxaparin and warfarin with the lowest risk of bleeding. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, therapeutic study.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about its association with another form of vascular disorder, venous thromboembolism (VTE).A retrospective cohort study was conducted using US insurance claims. RA and non-RA patients were matched on age, sex, and index date. Incidence rates (IRs) and rate ratios (RRs) of VTE, defined as the composite of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), were calculated. Cox proportional hazards models compared VTE risks between RA and non-RA patients, adjusting for VTE risk factors such as CVD, surgery, hospitalization, medications, and acute-phase reactants.Over the mean followup of 2 years, the IR for VTE among RA patients was 6.1 per 1,000 person-years, 2.4 times higher (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.1-2.8) than the rate of non-RA patients. The IRs for both DVT (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6) and PE (RR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2-3.5) were higher in RA patients compared with non-RA patients. After adjusting for risk factors of VTE, the VTE risk remained elevated in RA patients (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) compared to non-RA patients. The result was similar after further adjustment for elevated acute-phase reactants (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.3-6.5). One-third of patients who developed VTE had at least 1 major VTE risk factor 90 days before and after the VTE event.Our results showed an increased risk of developing VTE for RA patients compared with non-RA patients. The risk was attenuated but remained elevated even after adjusting for various risk factors for VTE.
Project description:Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiovascular emergency. PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are considered expressions of the same disease, termed as venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the present review, we describe and meta-analyze the efficacy and safety data available with the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) in clinical trials testing these new compounds in the acute/long-term and extended therapy of VTE, providing subgroup analyses in patients with index PE. We analyzed ten studies in 35,019 randomized patients. A total of 14,364 patients (41%) had index PE. In the acute/long-term treatment of VTE, the DOAC showed comparable efficacy in preventing recurrent VTE to standard treatment in patients with index PE (risk ratio [RR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.11) and index DVT (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.75-1.16) (P for subgroup differences =0.76). VTE recurrence depending on PE anatomical extension and presence/absence of right ventricular dysfunction was only reported in two trials, with results being consistent with those obtained in the overall study populations. In the single trial comparing extended therapy of VTE with DOAC versus warfarin, the point estimate for recurrent VTE tended to disfavor the DOAC in patients with index PE (RR: 2.05; 95% CI: 0.83-5.03) and in patients with index DVT (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.49-2.50) (P for subgroup differences =0.32). In trials that compared DOAC versus placebo for extended therapy, the reduction in recurrent VTE was consistent in patients with PE (RR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.01-1.82) and in patients with DVT (RR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10-0.61) (P for subgroup differences =0.71). The DOAC were associated with a consistently lower risk of clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) than standard treatment of acute VTE and higher risk of CRB than placebo for extended therapy of VTE regardless of index event. In summary, the DOAC were as effective as, and safer than, standard treatment of (hemodynamically stable) PE. Their efficacy in preventing recurrent VTE seemed consistent regardless of anatomical extension of PE (extensive, intermediate, or limit) or presence/absence of right ventricular dysfunction although the data are limited. For extended therapy, the DOAC were more effective than placebo in preventing recurrent VTE but were associated with an increase in CRB regardless of index event.