P27 inhibits CDK6/CCND1 complex formation resulting in cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT: p27 plays critical roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which have been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. However, the mechanisms underlying p27 regulation of the cell cycle have not been thoroughly researched. In this study, Genevestigator, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and the Human Protein Atlas databases were used to analyze the expression of p27, cell division protein kinase 6 (CDK6), and cyclin D1 (CCND1), as well as its prognostic value in different tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of p27, CDK6, and CCND1 in the tissues of cancer patients. The effects of p27, CDK6, and CCND1 on the proliferation of lung cancer cells were examined by the MTT assay, and flow cytometry was used to investigate the mechanism by which p27 affected cell proliferation. Immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting were used to determine if p27 interacted with CDK and CCND1 to regulate the cell cycle. The results showed that p27, CDK6, and CCND1 played different roles in tumorigenesis and development, which are in accordance with CDK6 and CCND1 in affecting the cell cycle and cell proliferation. p27 regulated the cell cycle and inhibited cell proliferation by affecting formation of the cell cycle-dependent complex CDK6/CCND1, but did not directly affect the expression of CDK6 and CCND1. Moreover, CCND1 did not regulate the cell cycle alone, but rather, functioned together with CDK6. This study provides insights into the effects of p27 on tumor formation and development, and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:The prognosis of glioma is poor as its pathogenesis and mechanisms underlying cisplatin chemoresistance remain unclear. Nucleosome assembly protein 1 like 1 (NAP1L1) is regarded as a hallmark of malignant tumors. However, the role of NAP1L1 in glioma remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular functions of NAP1L1 in glioma and its involvement in cisplatin chemoresistance, if any. NAP1L1 was found to be upregulated in samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Immunohistochemistry indicated that NAP1L1 and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were enhanced in glioma as compared to the para-tumor tissues. High expressions of NAP1L1 and HDGF were positively correlated with the WHO grade, KPS, Ki-67 index, and recurrence. Moreover, NAP1L1 expression was also positively correlated with the HDGF expression in glioma tissues. Functional studies suggested that knocking down NAP1L1 could significantly inhibit glioma cell proliferation both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, as well as enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to cisplatin (cDDP) <i>in vitro</i>. Mechanistically, NAP1L1 could interact with HDGF at the protein level and they co-localize in the cytoplasm. HDGF knockdown in NAP1L1-overexpressing glioma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, HDGF could interact with c-Jun, an oncogenic transcription factor, which eventually induced the expressions of cell cycle promoters, CCND1/CDK4/CDK6. This finding suggested that NAP1L1 could interact with HDGF, and the latter recruited c-Jun, a key oncogenic transcription factor, that further induced CCND1/CDK4/CDK6 expression, thereby promoting proliferation and chemoresistance in glioma cells. High expression of NAP1L1 in glioma tissues indicated shorter overall survival in glioma patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Dysregulation of the cell cycle has been observed and implicated as an etiologic factor in a range of human malignancies, but remains relatively unstudied in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We evaluated expression of key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation in a large cohort of NETs. METHODS:We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of CDKN1B, CDKN1A, CDKN2A, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (phospho-RB1) in a cohort of 267 patients with NETs. We then explored associations between cell cycle protein expression, mutational status, histologic features, and overall survival. RESULTS:We found that high expression of CDK4, CDK6, CCND1, and phospho-RB1 was associated with higher proliferative index, as defined by MKI67. We additionally observed a trend toward shorter overall survival associated with low expression of CDKN1B. This association seemed strongest in SINETs (multivariate hazards ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.93; P = 0.03). We found no clear association between CDKN1B mutation and protein expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that dysregulation and activation of the CDK4/CDK6-CCND1-phospho-RB1 axis is associated with higher proliferative index in NETs. Investigation of the therapeutic potential of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors in higher grade NETs is warranted.
