Comparison of the Performance of Common Measures of Weight Regain After Bariatric Surgery for Association With Clinical Outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Estimates of weight regain following bariatric surgery vary widely. Objective:To describe weight regain after reaching nadir weight following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and compare weight regain measures for association with outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Prospective cohort study of 2458 adults who underwent bariatric surgery at 10 hospitals in 6 US cities between March 2006 and April 2009. Assessments were conducted within 30 days' presurgery, at 6 months' postsurgery, and then annually until January 2015. Of the 1703 participants who underwent RYGB surgery, 1406 (83%) were followed up for 5 years or longer and had 5 or more weight measurements (excluding those who died or underwent surgical reversal). Exposures:Weight regain assessed by 5 continuous measures (weight in kilograms, body mass index [BMI], percentage of presurgery weight, percentage of nadir weight, and percentage of maximum weight lost) and 8 dichotomous measures (per established thresholds) were compared in relation to clinical outcomes based on statistical significance, magnitude of association, and model fit. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension and declines in physical and mental health-related quality of life and satisfaction with surgery. Results:Among the 1406 participants who underwent RYGB surgery, the median age was 47 years (25th-75th percentile, 38-55 years) and the median BMI was 46.3 (25th-75th percentile, 42.3-51.8) prior to surgery. Most participants were female (80.3%) and white (85.6%). The median follow-up was 6.6 years (25th-75th percentile, 5.9-7.0 years). The median percentage of maximum weight loss was 37.4% (25th-75th percentile, 31.6%-43.3%) of presurgery weight and occurred a median of 2.0 years after RYGB surgery (25th-75th percentile, 1.0-3.2 years). The rate of weight regain was highest during the first year after reaching nadir weight, but weight regain continued to increase throughout follow-up (range, a median of 9.5% of maximum weight lost [25th-75th percentile, 4.7%-17.2%] to 26.8% of maximum weight lost [25th-75th percentile, 16.7%-41.5%] 1 to 5 years after reaching nadir weight). The percentage of participants who regained weight depended on threshold (eg, 5 years after nadir weight, 43.6% regained ?5 BMI points; 50.2% regained ?15% of nadir weight; and 67.3% regained ?20% of maximum weight lost). Compared with other continuous weight regain measures, the percentage of maximum weight lost had the strongest association and best model fit for all outcomes except hyperlipidemia, which had a slightly stronger association with BMI. Of the dichotomous measures, 20% or greater of maximum weight lost performed better or similarly with most of the outcomes, and was the second best measure for hyperlipidemia (after ?10 kg of weight) and hypertension (after ?10% of maximum weight lost). Conclusions and Relevance:Among a large cohort of adults who underwent RYGB surgery, weight regain quantified as percentage of maximum weight lost performed better for association with most clinical outcomes than the alternatives examined. These findings may inform standardizing the measurement of weight regain in studies of bariatric surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-term, longitudinal data are limited on mental disorders after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE:To report mental disorders through 7 years postsurgery and examine their relationship with changes in weight and health-related quality of life. SETTING:Three U.S. academic medical centers. METHOD:As a substudy of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery Consortium, 199 adults completed the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Participants who completed ?1 follow-up through 7 years postsurgery are included (n?=?173; 86.9%). Mixed models were used to examine mental disorders over time, and among the RYGB subgroup (n?=?104), their relationship with long-term (?4 yr) pre- to postsurgery changes in weight and health-related quality of life, measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and with weight regain from nadir. RESULTS:Compared with presurgery (34.7%), the prevalence of having any mental disorder was significantly lower 4 years (21.3%; P < .01) and 5 years (19.2%; P?