Small ruminant lentivirus infection influences expression of acute phase proteins and cathelicidin genes in milk somatic cells and peripheral blood leukocytes of dairy goats.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyze acute phase protein and cathelicidin gene responses to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in goats. In uninfected goats, we found higher Cp and lower Fb? mRNA levels in blood leucocytes (BL) than in milk somatic cells (MSC), as well as lower SAA, Hp, and CRP and higher Cp and AGP concentrations in blood serum than in milk. In SRLV-infected goats, we found higher Fb? and MAP28 and lower Cp expression in MSC than in BL, and higher SAA, Hp, Fb, and MAP28 and lower AGP concentrations in milk than in blood serum. Higher SAA and Hp expressions in BL and Hp expression in MSC were found in SRLV-infected goats. In SRLV-infected goats, we observed a higher concentration of SAA in blood serum, while in milk, lower SAA, Cp, and MAP28 and higher MAP34 concentrations were observed. The expression profiles of the studied genes differed between BL/serum and MSC/milk. The elevated SAA concentration in blood serum was accompanied by a decreased concentration of SAA and Cp in the milk of infected goats. No differences in the expression of the other studied genes may mean that the SRLV has the ability to evade the immune system, continuing to replicate. The elevated concentration of SAA in blood serum may promote viral multiplication. This higher concentration of SAA in blood serum and simultaneous reduced concentration of SAA and Cp in milk may be additive indicators of this infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The present study aimed to determine the expression of cytokines, which is associated with the immunological response of dairy goats against small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV). The study was conducted on 26 dairy goats in their second to sixth lactation, which were divided by breed and parity into two groups: SRLV naturally infected (N?=?13) and non-infected (N?=?13) animals. All goats in the study were asymptomatic. The milk and blood samples, which served as studied material were taken on days 7, 30, 120 and 240 of the lactation. The gene and protein expression of several cytokines was studied using Real-Time PCR and ELISA methods. RESULTS:INF-? and INF-? expression was down-regulated in the milk somatic cells (MSC) of SRLV-infected goats. However, an increased concentration of INF-? was observed in the MSC in SRLV-infected goats, while INF-? expression was not observed in both SRLV-infected and non-infected animals The SRLV-infected goats also displayed decreased expression of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6 and INF-? genes in the blood leukocytes,with IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-6 protein levels also being decreased in the sera. TNF-? was the only gene that demonstrated increased expression in both the MSC and the blood of infected animals; however, no such overexpression was observed at the protein level. CONCLUSIONS:SRLV probably influences the immune system of infected animals by deregulating of the expression of cytokines. Further, epigenetic studies may clarify the mechanisms by which SRLV regulates the gene and protein expression of the host.
Project description:Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) control programs are mainly based on diagnostic tests performed on blood samples collected from sheep and goats. Since blood sampling is costly and stressful for the animals, we evaluated whether milk could be used as an inexpensive and easily collectable matrix for SRLV detection. We therefore compared SRLV detection via two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in blood and corresponding milk samples from 321 goats originating from eight different SRLV-infected farms in Flanders (Belgium). The IDscreen® ELISA had a better relative sensitivity (97% vs 93%) and specificity (100% and 97%) than the Elitest® ELISA for SRLV-specific antibody detection in milk compared to serum. The higher sensitivity correlates with a 10-fold higher analytical sensitivity of the IDscreen® test. In contrast to the overall good ELISA results, qPCR on milk cell pellets lacked sensitivity (81%) and specificity (88%), compared to molecular detection in blood leucocyte pellets. Our results show that serology is more suitable than qPCR for SRLV diagnosis, and that milk may represent an interesting matrix for a preliminary evaluation of a herd's infection status. Serum remains however the sample of choice for control programs where it is important to identify positive animals with the highest sensitivity.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic importance of oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in camels. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 89 camels. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n = 74) and control camels (n = 15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed high number of RBCS and pus cells. The concentrations of serum and erythrocytic malondialdehyde (sMDA & eMDA), Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), Ceruloplasmin (Cp), fibrinogen (Fb), albumin, globulin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were higher in diseased camels when compared to healthy ones. Catalase, super oxide dismutase and glutathione levels were lower in diseased camels when compared with control group. Forty one of 74 camels with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, super oxide dismutase, glutathione, Hp, SAA, Fb, total protein, globulin and IL-6 were associated with the odds of treatment failure. The MDA showed a great sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) in predicting treatment failure (Se 85%/Sp 100%) as well as the SAA (Se 92%/Sp 87%) and globulin levels (Se 85%/Sp 100%) when using the cutoffs that maximizes the sum of Se + Sp. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that two models had a high accuracy to predict failure with the first model including sex, sMDA and Hp as covariates (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.92) and a second model using sex, SAA and Hp (AUC = 0.89). Conclusively, the oxidative stress biomarkers and acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in camel UTI management. Efforts should be forced to investigate such biomarkers in other species with UTI.