Project description:G<sub>1</sub> phase cell cycle proteins, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and its activating partners, the D-type cyclins, are important regulators of T-cell development and function. An F-box protein, called F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7), acts as a cell cycle regulator by enhancing cyclin D-Cdk6 complex formation and stabilising levels of p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We generated a murine model of reduced Fbxo7 expression to test its physiological role in multiple tissues and found that these mice displayed a pronounced thymic hypoplasia. Further analysis revealed that Fbxo7 differentially affected proliferation and apoptosis of thymocytes at various stages of differentiation in the thymus and also mature T-cell function and proliferation in the periphery. Paradoxically, Fbxo7-deficient immature thymocytes failed to undergo expansion in the thymus due to a lack of Cdk6 activity, while mature T cells showed enhanced proliferative capacity upon T-cell receptor engagement due to reduced p27 levels. Our studies reveal differential cell cycle regulation by Fbxo7 at different stages in T-cell development.
Project description:microRNA-374a (miR-374a) exhibits oncogenic functions in various tumor types. Here we report that miR-374a suppresses proliferation, invasion, migration and intrahepatic metastasis in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HCT116 and SW620. Notably, we detected that PI3K/AKT signaling and its downstream cell cycle factors including c-Myc, cyclin D1 (CCND1), CDK4 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes including ZEB1, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Slug, and Snail were all significantly downregulated after miR-374a overexpression. Conversely, cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 were upregulated. Expression of E-cadherin was only decreased in HCT116, without any obvious differences observed in SW620 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-374a could directly reduce CCND1. Interestingly, when CCND1 was silenced or overexpressed, levels of pPI3K, pAkt as well as cell cycle and EMT genes were respectively downregulated or upregulated. We examined miR-374a levels by in situ hybridization and its correlation with CCND1 expression in CRC tumor tissues. High miR-374a expression with low level of CCND1 was protective factor in CRC. Together these findings indicate that miR-374a inactivates the PI3K/AKT axis by inhibiting CCND1, suppressing of colon cancer progression.
Project description:D cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their catalytic subunits (cyclin-dependent kinases cdk4 and cdk6) have a facilitating, but nonessential, role in cell cycle entry. Tissue-specific functions for D-type cyclins and cdks have been reported; however, the biochemical properties of these kinases are indistinguishable. We report that an F box protein, Fbxo7, interacted with cellular and viral D cyclins and distinguished among the cdks that bind D-type cyclins, specifically binding cdk6, in vitro and in vivo. Fbxo7 specifically regulated D cyclin/cdk6 complexes: Fbxo7 knockdown decreased cdk6 association with cyclin and its overexpression increased D cyclin/cdk6 activity and E2F activity. Fbxo7 interacted with p27, but its enhancement of cyclin D/cdk6 activity was p21/p27 independent. Fbxo7 overexpression transformed murine fibroblasts, rendering them tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Transformed phenotypes were dependent on cdk6, as knockdown of cdk6 reversed them. Fbxo7 was highly expressed in epithelial tumors, but not in normal tissues, suggesting that it may have a proto-oncogenic role in human cancers.