=?.01), but not 7 years (29.1%; P?=?.27) after RYGB. The most common disorders were not related to long-term weight loss postRYGB. However, independent of weight change, mood and anxiety disorders, both pre- and postRYGB, were significantly related to less improvement in mental (but not physical) health-related quality of life. Having a concurrent mood disorder appeared to be associated with greater weight regain (6.4% of maximum weight lost, 95% confidence interval, -.3 to 13.1), but this was not statistically significant (P?=?.06). CONCLUSIONS:Bariatric surgery does not result in consistent long-term reductions in mental disorders. Mood disorders may impact long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study examines the course of eating pathology and its associations with change in weight and health-related quality of life following bariatric surgery. METHOD:Participants (N =?184) completed the eating disorder examination-bariatric surgery version (EDE-BSV) and the medical outcomes study 36-Item short form health survey (SF-36) prior to and annually following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for up to 7?years. RESULTS:The prevalence of ? weekly loss of control (LOC) eating, picking/nibbling, and cravings declined post-RYGB and remained lower through 7 years (LOC: 5.4% at Year-7 vs. 16.2% pre-RYGB, p =?.03; picking/nibbling: 7.0% vs. 32.4%, p <?.001; and cravings: 19.4% vs. 33.6%, p =?.02). The prevalence of picking/nibbling was significantly lower 7 years following LAGB vs. pre-LAGB (29.4% vs 45.8%, p =?.049), while cravings (p =?.13) and LOC eating (p =?.95) were not. EDE-BSV global score and ratings of hunger and enjoyment of eating were lower 7 years following both RYGB and LAGB versus pre-surgery (p's for all <.05). LOC eating following RYGB was associated with less long-term weight loss from surgery (p <?.01) and greater weight regain from weight nadir (p <?.001). Higher post-surgery EDE-BSV global score was associated with less weight loss/greater regain (both p <?.001) and worsening/less improvement from surgery in the SF-36 mental component summary scores (p <?.01). DISCUSSION:Initial improvements in eating pathology following RYGB and LAGB were sustained across 7?years of follow-up. Individuals with eating pathology post-RYGB, reflected by LOC eating and/or higher EDE-BSV global score, may be at risk for suboptimal long-term outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of bariatric surgery among Medicaid beneficiaries, a population with a disproportionately high burden of obesity, remains unclear. We sought to determine if weight loss and regain following bariatric surgery differed in Medicaid patients compared to commercial insurance. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery, a ten-site observational cohort of adults undergoing bariatric surgery (2006-2009) were examined for patients who underwent Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), Laparoscopic Adjustable Band (LAGB), or Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG). Using piecewise spline linear mixed-effect models, weight change over 5 years was modeled as a function of insurance type (Medicaid, N?=?190; commercially insured, N?=?1448), time, procedure type, and sociodemographic characteristics; additionally, interactions between all time, insurance, and procedure type indicators allowed time- and procedure-specific associations with insurance type. For each time-spline, mean (kg) difference in weight change in commercially insured versus Medicaid patients was calculated. RESULTS:Medicaid patients had higher mean weight at baseline (138.3?kg vs. 131.2?kg). From 0 to 1 year post-operatively, Medicaid patients lost similar amounts of weight to commercial patients following all procedure types (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: -0.9 [-3.2, 1.4]; LAGB: -1.5 [-6.7, 3.8]; SG: 5.1 [-4.0, 14.2]). From 1 to 3 years post-operatively Medicaid and commercial patients continued to experience minimal weight loss or began to slowly regain weight (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 0.9 [0.0, 2.0]; LAGB: -2.1 [-4.2, 0.1]; SG: 0.7 [-3.0, 4.3]). From 3 to 5 years post-operatively, the rate of regain tended to be faster among commercial patients compared to Medicaid patients (mean weight ? difference [95% CI]: RYGB: 1.1 [0.1, 2.0]; LAGB: 1.5 [-0.5, 3.5]; SG: 1.0 [-2.5, 4.5]). CONCLUSIONS:Although Medicaid patients had a higher baseline weight, they achieved similar