Project description:Small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and the maedi-visna virus, cause persistent inflammatory infections in goats and sheep. SRLV are mainly transmitted from mother to offspring through milk. Transmission after prolonged contact between adult animals has also been observed. The observation that certain SRLV subtypes are found in both goats and sheep suggests that interspecies transmission has occurred on several occasions in the past. We investigated seropositive goats and sheep that were kept together in small mixed herds. Phylogenetic analysis of long proviral sequences in gag and pol, combined with epidemiologic information, demonstrated natural sheep-to-goat transmission of the recently identified SRLV subtype A4 in two instances and goat-to-sheep transmission of the same subtype in one instance. In a further mixed cluster, the direction of the interspecies transmission could not be determined. These findings present for the first time direct evidence that natural interspecies transmission of SRLV is ongoing in both directions. The findings are of relevance to virus eradication programs in both species.
Project description:The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interferon-gamma (IFN-?)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-?, IL1-?, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-? was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep.
Project description:This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.
Project description:The risk of classical scrapie transmission in small ruminants is highest during the neonatal period with the placenta recognized as a significant source of infection. Milk has also been identified as a source of scrapie with sheep-to-sheep transmission occurring after neonatal consumption of as little as 1-2 liters of milk; concurrent mastitis due to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection may be associated with increased scrapie transmission via milk in sheep. In contrast, goat-to-sheep transmission has been documented only after prolonged consumption of >30 liters of milk. The goal of the current study was to assess transmission of scrapie to goat kids and lambs following low volume, short duration consumption of milk from infected goats. Milk from two does (female goats) with pre-clinical scrapie was fed to four goat kids (?4.5 L each) and four lambs (~3.7 L each) beginning ~24 hours after birth. Scrapie transmission was detected in three sheep as early as 18 months post inoculation; transmission was also detected in two goats but not until postmortem analyses at 33 months post inoculation. Each milk donor goat also had naturally-acquired infection with SRLV. Different degrees of lymphohistiocytic inflammation and PrPSc accumulation were observed in mammary gland tissues of the donors, which appeared to associate with transmission of scrapie via milk. Thus, similar to the risks of milk transmission of scrapie from sheep, even limited exposure to milk from goats can pose significant risk for scrapie transmission to both goat kids and lambs.
Project description:Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland and circulation of subtypes A1, A12, A13, B1 and B2 was detected. The present work aimed at extending previous study based on the analysis of a larger number of animals from single-species flocks. Animals were selected for genetic analysis based on serological reactivity towards a range of recombinant antigens derived from Gag and Env viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of subtypes B2 and A12 in both goats and sheep and subtypes A1 and B1 in goats only. In addition, two novel subtypes, A16 and A17, were found in goats. Co-infections with strains belonging to different subtypes within A and B groups were detected in 1 sheep and 4 goats originating from four flocks. Although the reactivity of serum samples towards the recombinant antigens confirmed immunological relatedness between Gag epitopes of different subtypes and the cross-reactive nature of Gag antibodies, eleven serum samples failed to react with antigens representing all subtypes detected up-to-date in Poland, highlighting the limitations of the serological diagnosis. These data showed the complex nature of SRLV subtypes circulating in sheep and goats in Poland and the need for improving SRLV-related diagnostic capacity.
Project description:Incubation period, disease progression, pathology and clinical presentation of classical scrapie in sheep are highly dependent on PRNP genotype, time and route of inoculation and prion strain. Our experimental model with pre-colostrum inoculation of homozygous VRQ lambs has shown to be an effective model with extensive PrPSc dissemination in lymphatic tissue and a short incubation period with severe clinical disease. Serum protein analysis has shown an elevation of acute phase proteins in the clinical stages of this experimental model, and here, we investigate changes in gene expression in whole blood, liver and brain.The animals in the scrapie group showed severe signs of illness 22 weeks post inoculation necessitating euthanasia at 23 weeks post inoculation. This severe clinical presentation was accompanied by changes in expression of several genes. The following genes were differentially expressed in whole blood: TLR2, TLR4, C3, IL1B, LF and SAA, in liver tissue, the following genes differentially expressed: TNF-?, SAA, HP, CP, AAT, TTR and TF, and in the brain tissue, the following genes were differentially expressed: HP, CP, ALB and TTR.We report a strong and evident transcriptional innate immune response in the terminal stage of classical scrapie in these animals. The PRNP genotype and time of inoculation are believed to contribute to the clinical presentation, including the extensive dissemination of PrPSc throughout the lymphatic tissue.
Project description:Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are a group of highly divergent viruses responsible for global and fatal infections in sheep and goats. Since the current phylogenetic classification of these viruses was proposed in 2004, it nowadays consists out of 5 genotypes and 28 subtypes. In support of our national SRLV control program, we performed the genetic characterization of SRLV strains circulating in the Belgian sheep and goat population. Fourteen sheep and 9 goat strains were sequenced in the gag-pol and pol regions using the method described by Shah. Most SRLV strains from sheep and goats belonged to prototype A1 and B1 subtypes, respectively. We, however, also found indications for cross-species transmission of SRLV strains between sheep and goats and vice versa, and identified a new subtype designated as B5. An in-depth analysis of the current SRLV phylogeny revealed that many subtypes have been defined over the years based on limited sequence information. To keep phylogeny as a useful tool, we advocate to apply more rigorous sequencing standards to ensure the correct classification of current and new emerging strains. The genetic characterization of Belgian SRLV strains will help in the development of appropriate diagnostic tools to assist the national control program.