Project description:Interactions between the cell cycle machinery and transcription factors play a central role in coordinating terminal differentiation and proliferation arrest. We here show that cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) is specifically expressed in proliferating hematopoietic progenitor cells, and that Cdk6 inhibits transcriptional activation by Runx1, but not C/EBPalpha or PU.1. Cdk6 inhibits Runx1 activity by binding to the runt domain of Runx1, interfering with Runx1 DNA binding and Runx1-C/EBPalpha interaction. Cdk6 expression increased myeloid progenitor proliferation, and inhibited myeloid lineage-specific gene expression and terminal differentiation in vitro and in vivo. These effects of Cdk6 did not require Cdk6 kinase activity. Cdk6-mediated inhibition of granulocytic differentiation could be reversed by excess Runx1, consistent with Runx1 being the major target for Cdk6. We propose that Cdk6 downregulation in myeloid progenitors releases Runx1 from Cdk6 inhibition, thereby allowing terminal differentiation. Since Runx transcription factors play central roles in hematopoietic, neuronal and osteogenic lineages, this novel, noncanonical Cdk6 function may control terminal differentiation in multiple tissues and cell types.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) is a D-Cyclin-activated kinase that is directly involved in driving the cell cycle through inactivation of pRB in G? phase. Increasingly, evidence suggests that CDK6, while directly driving the cell cycle, may only be essential for proliferation of specialized cell types, agreeing with the notion that CDK6 also plays an important role in differentiation. Here, evidence is presented that CDK6 binds to and promotes degradation of the EYA2 protein. The EYA proteins are a family of proteins that activate genes essential for the development of multiple organs, regulate cell proliferation, and are misregulated in several types of cancer. This interaction suggests that CDK6 regulates EYA2 activity, a mechanism that could be important in development and in cancer.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 promote progression through the cell cycle, where their functions are considered to be redundant. Recent studies have identified an additional role for CDK6 in the transcriptional regulation of cancer-relevant genes such as VEGF-A and EGR1 in hematopoietic malignancies. We show that the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 causes a significant decrease in tumor growth in a xenotransplantation mouse model of human melanoma. shRNA knockdown of either CDK4 or CDK6 significantly reduces cell proliferation and impedes their migratory capacity <i>in vitro</i>, which translates into a strong inhibition of tumor growth in xenotransplantation experiments. CDK4/6 inhibition results not only in the pronounced reduction of cell proliferation but also in an impaired tumor angiogenesis. CDK6 knockdown in melanoma cell lines impairs VEGF-A expression and reduces the potential stimulation of endothelial cell growth. The knockdown of CDK4 ends in similar results. The effect is caused by changes of CDK6 localization, less CDK6 is detected on the VEGF-A promoter. Bioinformatic analysis of human melanoma patient data verifies the key role of CDK6 in tumor angiogenesis in melanoma. The results highlight the importance of the delicate balance between CDK4 and CDK6 in regulating the cell cycle and transcription.
Project description:Long intergenic non-coding RNA 00152 (LINC00152) is aberrantly expressed in various human malignancies and plays an important role in the pathogenesis. Here, we found that LINC00152 is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues as compared to adjacent non-neoplastic tissues; gain-and-loss-of-function analyses in vitro showed that LINC00152 facilitates HCC cell cycle progression through regulating the expression of CCND1. LINC00152 knockdown inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. MS2-RIP analysis indicated that LINC00152 binds directly to miR-193a/b-3p, as confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LINC00152 partially halted the decrease in CCND1 expression and cell proliferation capacity induced by miR-193a/b-3p overexpression. Thus, LINC00152 acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by sponging miR-193a/b-3p to modulate its target gene, CCND1. Our findings establish a ceRNA mechanism regulating cell proliferation in HCC via the LINC00152/miR-193a/b-3p/CCND1 signalling axis, and identify LINC00152 as a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
Project description:Aurora kinase B (AURKB) triggers the phosphorylation of serine 10 on histone H3 (H3S10ph), which is important for chromosome condensation and cytokinesis during mitosis in mammals. However, how exactly AURKB controls cell cycle and contributes to tumorigenesis as an oncoprotein under pathological conditions remains largely unknown. Here, we report that AURKB promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Silencing AURKB expression inhibits gastric cell proliferation and arrests the cell cycle in G2/M phase. We demonstrate that cyclin D1 (CCND1) is a direct downstream target of AURKB that plays a key role in gastric cancer cell proliferation. AURKB is able to activate the expression of CCND1 through mediating H3S10ph in the promoter of the CCND1 gene. Furthermore, we show that AZD1152, a specific inhibitor of AURKB, can suppress the expression of CCND1 in the gastric cancer cells and inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we found that high AURKB and CCND1 expression levels are correlated with shorter overall survival of gastric cancer patients. This study demonstrates that AURKB promotes gastric tumorigenesis potentially through epigenetically activating CCND1 expression, suggesting AURKB as a promising therapeutic target in gastric cancer.