amounts of weight loss and tended to regain weight at a slower rate than commercial patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients who undergo bariatric surgery often have inadequate weight loss or weight regain. OBJECTIVES:We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain. SETTING:Two academic medical centers. METHODS:We completed a retrospective study to identify patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the form of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or a sleeve gastrectomy from 2000-2014. From this cohort, we identified patients who were placed on weight loss pharmacotherapy postoperatively for inadequate weight loss or weight regain. We extracted key demographic data, medical history, and examined weight loss in response to surgery and after the initiation of weight loss pharmacotherapy. RESULTS:A total of 319 patients (RYGB = 258; sleeve gastrectomy = 61) met inclusion criteria for analysis. More than half (54%; n = 172) of all study patients lost?5% (7.2 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight with medications after surgery. There were several high responders with 30.3% of patients (n = 96) and 15% (n = 49) losing?10% (16.7 to 195.2 lbs) and?15% (25 to 195.2 lbs) of their total weight, respectively, Topiramate was the only medication that demonstrated a statistically significant response for weight loss with patients being twice as likely to lose at least 10% of their weight when placed on this medication (odds ratio = 1.9; P = .018). Regardless of the postoperative body mass index, patients who underwent RYGB were significantly more likely to lose?5% of their total weight with the aid of weight loss medications. CONCLUSIONS:Weight loss pharmacotherapy serves as a useful adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight regain.
Project description:To prospectively compare contrast material-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived right-to-left ventricle pulmonary transit time (PTT), left ventricular (LV) full width at half maximum (FWHM), and LV time to peak (TTP) between patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and healthy volunteers and to correlate these measurements with survival markers in patients with PAH.This HIPAA-compliant study received institutional review board approval. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-three patients (32 with PAH [29 women; median age, 55.4 years], 11 with scleroderma but not PAH [seven women; median age, 58.9 years]) underwent right-sided heart catheterization and 3-T CE cardiac MR imaging. Eighteen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (12 women; median age, 51.7 years) underwent only CE MR imaging. A short-axis saturation-recovery gradient-echo section was acquired in the basal third of both ventricles, and right-to-left-ventricle PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP were calculated. Statistical analysis included Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, and Lin correlation coefficient analysis.Patients had significantly longer PTT (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 6.9-9.9 seconds), FWHM (median, 8.2 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 5.7-11.4 seconds), and TTP (median, 4.8 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 3.9-6.5 seconds) than did control subjects (median, 6.4 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 5.7-7.1 seconds; median, 5.2 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 4.1-6.1 seconds; median, 3.2 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 2.8-3.8 seconds, respectively; P < .01 for each) and subjects with scleroderma but not PAH (median, 6.5 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 5.6-7.0 seconds; median, 5.0 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 4.0-7.3 seconds; median, 3.6 seconds; 25th-75th percentile, 2.7-4.0 seconds, respectively; P < .02 for each). PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance index (P < .01), right ventricular stroke volume index (P ? .01), and pulmonary artery capacitance (P ? .02). In multiple linear regression models, PTT, FWHM, and TTP were associated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac index.CE MR-derived PTT, LV FWHM, and LV TTP are noninvasive compound markers of pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiac function in patients with PAH. Their predictive value for patient outcome warrants further investigation.
Project description:We sought to determine: (1) if early weight regain between 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with worsened hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and (2) if preoperative levels of ghrelin and leptin are associated with early weight regain after RYGB.Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were assessed longitudinally in 45 subjects before RYGB and at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. Weight regain was defined as ?5% increase in body weight between 1 and 2 years after RYGB.Weight regain occurred in 33% of subjects, with an average increase in body weight of 10?±?5% (8.5?±?3.3 kg). Weight regain was not associated with worsening of peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity. Subjects with weight regain after RYGB had higher preoperative and postoperative levels of ghrelin compared to those who maintained or lost weight during this time. Conversely, the trajectories of leptin levels corresponded with the trajectories of fat mass in both groups.Early weight regain after RYGB is not associated with a reversal of improvements in insulin sensitivity. Higher preoperative ghrelin levels might identify patients that are more susceptible to weight regain after RYGB.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous studies on the relationship between birth weight and obesity in adolescents have mostly been conducted within Western populations and have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the association between birth weight, obesity, fat mass and lean mass in Korean adolescents using the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES V). METHODS:The study population consisted of a total of 1304 (693 men and 611 women) participants aged between 12 and 18 years. Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were calculated by multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the association between birth weight and being overweight or obese. Furthermore, adjusted mean values for body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI) according to birth weight were calculated by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS:Individuals within the highest 25th percentile in birth weight were more likely to be overweight (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.76) compared with adolescents within the 25th and 75th percentile in birth weight. Female adolescents who were in the highest 25th percentile in birth weight were more likely to be obese (aOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.41) compared with those within the 25th and 75th percentile in birth weight. Increasing FMI, but not LMI was associated with increasing birth weight (P for trend: 0.03). This tendency remained only in female population in sex-stratified analysis (P for trend: 0.03). CONCLUSIONS:High birth weight may lead to obesity and increased fat mass, but not lean mass. Adolescents born with high birth weight may benefit from close weight monitoring and early intervention against obesity.
Project description:Background Childhood weight trajectories may influence cardiometabolic traits and thereby the risk of venous thromboembolism ( VTE ) later in life. We examined whether overweight and changes in weight status during childhood were associated with risk of VTE in adulthood. Methods and Results We used Danish medical registries to conduct a population-based cohort study of Danish schoolchildren aged 7 to 13 years and born during 1930-1989. We calculated body-mass index ( BMI ) z-scores based on weight and height measurements. We estimated hazard ratios using Cox regressions to examine associations between changes in BMI z-scores from 7 to 13 years of age and the subsequent risk of VTE . Among 313 998 children, 5007 girls and 5397 boys were diagnosed with VTE as adults. Compared with children with a normal BMI (25th to 75th percentile category) at both ages, children with a BMI persistently above the 75th percentile had a 1.30- to 1.50-fold increased risk of VTE in adulthood. Children who experienced a BMI increase from the 25th to 75th or >75th to 90th percentile to a higher percentile category had a 1.35- to 1.70-fold increased risk of adulthood VTE . Children whose BMI percentile category decreased between 7 and 13 years of age had a VTE risk similar to that of children with a persistently normal BMI . Conclusions Risk of VTE in adulthood was higher in children with a persistently above-average BMI . Whereas weight gain from 7 to 13 years of age additionally increased VTE risk, remission from overweight by 13 years of age completely reverted the risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. METHODS:VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. RESULTS:After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. CONCLUSIONS:VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.
Project description:To describe glucose metabolism in the late, weight stable phase after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) in patients with and without preoperative type 2 diabetes we invited 55 RYGB-operated persons from two existing cohorts to participate in a late follow-up study. 44 (24 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)/20 with type 2 diabetes (T2D) before surgery) accepted the invitation (median follow-up 2.7 [Range 2.2-5.0 years]). Subjects were examined during an oral glucose stimulus and results compared to preoperative and 1-year (1?y) post RYGB results. Glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, beta-cell function and incretin hormone secretion were evaluated. 1?y weight loss was maintained late after surgery. Glycemic control, insulin resistance, beta-cell function and GLP-1 remained improved late after surgery in both groups. In NGT subjects, nadir glucose decreased 1?y after RYGB, but did not change further. In T2D patients, relative change in weight from 1?y to late after RYGB correlated with relative change in fasting glucose and HbA1c, whereas relative changes in glucose-stimulated insulin release correlated inversely with relative changes in postprandial glucose excursions. In NGT subjects, relative changes in postprandial nadir glucose correlated with changes in beta-cell glucose sensitivity. Thus, effects of RYGB on weight and glucose metabolism are maintained late after surgery in patients with and without preoperative T2D. Weight loss and improved beta-cell function both contribute to maintenance of long-term glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, and increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion may contribute to postprandial hypoglycemia in NGT subjects.